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Security

© by Xiang-Yang Li

IIT

Cryptography and Network Security 1

Notice©

This lecture note (Cryptography and Network Security) is prepared by

Xiang-Yang Li. This lecture note has benefited from numerous

textbooks and online materials. Especially the “Cryptography and

Network Security” 2nd edition by William Stallings and the

“Cryptography: Theory and Practice” by Douglas Stinson.

You may not modify, publish, or sell, reproduce, create derivative

works from, distribute, perform, display, or in any way exploit any

of the content, in whole or in part, except as otherwise expressly

permitted by the author.

The author has used his best efforts in preparing this lecture note.

The author makes no warranty of any kind, expressed or implied,

with regard to the programs, protocols contained in this lecture

note. The author shall not be liable in any event for incidental or

consequential damages in connection with, or arising out of, the

furnishing, performance, or use of these.

About Instructor

Associate Professor IIT

PhD/MS UIUC 1997-2000

BS, BE Tsinghua University

Research Interests:

❍ Algorithm design and analysis

❍ Wireless networks

❍ Game theory

❍ Computational geometry

Contact Information

❍ Phone 312-567-5207

❍ Email: xli@cs.iit.edu

Office and Office hours

Office

❍ SB 237D

Office hours

❍ Monday 3:10PM – 4:10PM.

❍ Wednesday 3:10PM– 4:10PM.

❍ Or by contact: email xli@cs.iit.edu,

❍ phone 312 567 5207

About This Course

Textbook

❍ Cryptography: Theory and Practice

by Douglas R. Stinson CRC press

❍ Cryptography and Network Security:

Principles and Practice; By William

Stallings Prentice Hall

Alfred J. Menezes, Paul C. van Oorschot

and Scott A. Vanstone, CRC Press

I have electronic version!

Cryptography and Network Security 5

Grading and Others

Grading

❍ Homework 30%

❍ Mid Term 25%

❍ Project 20% (select your own topic),

15 pages report

❍ Final exam 25% (closed book)

Policy

❍ Do it yourself

❍ Can use library, Internet and so on, but you have to cite the

sources when you use this information

Homeworks

Do it independently HW1 (Due 2/14/08)

❍ No discussion HW2 (Due 3/14/08)

❍ No copy HW3 (Due 4/11/08)

❍ Can use reference books

Staple your solution Report (Due 05/05/08)

❍ Write your name also,

For report,

❍ you could discuss with

classmates then write your

own report (about 10 pages for

the topic you selected)

For project (presentation

and programming) Type your solution!

❍ You SHOULD collaborate

with your group member and And print it then submit

you SHOULD make enough

contributions to get credit

Topics

Introduction

Number Theory

Traditional Methods: secret key system

Modern Methods: Public Key System

Digital Signature and others

Internet Security: DoS, DDoS

Other topics:

❍ secret sharing, zero-knowledge proof, bit commitment,

oblivious transfer,…

Organization

Chapters

❍ Introduction

❍ Number Theory

❍ Conventional Encryption

❍ Block Ciphers

❍ Public Key System

❍ Key Management

❍ Hash Function and Digital Signature

❍ Identification

❍ Secret Sharing

❍ Pseudo-random number Generation

❍ Email Security

❍ Internet Security

❍ Others

Cryptography and Network Security 9

Cryptography and Network Security

Introduction

Xiang-Yang Li

Introduction

likelihood of the enemy’s not coming, but on

our own readiness to receive him; not on the

chance of his not attacking, but rather on the

fact that we have made our position

unassailable.

--The art of War, Sun Tzu

Criteria for Desirable Cryptosystems

❍ Hard or intractable problems?

Practical Efficiency

❍ Space, time and so on

Explicitness

❍ About its environment assumptions, security service

offered, special cases in math assumptions,

Protection tuned to application needs

❍ No less, no more

Openness

Most important

Security first

security tradeoffs

❍ This is especially the case for resource constrained

networks such as wireless sensor networks

Limited power supply (thus limited communication, and

computation), limited storage space

Cryptography

Cryptography (from Greek kryptós, "hidden", and

gráphein, "to write") is, traditionally, the study of

means of converting information from its normal,

comprehensible form into an incomprehensible

format, rendering it unreadable without secret

knowledge — the art of encryption.

Past: Cryptography helped ensure secrecy in

important communications, such as those of spies,

military leaders, and diplomats.

In recent decades, cryptography has expanded its

remit in two ways

❍ mechanisms for more than just keeping secrets: schemes like

digital signatures and digital cash, for example.

❍ in widespread use by many civilians, and users are not aware of it.

Cryptography and Network Security 14

Crypto-graphy, -analysis, -logy

The study of how to circumvent the use of cryptography is

called cryptanalysis, or codebreaking.

Cryptography and cryptanalysis are sometimes grouped

together under the umbrella term cryptology, encompassing

the entire subject.

In practice, "cryptography" is also often used to refer to

the field as a whole; crypto is an informal abbreviation.

Cryptography is an interdisciplinary subject,

❍ linguistics

❍ Mathematics: number theory, information theory, computational

complexity, statistics and combinatorics

❍ engineering

Close, but different fields

Steganography

❍ the study of hiding the very existence of a message, and not

necessarily the contents of the message itself (for example,

microdots, or invisible ink)

❍ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steganography

Traffic analysis

❍ which is the analysis of patterns of communication in order

to learn secret information

The messages could be encrypted

❍ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Traffic_analysis

Stenography Example

Last 2 bits

Tools for Stenography

http://www.jjtc.com/Steganography/toolm

atrix.htm

Network Security Model

principal principal

Security Security

transformation transformation

attacker

Cryptography and Network Security 19

Attacks, Services and Mechanisms

Security Attacks

❍ Action compromises the information security

❍ Could be passive or active attacks

Security Services

❍ Actions that can prevent, detect such attacks.

❍ Such as authentication, identification, encryption, signature, secret

sharing and so on.

Security mechanism

❍ The ways to provide such services

❍ Detect, prevent and recover from a security attack

Attacks

Passive attacks

❍ Interception

Release of message contents

Traffic analysis

Active attacks

❍ Interruption, modification, fabrication

Masquerade

Replay

Modification

Denial of service

Information Transferring

Attack: Interruption

Jam wireless

signals,

Drop packets,

Attack: Interception

Wiring,

eavesdrop

Attack: Modification

Replaced

intercept

info

Attack: Fabrication

Attacks, Services and Mechanisms

Security Attacks

❍ Action compromises the information security

❍ Could be passive or active attacks

Security Services

❍ Actions that can prevent, detect such attacks.

❍ Such as authentication, identification, encryption, signature, secret

sharing and so on.

Security mechanism

❍ The ways to provide such services

❍ Detect, prevent and recover from a security attack

Important Services of Security

Confidentiality, also known as secrecy:

❍ only an authorized recipient should be able to extract the

contents of the message from its encrypted form. Otherwise, it

should not be possible to obtain any significant information

about the message contents.

Integrity:

❍ the recipient should be able to determine if the message has

been altered during transmission.

Authentication:

❍ the recipient should be able to identify the sender, and verify

that the purported sender actually did send the message.

Non-repudiation:

❍ the sender should not be able to deny sending the message.

Secure Communication

protecting data locally only solves a minor

part of the problem. The major challenge

that is introduced by the Web Service

security requirements is to secure data

transport between the different

components. Combining mechanisms at

different levels of the Web Services

protocol stack can help secure data

transport (see figure next page).

Secure Communication

Secure Communication

The combined protocol HTTP/TLS or SSL is often

referred to as HTTPS (see figure). SSL was

originally developed by Netscape for secure

communication on the Internet, and was built into

their browsers. SSL version 3 was then adopted

by IETF and standardized as the Transport Layer

Security (TLS) protocol.

Use of Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) for session

key exchange during the handshake phase of TLS

has been quite successful in enabling Web

commerce in recent years.

TLS also has some known vulnerabilities: it is

susceptible to man-in-the-middle attacks and

denial-of-service attacks.

SOAP security

SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) is designed to pass

through firewalls as HTTP. This is disquieting from a

security point of view. Today, the only way we can recognize

a SOAP message is by parsing XML at the firewall. The

SOAP protocol makes no distinction between reads and

writes on a method level, making it impossible to filter away

potentially dangerous writes. This means that a method

either needs to be fully trusted or not trusted at all.

The SOAP specification does not address security issues

directly, but allows for them to be implemented as

extensions.

❍ As an example, the extension SOAP-DSIG defines the syntax and

processing rules for digitally signing SOAP messages and validating

signatures. Digital signatures in SOAP messages provide integrity and

non-repudiation mechanisms.

PKI

PKI key management provides a sophisticated framework for

securely exchanging and managing keys. The two main

technological features, which a PKI can provide to Web

Services, are:

❍ Encryption of messages: by using the public key of the recipient

❍ Digital signatures: non-repudiation mechanisms provided by PKI and

defined in SOAP standards may provide Web Services applications with

legal protection mechanisms

Note that the features provided by PKI address the same

basic needs as those that are recognized by the

standardization organizations as being important in a Web

Services context.

In Web Services, PKI mainly intervenes at two levels:

❍ At the SOAP level (non-repudiation, integrity)

❍ At the HTTPS level (TLS session negotiation, eventually assuring

authentication, integrity and privacy)

Some basic Concepts

Cryptography

Cryptography is the study of

❍ Secret (crypto-) writing (-graphy)

❍ Conceal the context of some message from all except

the sender and recipient (privacy or secrecy), and/or

❍ Verify the correctness of a message to the recipient

(authentication)

❍ Form the basis of many technological solutions to

computer and communications security problems

Basic Concepts

Cryptography

❍ encompassing the principles and methods of transforming

an intelligible message into one that is unintelligible, and

then retransforming that message back to its original form

Plaintext

❍ The original intelligible message

Ciphertext

❍ The transformed message

Message

❍ Is treated as a non-negative integer hereafter

Basic Concepts

Cipher

❍ An algorithm for transforming an intelligible message

into unintelligible by transposition and/or substitution,

or some other techniques

Keys

❍ Some critical information used by the cipher, known

only to the sender and/or receiver

Encipher (encode)

❍ The process of converting plaintext to ciphertext

Decipher (decode)

❍ The process of converting ciphertext back into plaintext

Basic Concepts

cipher

❍ an algorithm for encryption and decryption. The exact

operation of ciphers is normally controlled by a key — some

secret piece of information that customizes how the

ciphertext is produced

Protocols

❍ specify the details of how ciphers (and other cryptographic

primitives) are to be used to achieve specific tasks.

