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Past tenses Present tenses Future tenses Conditionals Passives Reported speech

We know when it happened

We dont know It happened when it before happened something else in the past Present Perfect N/A Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous

One singular event For a period of time

Past Simple Past Continuous

Habitual action: He walks everyday Fact/Eternal truths: Hot air rises Unalterable plans: I leave on Tuesday Fixed schedules: The train leaves at 6p.m nstantaneous actions: Beckham scores! Performative verbs: I sayI believeI name this ship Past actions in newspaper headings: Bush denies all knowledge Historical/fictional present: Darwin presents evidence. Past narrative: A man walks into a bar Descriptions with the verb to be: This is John, John is a teacher Keywords: Normally, generally, every, often, usually

Action occurring at the moment of speaking: Shes talking now Temporary/habitual action: Im reading Catch 22 this week Persistent or habitual actions: Im always losing things Keywords: Currently, Now, Right Now, At the moment, always


ncomplete past with for and since: Weve been working together for 6 years To emphasize results vs. action: Ive cleaned the house vs. Ive been cleaning the house Sentence that use since and for a period of time which:started in the past continued to the present and will probably continue into the future.

One event For a period of time

An event before another event in the future Future Going to Future simple future perfect Future Present Future continuous continuous perfect continuous

We arent sure

We are 100% sure Event is planned

Truth Reality Dreams Regrets

If you heat ice, it melts Present simple, present simple If it rains, I will get wet Present simple, future simple If I won a million euros, I would buy an island Past simple, modal tense If I had known earlier, I would have moved to Slovenia sooner Past perfect, modal perfect

Have a look at the following two sentences:1) They built the house in 1486 2) The house was built in 1486 The first sentence is active and the second is passive. We use the passive structure when we are not concerned with or it doesnt matter who did the actions. What is most important is the event itself. We normally make passive forms of a verb by using tenses of the auxiliary be followed by the past participle of the verb.

Tense Present simple

Structure Am/are/is + pp

Example English

Present continuous Am/are/is being + pp Past simple Past continuous Present perfect Past perfect Will future Future perfect Going to future Was/were + pp Was/were being + pp Have/has been + pp Had been + pp Will be + pp Will have been + pp Am/are/is going to be + pp

here (To Speak) Excuse the mess, the house (To Paint) I , but I went anyway (To Not Invite) I felt as if I (To Watch) Mary yet? (To Tell) I knew why I (To Choose) You when the time comes (To Tell) Everything by Tuesday (To Do) Who ? (To Invite)

There are two main ways of reporting peoples words, thoughts, beliefs etc 1) Direct speech We can give the exact words (more or less) that there said by using single quotation marks. So he said, I want to go home, and just walked out. Did she say, What do you want? And then I thought, Well, does he really mean it? 2) Indirect speech Sometimes called reported speech, we can make a speakers words or thoughts part of our own sentence, using conjunctions such as that and changing the pronouns, tenses and other words where necessary. So he said that he wanted to go home, and just walked out. Did she just ask what I wanted? And then I wondered whether he really meant it.