❍ A suite of protocols, ciphers, key management, user-

prescribed actions implemented together as a system

constitute a cryptosystem;

❍ this is what an end-user interacts with, e.g. PGP

Cryptography and Network Security 38

Encryption and Decryption

Decipher P = D(K2)(C)

Plaintext ciphertext

Encipher C = E(K1)(P)

These two keys could be different;

could be difficult to get one from the other

Cryptography and Network Security 39

What is Security?

Two fundamentally different securities

❍ Unconditional security

No matter how much computer power is available, the cipher

cannot be broken

Using Shannon’s information theory

The entropy of the message I(M) is same as the entropy of the

message I(M|C) when known the ciphertext (and possible more)

❍ Computational security

Given limited computing resources (e.g time needed for

calculations is greater than age of universe), the cipher

cannot be broken

What do we mean “broken”?

Proved by some complexity equivalence approach

Cryptography and Network Security

Xiang-Yang Li

Number theory

Elementary number theory

❍ Main topic of this course

❍ divisibility, the Euclidean algorithm to compute

greatest common divisors, factorization

❍ Fermat's little theorem and Euler's theorem, the Chinese

remainder theorem and Euler's φ function are

investigated;

Analytic number theory

Algebraic number theory

Geometric number theory

Computational number theory

Introduction to Number Theory

Divisors

❍ b|a if a=mb for an integer m

❍ b|a and c|b then c|a

❍ b|g and b|h then b|(mg+nh) for any integer m,n

Prime number

❍ P has only positive divisors 1 and p

Relatively prime numbers

❍ No common divisors for p and q except 1

Prime numbers

Upto 200

❍ 2 3 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 29 31 37 41 43 47 53 59 61 67 71 73 79 83 89 97

101 103 107 109 113 127 131 137 139 149 151 157 163 167 173 179 181

191 193 197 199

Largest known so far (till 2008, Jan 22)

❍ 232582657-1 with 9808358 digits (found 2006 using proof code G9)

❍ When 2n-1is prime it is said to be a Mersenne prime (a French monk

1588-1648, conjecture 1644). Clearly n must be odd.

How many prime numbers are there?

❍ Infinity ---- Euclid gave simple proof

Proof by contradiction

They were also irregularly placed (arbitrary gap)

❍ How many in the range [0,n] -- Theta( n / log n)

Approximately, the nth prime n log n

❍ How many primes with d bits approximately? ~ Theta(2d/d)

Determining Primes?

How to determine if a given number n is

prime?

❍ Deterministic Brute force testing

Testing whether a number a | n, for a in certain range

❍ Random testing

A prime number should satisfy some properties

If a number x does NOT have any of such properties,

then this x is NOT a prime

Otherwise, it may be a prime number

• More properties will be studied and used to design

efficient methods

Greatest Common Divisor (GCD)

Greatest common divisor gcd(a,b)

❍ The largest number that divides both a and b

Euclid's algorithm

❍ Find the GCD of two numbers a and b, a<b

Use fact if a and b have divisor d so does

a-b, a-2b …

d m a +n b

d a −b

d a −2 b

d a −3 b

d a −q b

Cont.

GCD (a,b) is given by:

❍ let g0=b

❍ g1=a

❍ gi+1 = gi-1 mod gi

❍ when gi =0 then gcd(a,b) = gi-1

The algorithm terminates in O(log b) rounds

❍ Why?

❍ Every round, the total number of bits of a and b is decreased by at

least one

complexity bound?

Properties

For any two integers a and b

❍ Exist integers m and n: gcd(a,b) =ma+bn

❍ Example:

a=2, b=3; we choose m=-1, n=1 so –2+3=1

a=6, b=11; we choose m=2, n=-1 so 2*6-11=1

❍ Simple proof?

Integer n can be factored as

❍ n=p1a1 p2a2 p3a3…. pnan where pi is prime number

Extended Euclidean Algorithm

input are two integers a and b, computes

❍ their greatest common divisor (gcd) as well as

❍ integers x and y such that ax + by = gcd(a, b).

inverse of an integer

−1

a m od n

Proof

Assume we compute gcd(x0,y0), x0>y0

❍ Let Xi=(xi,yi); 0≤xi-qi+1yi+1<|yi|

❍ Then Xi=MiXi-1, where Mi=(0,1; 1,-qi)

❍ Assume the gcd algorithm terminates in n steps

❍ We have MnMn-1…M1X0=(gcd(x

a b ,y

0 0 ), 0) T

❍ Assume MnMn-1…M1=( c d

)

❍ Then ax0+by0=gcd(x0,y0)

❍ The above algorithm is to keep track of a,b,c,d, and xi,yi

values.

Modular Arithmetic

Congruence

❍ a ≡ b mod n says when divided by n that a and b have

the same remainder

❍ It defines a relationship between all integers

a≡a

a ≡ b then b ≡ a

a ≡ b, b ≡ c then a ≡ c

Cont.

addition

❍ (a+b) mod n ≡(a mod n) + (b mod n)

subtraction

❍ a-b mod n ≡ a+(-b) mod n

multiplication

❍ a b mod n

❍ derived from repeated addition

❍ Possible: a*b ≡ 0 where neither a, b ≡ 0 mod n

Example: 2*3 =0 mod 6

Addition and Multiplication

Integers modulo n with addition and

multiplication form a commutative ring with

the laws of

❍ Associativity

(a+b)+c ≡ a+(b+c) mod n

❍ Commutativity

a+b ≡ b+a mod n

❍ Distributivity

(a+b)*c ≡ (a*c)+(b*c) mod n

Cont.

Division

❍ b/a mod n

❍ multiplied by inverse of a: b/a = b*a-1 mod n

❍ a-1*a ≡ 1 mod n

❍ 3-1 ≡7 mod 10 because 3*7 ≡ 1 mod 10

❍ Inverse does not always exist!

Only when gcd(a,n)=1

Euclid's Extended GCD Routine

If (a,n)=1 then the inverse always exists

Can extend Euclid's algorithm to find

inverse by keeping track of gi = ui.n + vi.a

Extended Euclid's (or binary GCD)

algorithm to find inverse of a number a

mod n (where (a,n)=1) is:

Inverse

Inverse(a,n) is given by:

❍ X=(x1,x2,x3)=(1,0,n); Y=(y1,y2,y3)=(0,1,a)

❍ If y3=0 return x3=gcd(a,n); no inverse

❍ If y3=1 return y3=gcd(a,n); y2=a-1 mod n

❍ Q=[x3/y3]

❍ T=X-Q*Y

❍ X=Y; Y=T

❍ Goto 2nd step

When inverse exists

If gcd(a,n)=1 inverse exists

❍ We can find x, y such that ax+ny=1

❍ Then x= a-1 mod n

❍ Let x be the inverse of a, i.e., ax=1 mod n

❍ Then x a=1+q n for some integer q

❍ Let gcd(a,n)=d. Then d | (x a-q n )

❍ Obviously d=1 since x a-q n =1

Galois Field

If n is constrained to be a prime number p

then this forms a Galois field modulo p

denoted GF(p) and all the normal laws

associated with integer arithmetic work

Exponentiation

❍ b = ae mod p

Discrete Logarithms

❍ find x where ax = b mod p

Relative primes

Two numbers a and n are relative primes if

❍ gcd(a,n)=1

❍ How many are relative prime to n?

❍ Equivalently, how many a such that a-1 mod n

exists

Typically

❍ Zn={0,1,2,….,n-1} : all integers 0<= a < n

All integers in Zn that are co-prime with n

Also called reduced residue set mod n

Cryptography and Network Security 59

Euler Totient Function

If consider arithmetic modulo n, then a

reduced set of residues is a subset of the

complete set of residues modulo n which

are relatively prime to n

❍ eg for n=10,

❍ the complete set of residues is {0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9}

❍ the reduced set of residues is {1,3,7,9}

of residues is called the Euler Totient

function φ(n)

cont

Compute φ(n)

❍ If factoring of n is known

φ(n)=n Π(1-1/pi) where pi is its prime factor

❍ Otherwise

It is expensive!

But not proved yet

computing φ(n) when knowing fact n =pq but

not the number p and q

❍ Conjectured to be a hard question

❍ But not proved yet.

❍ Equivalent to find p and q

Cryptography and Network Security 61

cont

Equivalency: finding p,q computing φ(n)

Proof

❍ If we found p and q, then φ(n)=(p-1)(q-1)

❍ if we found φ(n), then solve p, q from equations

n = p × q

ϕ ( n ) = ( p − 1 ) ( q − 1 )

Euler's Theorem

Let gcd(a,n)=1 then

❍ aφ(n) mod n = 1

Proof:

❍ consider all reduced residues xi in

Zn*={x| 0<= x < n, gcd(x,n)=1}

❍ Then axi,1<=i <= φ(n) also form reduced residues set

❍ Using Π axi = Π xi mod n

Using Zn* and aZn* are same sets!

❍ We have aφ(n) Π xi = Π xi mod n

❍ Thus, aφ(n) =1 mod n

Using the fact that Π xi has inverse

Cryptography and Network Security 63

Fermat's Little Theorem

Let p be a prime and gcd(a,p)=1 then

❍ ap-1 mod p = 1

❍ Proof: similar to the proof of Euler’s theorem

❍ But consider all integers in Zp

❍ ap mod p = a (true for any number a)

Generally, for any number n=pq

❍ aφ(n) mod n = a (true for any number a) Do it

Need to prove for the case gcd(a,n)>1 yourself

Efficient computing of exponential

Compute ab mod n efficiently when b, n large?

❍ Example: compute a1024 mod 21024 +1

❍ Simple approach: repetitively time a 1024 times?

❍ Efficient computation:

Write number b in binary format as xkxk-1xk-2….x2x1x0

Let t1=a mod n. Then compute ti+1= ti * ti mod n for i<k

[ x k x k − 1 x k − 2 .... x 2 x 1 x 0 ]

Then b

a m od n = a m od n

= ∏

0 ≤i≤k

[a (2i) xi

] m od n Time

complexity?

= ∏

0 ≤i≤k

ti

xi

m od n

Chinese Remainder Theorem

By Qin Jiushao

Let m1,m2,….mk be pair-wise relative prime numbers

Assume integer x= ai mod mi for 1<= I <= k

Then x= Σ ai ei mod M

❍ Where M=Π mi; Mi=M/ mi

❍ ei= Mi * (Mi-1 mod mi)

Proof

❍ For each i, the integers mi and M/mi are coprime, and using the

extended Euclidean algorithm we can find integers r and s such

that r mi + s M/mi = 1. If we set ei = s M/mi, then we have

❍ ei =1 mod mi and ei =1 mod mj for j<>i.

General CRT

Sometimes, the simultaneous congruences

can be solved even if the mi's are not

pairwise coprime.

❍ a solution x exists if and only if ai ≡ aj (mod gcd(ni, nj))

for all i and j.

❍ All solutions x are congruent modulo the least common

multiple of the ni.

❍ Methods: successive substitution

Example

consider the simultaneous congruences

x ≡ 3 (mod 4)

x ≡ 5 (mod 6)

Can be transformed to

x ≡ 3 (mod 4)

x ≡ 5 (mod 2) x ≡ 1 (mod 2)

x ≡ 5 (mod 3)

Then transformed to

x ≡ 3 (mod 4)

x ≡ 2 (mod 3)

Using CRT

X=11 (mod 12)

Primality Testing

To check if exists integer a such that a|n

❍ Primary school method

Test a=2,3,4,5,6,….,n-1

Test a=2,3,4,5,…, n0.5

Test a=2,3,5,7,11,…., p, where prime number p<=n0.5

❍ Two slow!

Check almost n numbers

Check n0.5 numbers

At least around (n/ln n)0.5 numbers need be checked

Example

❍ Number n~21024, then

❍ (n/ln n)0.5~(21024 /1024) 0.5 ~ 2507

❍ Assume 230 numbers per second, takes about 2507-30*16 = 227 days

Any improvement?

Cryptography and Network Security 69

Classification of Testing Primes

The Quick Tests for Small Numbers and Probable

Primes

❍ Finding Very Small Primes --- trivial division

❍ Fermat, Probable-Primality and Pseudoprimes

❍ Strong Probable-Primality and a Practical Test

The Classical Tests

❍ N-1 Tests (and Pepin's Test for Fermats)

❍ N+1 Tests (and the Lucas-Lehmer Test for Mersennes)

❍ A Combined Test -- and more

❍ Neoclassical Tests, especially APR and APR-CL

❍ Using Elliptic Curves, especially the ECPP Test

❍ A Polynomial Time Algorithm

Fermat Little Theorem Based

Fermat's theorem gives us a powerful test

for compositeness:

❍ Given n > 1, choose a > 1 and calculate an-1 modulo n

(there is a very easy way to do quickly by repeated

squaring)

❍ If the result is not one modulo n, then n is composite.

❍ If it is one modulo n, then n might be prime so n is

called a weak probable prime base a (or just an a-

PRP).

❍ Some early articles call all numbers satisfying this test

pseudoprimes, but now the term pseudoprime is

properly reserved for composite probable-primes.

Carmichael number

There may be relatively few pseudoprimes,

but there are still infinitely many of them

for every base a>1, so we need a tougher

test.

One way to make this test more accurate is

to use multiple bases (check base 2, then 3,

then 5,...). But still we run into an

interesting obstacle called the Carmichael

numbers.

❍ The composite integer n is a Carmichael number if

an-1=1 (mod n) for every integer a relatively prime to n.

Strong probable-primality and a

practical test

A better way to make the Fermat test more

accurate is to realize that if an odd number n is

prime, then the number 1 has just two square

roots modulo n: 1 and -1.

❍ So the square root of an-1, a(n-1)/2 (since n will be odd), is either 1 or

-1.

Algorithm

❍ Write n-1 = 2sd where d is odd and s is non-negative: n is a strong

probable-prime base a (an a-SPRP) if either ad = 1 (mod n) or

(ad)2r = -1 (mod n) for some non-negative r less than s.

❍ It has been proven ([Monier80] and [Rabin80]) that the strong

probable primality test is wrong no more than 1/4th of the time (3

out of 4 numbers which pass it will be prime).

Cryptography and Network Security 73

Simple Fact

Equation x2≡1 mod p has only solutions 1,-1

❍ If p is prime number

❍ Simple proof: (x+1)(x-1) ≡ 0 mod p

not be prime number!

❍ Miller and Rabin 1975,1980

Randomly chosen integer a

❍ If a2≡1 mod p then p is not prime number

Integer a is called the witness

❍ Otherwise p maybe, or maybe not a prime number

Witness Algorithm

Witness(a,n)

❍ Let bkbk-1…b1b0 be the binary code of n-1

❍ Let d=1

❍ For i=k downto 0

❍ x=d; d=d*d mod n

❍ If d=1 and x≠1, and x≠ n-1

❍ return TRUE

❍ If bi=1 then d=d*a mod n

❍ Endfor

❍ If d ≠ 1 then return TRUE

❍ Return FALSE

Cryptography and Network Security 75

Facts

Analyze the result of witness

❍ If returns TRUE, then n is not prime number

Find other solutions for x2≡1 mod n

❍ Otherwise, n maybe prime number

Given odd n and random a

❍ Witness fails with probability less than 0.5

❍ If one time, it is TRUE

Then n is not prime number

❍ Otherwise, Pr(n is prime)>1-2-s

Randomized Methods

Las Vegas Method

❍ Always produces correct results

❍ Runs in expected polynomial time

❍ Runs in polynomial time

❍ May produce incorrect results with bounded probability

❍ No-Biased Monte Carlo Method

Answer yes is always correct, but the answer no may be

wrong

❍ Yes-biased Monte Carlo Method

Answer no is always correct, but the answer yes may be

wrong

Witness Algorithm

Witness Algorithm is based on Monte Carlo

Method

❍ It actually test compositeness, not primality

When it reports yes, the number is always composite

When it reports no, input may be composite, prime

❍ Probability Result

Pr(input=composite | ans=composite)= 1

Pr(ans=no | input=composite)<1/2

Pr(input=composite | ans=no) ≤ 1/4

Time Complexity

Each round of witness cost O(log n)

❍ Unit: integer multiplication and modular arithmetic

So the primality testing cost O(s log n)

❍ The confidence is 1-2-s if report prime

❍ The confidence is 1 if report non-prime

Riemann hypothesis is true, then if n is an

a-SPRP for all integers a with 1 < a < 2(log

n)2, then n is prime.

More on proving primes (N-1 test

Theorem 1: Let n > 1. If for every prime

factor q of n-1 there is an integer a such

that

❍ an-1 = 1 (mod n), and

❍ a(n-1)/q is not 1 (mod n);

then n is prime.

N-1 test

Theorem 2: Suppose n-1 = FR, where F>R,

gcd(F,R) is one and the factorization of F is

known. If for every prime factor q of F

there is an integer a>1 such that

❍ an-1 = 1 (mod n), and

❍ gcd(a(n-1)/q-1,n) = 1;

then n is prime.

N+1 test

n be an

Lucas-Lehmer Test (1930): Let

odd prime. The Mersenne number M(n) =

2n-1 is prime if and only if

❍ S(n-2) = 0 (mod M(n)) where

S(0) = 4 and S(k+1) = S(k)2-2.

ECPP method

What is the next big leap in primality proving? To

switch from Galois groups to some other, perhaps

easier to work with groups--in this case the points

on Elliptic Curves modulo n.

❍ An Elliptic curve is a curve of genus one, that is a curve that can

be written in the form

❍ E(a,b) : y2 = x3 + ax + b (with 4a3 + 27b2 not zero)

❍ http://www.lix.polytechnique.fr/~morain/Prgms/ecpp.english.html

for implementation

Heuristically, the best version of ECPP is

❍ O((log n)4+eps) for some eps>0

Deterministic Poly-Time Method

In 2002 Agrawal, Kayal and Saxena found a

relatively simple deterministic algorithm

which relies on no unproved assumptions.

❍ There has been a long list of research efforts devoted to

find deterministic polynomial time methods for testing

primes

Basics

Theorem: Suppose that a and p are relatively

prime integers with p > 1. p is prime if and only if

❍ (x-a)p = (xp-a) (mod p)

Proof.

❍ If p is prime, then p divides the binomial coefficients pCr for r =

1, 2, ... p-1. This shows that (x-a)p = (xp-ap) (mod p), and the

equation above follows via Fermat's Little Theorem.

❍ On the other hand, if p > 1 is composite, then it has a prime divisor

q. Let qk be the greatest power of q that divides p. Then qk does

not divide pCq and is relatively prime to ap-q, so the coefficient of

the term xq on the left of the equation in the theorem is not zero,

but it is on the right.

AKS method

Input: Integer n>1

if (n is has the form ab with b > 1) then output COMPOSITE

r := 2

while (r < n) {

if (gcd(n,r) is not 1) then output COMPOSITE

if (r is prime greater than 2) then {

let q be the largest factor of r-1

if (q > 4sqrt(r)log n) and (n(r-1)/q is not 1 (mod r)) then break

}

r := r+1

}

for a = 1 to 2sqrt(r)log n {

if ( (x-a)n is not (xn-a) (mod xr-1,n) ) then output COMPOSITE

}

output PRIME;

Time Complexity

they proved would run in at most

❍ O((log n)12f(log log n)) time where f is a polynomial

AKS also showed that if Sophie Germain primes

have the expected distribution [HL23] (and they

certainly should!), then the exponent 12 in the

time estimate can be reduced to 6, bringing it

much closer to the (probabilistic) ECPP method.

❍ But of course when actually finding primes it is the unlisted

constants1 that make all of the difference! We will have to wait

for efficient implementations of this algorithm (and hopefully

clever restatements of the painful for loop) to see how it compares

to the others for integers of a few thousand digits. Until then, at

least we have learned that there is a polynomial-time algorithm for

all integers that both is deterministic and relies on no unproved

conjectures!

Primitive Root

Order of integer ordn(a)

❍ The order of a modulo n is the smallest positive k such

that ak≡1 mod n

Primitive Root

❍ Integer a is a primitive root of n if the order of a

modulo n is φ(n)

❍ Not all integers have primitive root

Example n=pq for primes p and q

❍ Prime p has φ(p-1) primitive roots

cont

When primitive root exists

❍ Number n in format of p, 2p, pk, 2pk for some integer k

and prime number p

❍ Otherwise the primitive root does not exist

a1 ak

Find a PR for p such that p − 1 = q 1 ⋅ . . . . q k

❍ If i>k, a is a PR, otherwise go to step 3

( p −1 ) / q

❍ If a i

≠ 1 m od p let i=i+1 and go to step 2;

otherwise let i=1, and a=a+1 and repeat this step 3.

Some “hard” questions

Some questions that are assumed to be

hard, will be used as bases for

cryptography

❍ Integer factorization

Given n, find all its prime factors

❍ Discrete logarithm

Given g, y, and p, find x such that gx≡y mod p

❍ Square root

Given b, find x such that x2≡b mod n. Here n is not a

prime number

Integer Factorization

write an integer as product of prime numbers.

❍ For example, given the number 45, the prime factorization would be 32·5.

❍ The factorization is always unique, according to the fundamental theorem

of arithmetic

❍ Given two large prime numbers, it is easy to multiply them. However,

given their product, it appears to be difficult to find the factors.

❍ This is relevant for many modern systems in cryptography. If a fast

method were found for solving the integer factorization problem, then

several important cryptographic systems would be broken.

❍ Although fast factoring is one way to break these systems, there may be

other ways to break them that don't involve factoring. So it is possible

that the integer factorization problem is truly hard, yet these systems can

still be broken quickly.

❍ A rare exception is the BBS generator. It has been proved to be exactly

as hard as integer factorization: if you can break the generator in

polynomial time then you can factorize integers in polynomial time, and

vice versa Cryptography and Network Security 91

Current state of the art

If a large, n-bit number is the product of

two primes that are roughly the same size,

❍ no polynomial time factoring algorithm is known

❍ the best known algorithms are sub-exponential, but

super-polynomial: asymptotic running time by the

general number field sieve (GNFS) algorithm, is

Sub-exponential

There are published algorithms that are

faster than O((1+ε)b) for all positive ε, i.e.,

sub-exponential, where b is the number of

bits of the input

Factoring algorithms

Special purpose

❍ its running time depends on the properties of unknown factors:

size, special form, etc.

❍ Examples

Trial division, Pollard's rho algorithm, Pollard's p-1

algorithm, Lenstra elliptic curve factorization, Congruence

of squares, Special number field sieve

General purpose

❍ running time depends solely on the size of the integer to be

factored. This is the type of algorithm used to factor RSA

numbers. Most general-purpose algorithms are based on the

congruence of squares method.

❍ Examples:

Quadratic sieve, General number field sieve

Factorization for Quantum

Computers

For an ordinary computer, general number field

sieve (GNFS) is the best published algorithm for

large n (more than about 100 digits).

For a quantum computer, however, Peter Shor

discovered an algorithm in 1994 that solves it in

polynomial time. This will have significant

implications for cryptography if a large quantum

computer is ever built.

Shor's algorithm takes only O(b3) time and O(b)

space on b-bit number inputs.

In 2001, the first 7-qubit quantum computer

became the first to run Shor's algorithm. It

factored the number 15.

Cryptography and Network Security 95

List of Algorithms

Special-purpose

A special-purpose factoring algorithm's running time depends on the

properties of its unknown factors: size, special form, etc. Exactly what the

running time depends on varies between algorithms.

❍ Trial division

❍ Pollard's rho algorithm

❍ Algebraic-group factorisation algorithms amongst which are Pollard's p − 1 algorithm,

Williams' p+1 algorithm and Lenstra elliptic curve factorization

❍ Fermat's factorization method

❍ Special number field sieve

General-purpose

A general-purpose factoring algorithm's running time depends solely on the

size of the integer to be factored. This is the type of algorithm used to

factor RSA numbers. Most general-purpose factoring algorithms are based

on the congruence of squares method.

❍ Dixon's algorithm

❍ Continued fraction factorization (CFRAC)

❍ Quadratic sieve

❍ General number field sieve

❍ Shanks' square forms factorization (SQUFOF)

Discrete Logarithms

Y ≡ gx mod p

❍ Given y, g, and p, compute x as logg(y)

❍ Time complexity O(e(ln p)1/3(ln ln p)2/3)

Best known until now

❍ In other words, if p is large, then it is very hard to solve the

discrete logarithm problem

Several protocols are based on this

❍ ElGamal discrete log cryptosystem, Diffie-Hellman key exchange

and the Digital Signature Algorithm.

Current methods:

❍ the Pohlig-Hellman algorithm if p-1 is a product of small primes,

❍ so this should be avoided in those applications

Methods

More sophisticated algorithms exist, usually

inspired by similar algorithms for integer

factorization. These algorithms run faster than

the naive algorithm, but none of them runs in

polynomial time.

❍ Baby-step giant-step (Also known as 'Little-Step Big-Step')

❍ Pollard's rho algorithm for logarithms

❍ Pollard's lambda algorithm (aka Pollard's kangaroo algorithm)

❍ Pohlig-Hellman algorithm

❍ Index calculus algorithm

❍ Number field sieve

Quadratic Residue

Quadratic Residue

❍ Integer b is a quadratic residue of modulo integer n if

and only if x2 ≡b mod n has a solution for x

❍ Number x is called the square root of b

❍ Otherwise b is called quadratic nonresidue

❍ b is quadratic residue, iff b(p-1)/2 ≡1 mod p

❍ b is quadratic nonresidue, iff b(p-1)/2 ≡-1 mod p

❍ These facts can be used to test primes with probability

Computing Square root mod p

Given number a, find number x, x2 =a mod p

❍ If p=3 mod 4, then x=a(p+1)/4 mod p is a solution.

❍ If p=5 mod 8, a(p-1)/4 =1 mod p then x= a(p+3)/8 mod p

❍ If p=5 mod 8, a(p-1)/4 =-1 mod p then x= 2a(4a)(p-5)/8 mod p

❍ If p=1 mod 8, h +1

x = a 2

N sk

Compute square-root mod p

Find a solution to x2 =a mod p if exists

❍ Let r=0, s=p-1; while s even, {r=r+1; s=s/2;}

❍ Choose random n such that n = − 1

p

❍ Let z=ns mod p; x=a(s+1)/2 mod p; b=as mod p;

❍ If b=1, return x as a solution

❍ Let m=1, y=b2 mod p; while y<>1 {y= y2 mod p; m=m+1;}

❍ If r=m then a is Quadratic non-residue; exit;

❍ Let x=xz2r-m-1 mod p and b=bz2r-m mod p and z=z2r-m mod p

❍ Go to step 4

Cryptography and Network Security 101

Complexity Theory

The input length of a problem is the number n of

symbols used to characterize it

Complexity of a method

❍ Function f(n) is order O(g(n)) if

f(n)<=c*|g(n)|, for all n>=N0, for some c

❍ Function f(n) is order Ω(g(n)) if

f(n)>=c*|g(n)|, for all n>=N0, for some c

❍ Function f(n) is order θ (g(n)) if

c1*|g(n)|<=f(n)<=c2*|g(n)|, for all n>=N0, for some c1 and c2

Polynomial time algorithm (P)

❍ solves any instance of a particular problem with input length n in time

O(p(n)), where p is a polynomial

Cont.

Non-deterministic polynomial time algorithm

(NP)

❍ is one for which any guess at the solution of an instance of

the problem may be checked for validity in polynomial

time.

NP-complete problems

❍ are a subclass of NP problems for which it is known that if

any such problem has a polynomial time solution, then all

NP problems have polynomial solutions.

Co-NP: the complements of NP problems.

Cryptography and Network Security

Conventional Methods

Xiang-Yang Li

Roadmap of Cryptography

classical cryptography (--- 1920s)

❍ secret writing required only pen and paper

❍ Mostly: transposition, substitution ciphers

❍ Easily broken by statistics analysis (e.g., frequency)

mechanical devices invented for encryption

❍ Rotor machines (e.g. Enigma cipher) 1930s-1950s

❍ featured in films, such as in the James Bond adventure From

Russia with Love

specification of DES and the invention of RSA

(1970s) --- modern ciphers

❍ Public key system, most notably

Quantum Cryptography (future?)

Cryptography and Network Security 105

Quantum Cryptography

Quantum cryptography currently has two aspects.

❍ quantum key exchange (also known as quantum key distribution), a

method for secure communications based on quantum mechanics

❍ conjectured effect of quantum computing on cryptanalysis, although it is

currently, like quantum computing itself, only a theoretical concept.

Basic idea of quantum key exchange is to use the

"noisy" properties of light to render incoherent an

image that acts to complement a secret key.

❍ This image can be represented in a number of ways, but the ability to

decode that image rests upon an understanding of how it was made. No

way to intercept the transmission without changing it is possible, so key

information can be exchanged with great confidence it has been

transmitted secretly.

❍ quantum computing will considerably extend the reach of cryptanalysis,

making brute force key space searches much more effective -- if such

computers ever become possible in actual practice

Cryptography and Network Security 106

History

Ancient ciphers

❍ Have a history of at least 4000 years

❍ Ancient Egyptians enciphered some of their

hieroglyphic writing on monuments

❍ Ancient Hebrews enciphered certain words in the

scriptures

❍ 2000 years ago Julius Caesar used a simple substitution

cipher, now known as the Caesar cipher

❍ Roger bacon described several methods in 1200s

History

Ancient ciphers

❍ Geoffrey Chaucer included several ciphers in his works

❍ Leon Alberti devised a cipher wheel, and described the

principles of frequency analysis in the 1460s

❍ Blaise de Vigenère published a book on cryptology in

1585, & described the polyalphabetic substitution

cipher

❍ Increasing use, esp in diplomacy & war over centuries

Classical Cryptographic Techniques

Two basic components of classical ciphers:

❍ Substitution: letters are replaced by other letters

❍ Transposition: letters are arranged in a different order

❍ Monoalphabetic: only one substitution/ transposition

is used, or

❍ Polyalphabetic:where several substitutions/

transpositions are used

Product cipher:

❍ several ciphers concatenated together

Encryption and Decryption

Plaintext

ciphertext

Key source

Key Management

Using secret channel

Encrypt the key

Third trusted party

The sender and the receiver generate key

❍ The key must be same

❍ We will talk more about how we can generate keys for

two parties who are “unknown” of each other before,

and want secure communication

Attacks

Recover the message

Recover the secret key

❍ Thus also the message

large!

Possible Attacks

Ciphertext only

❍ Algorithm, ciphertext

Known plaintext

❍ Algorithm, ciphertext, plaintext-ciphertext pair

Chosen plaintext

❍ Algorithm, ciphertext, chosen plaintext and its ciphertext

Chosen ciphertext

❍ Algorithm, ciphertext, chosen ciphertext and its plaintext

Chosen text

❍ Algorithm, ciphertext, chosen plaintext and ciphertext

Cryptography and Network Security 113

Steganography

Conceal the existence of message

❍ Character marking

❍ Invisible ink

❍ Pin punctures

❍ Typewriter correction ribbon

unintelligible!

Contemporary Equiv.

Least significant bits of picture frames

❍ 2048x3072 pixels with 24-bits RGB info

❍ Able to hide 2.3M message

Drawbacks

❍ Large overhead

❍ Virtually useless if system is known

Improvement

❍ Using some “random” sequence of the last bit for storing the data

❍ Challenge: produce such random sequence such that the attacker

cannot figure out the sequence!

Caesar Cipher

Replace each letter of message

by a letter a fixed distance away

❍ Reputedly used by Julius Caesar

Example:

L FDPH L VDZ L FRQTXHUHG

I CAME I SAW I CONGUERED

❍ The mapping is

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

DEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZABC

Cryptography and Network Security 116

Mathematical Model

Description

Assume all letters are mapped to integers [0,25]

A:-0, B-1, ….., Z25

❍ Decryption D(k) : i → i - k mod 26

Cryptanalysis: Caesar Cipher

Key space: 26

❍ Exhaustive key search

Example

❍ GDUCUGQFRMPCNJYACJCRRCPQ

HEVDVHRGSNQDOKZBDKDSSDQR

❍ Plaintext:

JGXFXJTIUPSFQMBDFMFUUFSTKHYGYKUJVGR

NCEGNGVVGTU

❍ Ciphertext:

LIZHZLVKWRUHSODFHOHWWHUVMJAIAMW

XSVITPEGIPIXXIVW

Cryptography and Network Security 118

Character Frequencies

In most languages letters are not equally

common

❍ in English e is by far the most common letter

Have tables of single, double & triple letter

frequencies

Use these tables to compare with letter

frequencies in ciphertext,

❍ a monoalphabetic substitution does not change relative

letter frequencies

❍ do need a moderate amount of ciphertext (100+ letters)

Letter Frequency Analysis

Single Letter

❍ A,B,C,D,E,…..

Double Letter

❍ TH,HE,IN,ER,RE,ON,AN,EN,….

Triple Letter

❍ THE,AND,TIO,ATI,FOR,THA,TER,RES,…

Letter Frequencies

Letter Frequencies

N-gram Frequencies

Digraph Frequency

❍ th he an in er on re ed nd ha at en es of nt ea ti to io

le is ou ar as de rt ve

Trigraph Frequency

❍ the and tha ent ion tio for nde has nce tis oft men

Modular Arithmetic Cipher

Use a more complex equation to calculate

the ciphertext letter for each plaintext

letter

E(a,b) : i →a∗i + b mod 26

❍ Need gcd(a,26) = 1

❍ Otherwise, not reversible

❍ So, a≠2, 13, 26

❍ Caesar cipher: a=1, b=3

Cryptanalysis

Key space:12*26

❍ Brute force search

couple of possible letter mappings

❍ frequency pattern not produced just by a shift

But it is still a substitution, thus we can use

frequency analysis

❍ use these mappings to solve 2 simultaneous equations

to derive above parameters

Playfair Cipher

The Playfair cipher or Playfair square is a

manual symmetric encryption technique and

was the first literal digraph substitution

cipher.

❍ The scheme was invented in 1854 by Charles

Wheatstone, but bears the name of Lord Playfair who

promoted the use of the cipher.

Playfair Cipher

s i/j m p l

e a b c d

f g h k n

o q r t u

v w x y z

Key: simple

Playfair Cipher

Use filler letter to separate repeated

letters

Encrypt two letters together

❍ Same row– followed letters

ac--bd

❍ Same column– letters under

qw--wi

❍ Otherwise—square’s corner at same row

ar--bq

Analysis

Size of diagrams: 25!

❍ But the actual different diagrams are not 25!

❍ Two diagrams are the same if they derive the same

encryption and decryption method

❍ Then what is the number of difference diagrams in

playfair cipher?

25!/25=24!

Difficult using frequency analysis

❍ But it still reveals the frequency information

Frequency of 2-gram (bi-gram, two-letters)

Playfair Cryptanalysis

Like most pre-modern era ciphers, the

Playfair cipher can be easily cracked if

there is enough text.

❍ Obtaining the key is relatively straightforward if both

plaintext and ciphertext are known.

❍ When only the ciphertext is known, brute force

cryptanalysis of the cipher involves searching through

the key space for matches between the frequency of

occurrence of digrams (pairs of letters) and the known

frequency of occurrence of digrams in the assumed

language of the original message.

Playfair, cont

A different approach to tackling a Playfair cipher

is the shotgun hill climbing method.

❍ This starts with a random square of letters. Then minor changes

are introduced (i.e. switching letters, rows, or reflecting the entire

square) to see if the candidate plaintext is more like standard

plaintext than before the change (perhaps by comparing the

trigrams to a known frequency chart).

❍ If the new square is deemed to be an improvement, then it is

adopted and then further mutated to find an even better candidate.

❍ Eventually, the plaintext or something very close is found to

achieve a maximal score by whatever grading method is chosen.

❍ Computers can adopt this algorithm to crack Playfair ciphers with

a relatively small amount of text.

Hill Cipher

Hill cipher is a polygraphic substitution cipher

based on linear algebra.

❍ Invented by Lester S. Hill in 1929, it was the first polygraphic

cipher in which it was practical (though barely) to operate on more

than three symbols at once.

❍ Each letter is treated as a digit in base 26: A = 0, B =1, and so on.

A block of n letters is then considered as a vector of n dimensions,

and multiplied by a n × n matrix, modulo 26. The components of

the matrix are the key, and should be random provided that the

matrix is invertible in (to ensure decryption is possible).

❍ The Hill cipher has achieved Shannon's diffusion, and an n-

dimensional Hill cipher can diffuse fully across n symbols at once.

Hill Cipher Machine

Hill Cipher Machine

Triple encryption was recommended for

security:

❍ a secret nonlinear step, followed by the wide diffusive

step from the machine, followed by a third secret

nonlinear step.

❍ Such a combination was actually very powerful for

1929, and indicates that Hill apparently understood the

concepts of a meet-in-the-middle attack as well as

confusion and diffusion.

❍ Unfortunately, his machine did not sell.

Hill Cipher

Encryption

❍ Assign each letter an index

❍ C=KP mod 26

❍ Matrix K is the key

Decryption

❍ P=K-1C mod 26

❍ Thus, we can decrypt iff gcd(det(K), 26) =1.

How to Decrypt?

Compute K-1

❍ Compute det(K)

❍ Check if gcd(det(K), 26) =1

❍ If not, then K-1 do not exist

❍ Else K-1 is

( − 1 )1 +1 K (− 1 ) 1+n

K

1 ,1 n ,1

−1

d e t( K )

− 1 1+n K

( ) (− 1 ) 2n

1 ,n K n ,n

cont

k 1 ,1 k 1 , j −1 k 1 , j +1 k 1 ,n

k i − 1 ,1 k i −1 , j −1 k i −1 , j +1 k i −1 ,n

K i, j =

k i + 1 ,1 k i + 1 ,1 k i + 1 ,1 k i + 1 ,1

k n ,1 k n , j −1 k n , j +1 k n ,n

Hill Cipher Cryptanalysis

Difficult to use frequency analysis

But vulnerable to known-plaintext attack

❍ Give simple method to attack hill cipher under the

known-plaintext assumption?

❍ How to attack under the chosen plaintext assumption?

with some non-linear step to defeat this attack.

Key Sizes

How may good keys?

❍ One might naïvely think that the key size, in bits, is n2log226 or

about 4.7n2.

In fact, it is slightly less than this because not all randomly

selected matrices are usable.

❍ A slightly less naïve view might guess that 1/2 + 1/26 of candidate

keys would be unusable, reducing the keyspace by about 54%.

In fact, determinants are not uniformly distributed, and

the key space reduction is closer to 70%.

❍ Additionally it seems to be prudent to avoid too many zeroes in the

key matrix, since they reduce diffusion.

The net effect is that the effective keyspace of a basic

Hill cipher is about 4.64n2.

For a 5 × 5 Hill cipher, that is about 114 bits. Of course, key

search is not the most efficient known attack

Polyalphabetic Substitution

Use more than one substitution alphabet

Makes cryptanalysis harder

❍ since have more alphabets to guess

❍ and flattens frequency distribution

same plaintext letter gets replaced by several

ciphertext letter, depending on which alphabet is

used

Vigenère Cipher

Basically multiple Caesar ciphers

key is multiple letters long

❍ K = k1 k2 ... kd

❍ use each alphabet in turn, repeating from start after d

letters in message

Plaintext THISPROCESSCANALSOBEEXPRESSED

Keyword CIPHERCIPHERCIPHERCIPHERCIPHE

Ciphertext VPXZTIQKTZWTCVPSWFDMTETIGAHLH

Enigma Machine

Enigma was a portable cipher machine used

to encrypt and decrypt secret messages.

❍ a family of related electro-mechanical rotor machines

Japan commercial

German military

Cryptography and Network Security 142

Enigma Machine

Enigma encryption for two

consecutive letters —

current is passed into set of

rotors, around the reflector, and

back out through the rotors

again.

Letter A encrypts differently

with consecutive key presses,

first to G, and then to C. This is

because the right hand rotor has

stepped, sending the signal on a

completely different route.

Enigma

the actual encipherment of a letter is performed

electrically.

❍ When a key is pressed, the circuit is completed; current flows

through the various components and ultimately lights one of many

lamps, indicating the output letter.

❍ Current flows from a battery through the switch controlled by the

depressed key into a fixed entry wheel. This leads into the rotor

assembly (or scrambler), where the complex internal wiring of

each rotor results in the current passing from one rotor to the next

along a convoluted path. After passing through all the rotors,

current enters the reflector, which relays the signal back out again

through the rotors and the entry wheel — this time via a different

path — and, finally, to one of the lamps (the earliest Enigma

models do not have the reflector).

Rotors

performs a very simple type of encryption

❍ a simple substitution cipher

World War II Era Encryption

Devices

A few here

❍ Sigaba (United States)

❍ Typex (Britain)

❍ Lorenz cipher (Germany)

❍ Geheimfernschreiber (Germany)

❍ http://w1tp.com/enigma/

One-time Pad

theoretically unbreakable (Claude Shannon)

❍ the plaintext is combined with a random "pad" the same length as

the plaintext.

Patent by

❍ Gilbert Vernam (AT&T) and Joseph Mauborgne

Encryption

❍ C=P⊕K

Decryption

❍ P=C⊕K

Claude Shannon's work can be interpreted as

❍ that any information-theoretically secure cipher will be effectively

equivalent to the one-time pad algorithm. Hence one-time pads

offer the best possible mathematical security of any encryption

scheme, anywhere and anytime.

Cryptography and Network Security 147

One-time pad--cont

Drawbacks

❍ it requires secure exchange of the one-time pad material, which

must be as long as the message

❍ pad disposed of correctly and never reused

In practice

❍ Generate a large number of random bits,

❍ Exchange the key material securely between the users before

sending an one-time enciphered message,

❍ Keep both copies of the key material for each message securely

until they are used, and

❍ Securely dispose of the key material after use, thereby ensuring

the key material is never reused.

We will learn how to generate pseudo-random numbers

Cryptography and Network Security 148

Random numbers needed

If the key material is generated by a

deterministic program then it is not

actually random

❍ should never be used in an one-time pad cipher.

❍ If so used, the method becomes a stream cipher; these

usually employ a short key that is used to generate a

long pseudorandom stream, which is then combined

with the message using some such mechanism as those

used in one-time pads. Stream ciphers can be secure in

practice, but they cannot be absolutely secure in the

same provable sense as the one-time pad

Stream ciphers

Stream ciphers

❍ The most famous: Vernam cipher

❍ Invented by Vernam, ( AT&T, in 1917)

❍ Process the message bit by bit (as a stream)

❍ different from the one-time pad– some call same

❍ Simply add bits of message to random key bits

Examples

❍ A well-known stream cipher is RC4;

❍ others include: A5/1, A5/2, Chameleon, FISH, Helix. ISAAC,

Panama, Pike, SEAL, SOBER, SOBER-128 and WAKE.

Usage

❍ Stream ciphers are used in applications where plaintext comes in

quantities of unknowable length - for example, a secure wireless

connection

Cryptography and Network Security 150

Simplest Stream Cipher

Key Key

Pros and Cons

Drawbacks

❍ Need as many key bits as message, difficult in practice

❍ (ie distribute on a mag-tape or CDROM)

Strength

❍ Is unconditionally secure provided key is truly random

Key Generation

Why not to generate keystream from a

smaller (base) key?

❍ Use some pseudo-random function to do this

❍ Although this looks very attractive, it proves to be very

very difficult in practice to find a good pseudo-random

function that is cryptographically strong

This is still an area of much research

Transposition Methods

Permutation of plaintext

Example

❍ Write in a square in row, then read in column order

specified by the key

Enhance: double or triple transposition

❍ Can reapply the encryption on ciphertext

Cryptography and Network Security

Block Ciphers

Xiang-Yang Li

Block Ciphers

The message is broken into blocks,

❍ Each of which is then encrypted

❍ (Like a substitution on very big characters - 64-bits or

more)

Substitution and Permutation

In his 1949 paper Shannon also introduced

the idea of substitution-permutation (S-P)

networks, which now form the basis of

modern block ciphers

❍ An S-P network is the modern form of a substitution-

transposition product cipher

❍ S-P networks are based on the two primitive

cryptographic operations we have seen before

Substitution

A binary word is replaced by some other

binary word

The whole substitution function forms the

key

If use n bit words,

❍ The key space is 2n!

Can also think of this as a large lookup

table, with n address lines (hence 2n

addresses), each n bits wide being the

output value

Will call them s-boxesCryptography and Network Security 158

Cont.

Permutation

A binary word has its bits reordered

(permuted)

The re-ordering forms the key

If use n bit words,

❍ The key space is n! (Less secure than substitution)

This is equivalent to a wire-crossing in

practice

❍ (Though is much harder to do in software)

Will call these p-boxes

Cont.

Substitution-permutation

Network

Shannon combined these two primitives

He called these mixing transformations

A special form of product ciphers where

❍ S-boxes

Provide confusion of input bits

❍ P-boxes

Provide diffusion across s-box inputs

Confusion and Diffusion

Confusion

❍ A technique that seeks to make the relationship

between the statistics of the ciphertext and the value of

the encryption keys as complex as possible. Cipher uses

key and plaintext.

Diffusion

❍ A technique that seeks to obscure the statistical

structure of the plaintext by spreading out the influence

of each individual plaintext digit over many ciphertext

digits.

Desired Effect

Avalanche effect

❍ A characteristic of an encryption algorithm in which a

small change in the plaintext gives rise to a large

change in the ciphertext

❍ Best: changing one input bit results in changes of

approx half the output bits

Completeness effect

❍ where each output bit is a complex function of all the

input bits

Practical Substitution-

permutation Networks

In practice we need to be able to decrypt

messages, as well as to encrypt them,

hence either:

❍ Have to define inverses for each of our S & P-boxes,

but this doubles the code/hardware needed, or

❍ Define a structure that is easy to reverse, so can use

basically the same code or hardware for both

encryption and decryption

Feistel Cipher

Invented by Horst Feistel,

❍ working at IBM Thomas J Watson research labs in

early 70's,

The idea is to partition the input block into

two halves, l(i-1) and r(i-1),

❍ use only r(i-1) in each round i (part) of the cipher

The function f incorporates one stage of

the S-P network, controlled by part of the

key k(i) known as the ith subkey

Cont.

Cont.

This can be described functionally as:

❍ L(i) = R(i-1)

❍ R(i) = L(i-1) ⊕ f(k(i), R(i-1))

above diagram, working backwards through

the rounds

In practice link a number of these stages

together (typically 16 rounds) to form the

full cipher

Data Encryption Standard

Adopted in 1977 by the National Bureau of

Standards, now the National Institute of

Standards and Technology

Data are encrypted in 64-bit blocks using a

56-bit key

The same algorithm is used for decryption.

Subject to much controversy

History

IBM LUCIFER 60’s

❍ Uses 128 bits key

Adopted by NBS, 1977

❍ Uses only 56 bits key

Possible brute force attack

❍ Design of S-boxes was classified

Hidden weak points in in S-Boxes?

❍ Wiener (93) claim to be able to build a machine at

$100,00 and break DES in 1.5 days

DES

DES encrypts 64-bit blocks of data, using a

56-bit key

the basic process consists of:

❍ an initial permutation (IP)

❍ 16 rounds of a complex key dependent calculation f

❍ a final permutation, being the inverse of IP

Function f can be described as

❍ L(i) = R(i-1)

❍ R(i) = L(i-1) ⊕ P(S( E(R(i-1)) ⊕ K(i) ))

DES

Initial and Final Permutations

Inverse Permutations

40 8 48 16 56 24 64 32

39 7 47 15 55 23 63 31

38 6 46 14 54 22 62 30

37 5 45 13 53 21 61 29

36 4 44 12 52 20 60 28

35 3 43 11 51 19 59 27

34 2 42 10 50 18 58 26

33 1 41 9 49 17 57 25

Function f

Expansion Table

Expands the 32 bit data to 48 bits

❍ Result(i)=input( array(i))

32 1 2 3 4 5

4 5 6 7 8 9

8 9 10 11 12 13

12 13 14 15 16 17

16 17 18 19 20 21

20 21 22 23 24 25

24 25 26 27 28 29

28 29 30 31 32 1

S-Boxes

S-Box is a fixed 4 by 16 array

Given 6-bits B=b1b2b3b4b5b6,

❍ Row r=b1b6

❍ Column c=b2b3b4b5

❍ S(B)=S(r,c) written in binary of length 4

Example

S-Box S1

14 4 13 1 2 15 11 8 3 10 6 12 5 9 0 7

0 15 7 4 14 2 13 1 10 6 12 11 9 5 3 8

4 1 14 8 13 6 2 11 15 12 9 7 3 10 5 0

15 12 8 2 4 9 1 7 5 11 3 14 10 0 6 13

Permutation Table

The permutation after each round

16 7 20 21

29 12 28 17

1 15 23 26

5 18 31 10

2 8 24 14

32 27 3 9

19 13 30 6

22 11 4 25

Subkey Generation

Given a 64 bits key (with parity-check bit)

❍ Discard the parity-check bits

❍ Permute the remaining bits using fixed table P1

another permutation P2 of CiDi (total 56

bits)

❍ Where cyclic shift one position left if i=1,2,9,16

❍ Else cyclic shift two positions left

Permutation Tables

57 49 41 33 25 17 9 14 17 11 24 1 5

1 58 50 42 34 26 18 3 28 15 6 21 10

10 2 59 51 43 35 27 23 19 12 4 26 8

19 11 3 60 52 44 36 16 7 27 20 13 2

63 55 47 39 31 23 15 41 52 31 37 47 55

7 62 54 47 38 30 22 30 40 51 45 33 48

14 6 61 53 45 37 29 44 49 39 56 34 53

21 13 5 28 20 12 4 46 42 50 36 29 32

DES in Practice

DEC (Digital Equipment Corp. 1992) built a

chip with 50k transistors

❍ Encrypt at the rate of 1G/second

❍ Clock rate 250 Mhz

❍ Cost about $300

Applications

❍ ATM transactions (encrypting PIN and so on)

Model

Mode of use

❍ The way we use a block cipher

❍ Four have been defined for the DES by ANSI in the

standard: ANSI X3.106-1983 modes of use)

Block modes

❍ Splits messages in blocks (ECB, CBC)

Stream modes

❍ On bit stream messages (CFB, OFB)

Block Modes

Electronic Codebook Book (ECB)

❍ where the message is broken into independent 64-bit

blocks which are encrypted

❍ Ci = DESK1 (Pi)

❍ again the message is broken into 64-bit blocks, but they

are linked together in the encryption operation with an

IV

❍ Ci = DESK1 (Pi⊕Ci-1)

Stream Model

Cipher FeedBack (CFB)

❍ where the message is treated as a stream of bits, added

to the output of the DES, with the result being feed

back for the next stage

❍ Ci = Pi⊕ DESK1 (Ci-1)

Cont.

Output FeedBack (OFB)

❍ where the message is treated as a stream of bits, added

to the message, but with the feedback being

independent of the message

❍ Ci = Pi⊕ Oi

❍ Oi = DESK1 (Oi-1)

❍ O-1=IV (initial value)

DES Weak Keys

With many block ciphers there are some

keys that should be avoided, because of

reduced cipher complexity

These keys are such that the same sub-key

is generated in more than one round, and

they include:

Cont.

Weak keys

❍ The same sub-key is generated for every round

❍ DES has 4 weak keys

Semi-weak keys

❍ Only two sub-keys are generated on alternate rounds

❍ DES has 12 of these (in 6 pairs)

❍ Have four sub-keys generated

Cont.

None of these causes a problem since they

are a tiny fraction of all available keys

However they MUST be avoided by any key

generation program

DES Attacks

1998:

The EFF's US$250,000

DES cracking machine

contained 1,536 custom chips

and could brute force a DES key in a

matter of days —

the photo shows a DES Cracker

circuit board fitted

with several Deep Crack chips.

DES Attacks:

The COPACOBANA

machine, built for

US$10,000 by the

Universities of Bochum and

Kiel, contains 120 low-cost

FPGAs and can perform an

exhaustive key search on

DES in 9 days on average.

The photo shows the

backplane of the machine

with the FPGAs

Attack Faster than Brute Force

Differential cryptanalysis

❍ was discovered in the late 1980s by Eli Biham and Adi Shamir,

although it was known earlier to both IBM and the NSA and kept

secret. To break the full 16 rounds, differential cryptanalysis

requires 247 chosen plaintexts. DES was designed to be resistant to

DC.

Linear cryptanalysis

❍ was discovered by Mitsuru Matsui, and needs 243 known plaintexts

(Matsui, 1993); the method was implemented (Matsui, 1994), and

was the first experimental cryptanalysis of DES to be reported.

There is no evidence that DES was tailored to be resistant to this

type of attack.

Possible Techniques for

Improving DES

Multiple enciphering with DES

Extending DES to 128-bit data paths and

112-bit keys

Extending the key expansion calculation

Double DES?

Using two encryption stages and two keys

❍ C=Ek2(Ek1(P))

❍ P=Dk1(Dk2(C))

It is proved that there is no key k3 such

that

❍ C=Ek2(Ek1(P))=Ek3(P)

But Meet-in-the-middle attack

Meet-in-the-Middle Attack

Assume C=Ek2(Ek1(P))

Given the plaintext P and ciphertext C

Encrypt P using all possible keys k1

Decrypt C using all possible keys k2

❍ Check the result with the encrypted plaintext lists

❍ If found match, they test the found keys again for

another plaintext and ciphertext pair

❍ If it turns correct, then find the keys

❍ Otherwise keep decrypting C

Triple DES

DES variant

Standardized in ANSI X9.17 & ISO 8732

and in PEM for key management

Proposed for general EFT standard by

ANSI X9

Backwards compatible with many DES

schemes

Uses 2 or 3 keys

Cont.

No known practical attacks

Brute force search impossible (very hard)

Meet-in-the-middle attacks need 256

Plaintext-Ciphertext pairs per key

Popular current alternative

IDEA:

Developed by James Massey & Xuejia Lai at

ETH originally in Zurich in 1990, then

called IPES:

❍ X Lai, J L Massey, "A Proposal for a New Block

Encryption Standard"

in Advances in Cryptology - Eurocrypt '90, Lecture

Notes in Computer Science, vol 473, pp 389-404,

❍ X Lai, J L Massey, S Murphy, "Markov Ciphers and

Differential Cryptanalysis"

in Advances in Cryptology - Eurocrypt '91, Lecture

Notes in Computer Science, vol 547, pp 17-38,

❍ name changed to IDEA in 1992

Cryptography and Network Security 197

Basic Features

Encrypts 64-bit blocks using a 128-bit key

Based on mixing operations from different

(incompatible) algebraic groups

❍ XOR, + mod 2^(16) , X mod 2^(16) +1)

❍ On 16-bit sub-blocks, with no permutations used

IDEA is patented in Europe & US, however

non-commercial use is freely permitted

❍ used in the public domain PGP (with agreement)

❍ currently no attack against IDEA is known

Seem secure against differential cryptanalysis, brute

force

Operations

Operations

❍ XOR, Addition mod 216, multiplication mod 216 +1

Why these special mod for addition, multiplication

❍ They do not satisfy the distributive law

❍ They do not satisfy the associative law

MA: multiplication/addition

Multiplication/addition

❍ Basic block to provide diffusion

❍ Input of MA

Two sub-blocks derived from 4 input sub-blocks, 4

sub-keys

Two other sub-keys

❍ Output

Two sub-blocks

❍ Needs four operations

Four operations are the minimum to provide full

diffusion

Overview

Cont.

IDEA encryption works as follows:

❍ Use 8-rounds

❍ Each round

The sub-blocks are added (2,3), multiplied (1,4) with sub-

keys

The results are XORed [1,3] and [2,4] to 2 sub-blocks

The XOR results set as input of MA structure,

It outputs two subblocks

Results are then XORed with 2,4 and 1,3 subblocks respectively

The second and third sub-blocks are swapped

❍ Finally new sub-keys are combined with the sub-blocks

Sub-Keys

Total need 52=6*8+4 sub-keys

❍ First are directly from key in order

❍ Left shift of 25 bits, and then next 8 sub-keys

❍ Each sub-key is a sub-block of the original key

Decryption

❍ Much more complicated

❍ It needs the inverse of the encryption key

For addition, multiplication

Decryption

The process of decryption is essentially

the same as encryption

❍ But with different selection of sub-keys

❍ Basic Operations

K1.1^(-1 ) is the multiplicative inverse mod 2^(16) +1

-K1.2 is the additive inverse mod 2^(16)

The original operations are:

(+) bit-by-bit XOR

+ additional mod 2^(16) of 16-bit integers

* multiplication mod 2^(16) +1 (where 0 means 2^(16) )

Decryption Sub-Keys

2 K1.1 K1.2 K1.3 K1.4 K1.5 K1.6 K9.1-1 -K9.2 -K9.3 K9.4-1

K8.5 K8.6

3 K2.1 K2.2 K2.3 K2.4 K2.5 K2.6 K8.1-1 -K8.3 -K8.2 K8.4-1

K7.5 K7.6

4 K3.1 K3.2 K3.3 K3.4 K3.5 K3.6 K7.1-1 -K7.3 -K7.2 K7.4-1

K6.5 K6.6

5 K4.1 K4.2 K4.3 K4.4 K4.5 K4.6 K6.1-1 -K6.3 -K6.2 K6.4-1

K5.5 K5.6

6 K5.1 K5.2 K5.3 K5.4 K5.5 K5.6 K5.1-1 -K5.3 -K5.2 K5.4-1

K4.5 K4.6

7 K6.1 K6.2 K6.3 K6.4 K6.5 K6.6 K4.1-1 -K4.3 -K4.2 K4.4-1

K3.5 K3.6

8 K7.1 K7.2 K7.3 K7.4 K7.5 K7.6 K3.1-1 -K3.3 -K3.2 K3.4-1

K2.5 K2.6

9 K8.1 K8.2 K8.3 K8.4 K8.5 K8.6 K2.1-1 -K2.3 -K2.2 K2.4-1

Cryptography and Network Security 205

K1.5 K1.6 Output K9.1 K9.2 K9.3 K9.4 K1.1-1 -K1.2

Important Feature

The size of the sub-block

❍ Need 216+1 be prime number

To compute the inverse for each possible subkey

❍ So sub-block size 8 is also possible

28+1=257 is prime number

CAST-128

By Carlisle Adams, Stafford Tavares

❍ Defined in RFC 2144

❍ Use key size varying from 40 to 128 bits

❍ Structure of Feistel network

❍ 16 rounds on 64-bits data block

❍ Four primitive operations

Addition, substration (mod 232)

Bitwise exclusive-OR

Left-circular rotation

Skipjack and Clipper

Skipjack

❍ used in Clipper escrowed encryption scheme(US govt)

❍ Skipjack is a block cipher, 64-bit data

❍ hardware only implementation

❍ 80-bit key (escrowed in 2 halves)

❍ 32 round

❍ all design details and descriptions are classified

❍ has been very considerable debate over its use

❍ attack by Matt Blaze (ATT) on the LEAF component of

the Clipper protocol for secure phone communications

Blowfish Scheme

Developed by Bruce Schneier

❍ Fast, compact, simple and variably secure

❍ Two basic operations: addition, XOR

❍ Key ranges from 32 bits to 448 bits

❍ Similar to Feistel scheme

❍ The sub-key and s-boxes are complicated

❍ So not suitable when key changes often

❍ Function g is very simple, unlike DES

RC5

Developed by R. Rivest

❍ Suitable for hardware or software

❍ Fast, simple, low memory, data-dependent rotations

❍ Adaptable to processors of different word length

A family of algorithms determined by word length,

number of rounds, size of secret key

❍ Decryption and encryption are not the same

With little variations

❍ Primitive operations

Addition, XOR, left circular rotation

Characteristics

Key features of advanced sym block cipher

❍ Variable key length

❍ Mixed operators

❍ Data dependent rotation

❍ Key dependent rotation

❍ Key dependent S-boxes

❍ Lengthy key schedule algorithm

❍ Variable function F

❍ Variable of number of rounds

❍ Operation on both halved data each round

AES

Advanced Encryption Standard (Rijndael)

❍ key size and the block size may be chosen to be any of 128, 192, or

256 bits (later only key, block fixed 128)

❍ Rijndael has a variable number of rounds. Not counting an extra round

performed at the end of encipherment with one step omitted, the

number of rounds in Rijndael is:

9 if both the block and the key are 128 bits long.

11 if either the block or the key is 192 bits long, and neither of

them is longer than that.

13 if either the block or the key is 256 bits long.

❍ Three big blocks

first perform an Add Round Key step (XORing a subkey with the

block) by itself,

then regular rounds noted above,

the final round with the Mix Column step

Advanced Encryption

Standard

Not “American”

Encryption Standard

a.k.a

Lab #1

How was AES created?

AES competition

❍ Started in January 1997 by NIST

❍ 4-year cooperation between

U.S. Government

Private Industry

Academia

Why?

❍ Replace 3DES

❍ Provide an unclassified, publicly disclosed encryption algorithm,

available royalty-free, worldwide

The Finalists

MARS

❍ IBM

RC6

❍ RSA Laboratories

Rijndael

❍ Joan Daemen (Proton World International) and

❍ Vincent Rijmen (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven)

Serpent

❍ Ross Anderson (University of Cambridge),

❍ Eli Biham (Technion), and

❍ Lars Knudsen (University of California San Diego)

Twofish

❍ Bruce Schneier, John Kelsey, and Niels Ferguson (Counterpane, Inc.),

❍ Doug Whiting (Hi/fn, Inc.),

❍ David Wagner (University of California Berkeley), and

❍ Chris Hall (Princeton University)

on crypto

Evaluation Criteria (in order of importance)

Security

Resistance to cryptanalysis, soundness of math,

randomness of output, etc.

Cost

Computational efficiency (speed)

Memory requirements

Algorithm / Implementation Characteristics

Flexibility, hardware and software suitability, algorithm

simplicity

Results

Results

The winner: Rijndael

AES adopted a subset of Rijndael

❍ Rijndael supports more block and key sizes

Finite Fields

AES uses the finite field GF(28)

❍ b7x7 + b6x6 + b5x5 + b4x4 + b3x3 + b2x2 + b1x + b0

{b7, b6, b5, b4, b3, b2, b1, b0}

Byte notation for the element: x6 + x5 + x + 1

❍ {01100011} – binary

❍ {63} – hex

❍ Addition

❍ Multiplication

Finite Field Arithmetic

Addition (XOR)

(x6 + x4 + x2 + x + 1) + (x7 + x + 1) = x7 + x6 + x4 + x2

{01010111} ⊕ {10000011} = {11010100}

{57} ⊕ {83} = {d4}

Multiplication is tricky

Finite Field Multiplication (•)

x13 + x11 + x9 + x8 + x7 + x7 + x5 + x3 + x2 + x + x6 + x4 + x2 + x +1

= x13 + x11 + x9 + x8 + x6 + x5 + x4 + x3 +1

These cancel

and

= x7 + x6 +1.

Irreducible Polynomial

Efficient Finite field Multiply

There’s a better way

❍ xtime() – very efficiently multiplies its input by {02}

accomplished through repeat application

of xtime()

Efficient Finite field Multiply

Example: {57} • {13}

{57} • {02} = xtime({57}) = {ae}

{57} • {04} = xtime({ae}) = {47}

{57} • {08} = xtime({47}) = {8e}

{57} • {10} = xtime({8e}) = {07}

= ({57} • {01}) ⊕ ({57} • {02}) ⊕ ({57} • {10})

= {57} ⊕ {ae} ⊕ {07}

= {fe}

AES parameters

❍ For AES, Nb = 4

❍ For AES, Nk = 4, 6, or 8

Nr – Number of rounds (function of Nb and Nk)

❍ For AES, Nr = 10, 12, or 14

AES methods

Convert to state array

Transformations (and their inverses)

AddRoundKey

SubBytes

ShiftRows

MixColumns

Key Expansion

Convert to State Array

Input block:

=

1 5 9 13 S1,0 S1,1 S1,2 S1,3

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

2 6 10 14 S2,0 S2,1 S2,2 S2,3

3 7 11 15 S3,0 S3,1 S3,2 S3,3

AddRoundKey

XOR each byte of the round key with its

corresponding byte in the state array

XOR

S0,1

S0,0 S0,1 S0,2 S0,3

S1,0 S

S1,1

1,1 S1,2 S1,3 S’0,1

R0,1 S’0,0 S’0,1 S’0,2 S’0,3

S2,0 S2,1 S2,2 S2,3

S2,1 R0,0 R0,1 R0,2 R0,3

S3,0 S3,1 S3,2 S3,3 R S’1,0 S’

S’1,1

1,1 S’1,2 S’1,3

R1,0 R1,1

1,1 R

1,2 R1,3

S3,1 S’2,0 S’2,1 S’2,2 S’2,3

R2,0 R2,1 R2,2 R2,3 S’2,1

R2,1 S’3,0 S’3,1 S’3,2 S’3,3

R3,0 R3,1 R3,2 R3,3

S’3,1

R3,1 Cryptography and Network Security 228

SubBytes

Replace each byte in the state array with

its corresponding value from the S-Box

00 44 88 CC

11 55 99 DD

22 66 AA EE

33 77 BB FF

ShiftRows

MixColumns

Apply MixColumn transformation to each

column

MixColumns()

S0,1 S’

S’1,c = S0,c ⊕ ({02} • S1,c) ⊕ ({03} • S2,c) ⊕ S0,13,c

S0,0 S0,1 S0,2 S0,3 S’0,0 S’0,1 S’0,2 S’0,3

S1,0 S

S1,1 S1,2 =SS

1,1 S’ 1,3 ⊕ S ⊕ ({02} • S ) ⊕ S’1,0•S’

({03} S’1,1

S 1,1 ) S’1,2 S’1,3

2,c 0,c 1,c 2,c 3,c

S2,1 S’

S’3,c = ({03} • S0,c) ⊕ S1,c ⊕ S2,c ⊕ ({02} • S2,1

S3,0 S3,1 S3,2 S3,3 S’3,0 S’3,1 S’3,2 S’3,3

3,c

S3,1 S’3,1

Key Expansion

Expands the key material so that each

round uses a unique round key

❍ Generates Nb(Nr+1) words

the key

of the previous work and

the one Nk positions

earlier

Cryptography and Network Security 232

Encryption

byte state[4,Nb]

state = in

SubBytes(state)

ShiftRows(state)

MixColumns(state)

Prevents

First and an

AddRoundKey(state, keySchedule[round*Nb, (round+1)*Nb-1]) lastattacker from

operations

}

even beginning to key

involve the encrypt or

SubBytes(state) decrypt without the key

ShiftRows(state)

AddRoundKey(state, keySchedule[Nr*Nb, (Nr+1)*Nb-1])

out = state

Decryption

byte state[4,Nb]

state = in

InvShiftRows(state)

InvSubBytes(state)

AddRoundKey(state, keySchedule[round*Nb, (round+1)*Nb-1])

InvMixColumns(state)

}

InvShiftRows(state)

InvSubBytes(state)

AddRoundKey(state, keySchedule[0, Nb-1])

out = state

Encrypt and Decrypt

Encryption Decryption

AddRoundKey AddRoundKey

SubBytes InvShiftRows

ShiftRows InvSubBytes

MixColumns AddRoundKey

AddRoundKey InvMixColumns

SubBytes InvShiftRows

ShiftRows InvSubBytes

AddRoundKey AddRoundKey

Cryptography and Network

Security

Xiang-Yang Li

Public Key Encryption

Two difficult problems

❍ Key distribution under conventional encryption

❍ Digital signature

❍ Astonishing breakthrough

❍ One key for encryption and the other related key for

decryption

❍ It is computationally infeasible to determine the

decryption key using only the encryption key and the

algorithm

Public Key Cryptosystem

Essential steps of public key cryptosystem

❍ Each end generates a pair of keys

One for encryption and one for decryption

❍ Each system publishes one key, called public key, and

the companion key is kept secret

❍ It A wants to send message to B

Encrypt it using B’s public key

❍ When B receives the encrypted message

It decrypt it using its own private key

Applications of PKC

Encryption/Decryption

❍ The sender encrypts the message using the receiver’s

public key

Q: Why not use the sender’s secret key?

Digital signature

❍ The sender signs a message by encrypt the message or

a transformation of the message using its own private

key

Key exchange

❍ Two sides cooperate to exchange a session key,

typically for conventional encryption

Cryptography and Network Security 239

Conditions of PKC

Computationally easy

❍ To generate public and private key pair

❍ To encrypt the message using encryption key

❍ To decrypt the message using decryption key

Computational infeasible

❍ To compute the private key using public key

❍ To recover the plaintext using ciphertext and public key

applied in either order

One Way Function

PKC boils down to one way function

❍ Maps a domain into a range with unique inverse

❍ The calculation of the function is easy

❍ The calculation of the inverse is infeasible

Easy

❍ The problem can be solved in polynomial time

Infeasible

❍ The effort to solve it grows faster than polynomial time

❍ For example: 2n

❍ It requires infeasible for all inputs, not just worst case

Trapdoor One-way Function

Trapdoor one way function

❍ Maps a domain into a range with unique inverse

Y=fk(X)

❍ The calculation of the function is easy

❍ The calculation of the inverse is infeasible if the key is

not known

❍ The calculation of the inverse is easy if the key is

known

Possible Attacks

Brute force

❍ Use large keys

Trade-off: speed (not linearly depend on key size)

Confined to small data encryption: signature, key

management

Compute the private key from public key

❍ Not proven that is not feasible for most protocols!

Probable message attack

❍ Encrypt all possible messages using encryption key

❍ Compare with the ciphertext to find the matched one!

❍ If data is small, feasible, regardless of key size of PKC

History

http://www.research.att.com/~smb/nsam-

160/

British

National Security Action Memorandum

160

❍ Kennedy Nuclear Weapon

❍ http://www.research.att.com/~smb/nsam-160/pg1.html

RSA Algorithm

R. Rivest, A. Shamir, L. Adleman (1977)

❍ James Ellis came up with the idea in 1970, and proved that it was

theoretically possible. In 1973, Clifford Cocks a British

mathematician invented a variant on RSA; a few months later,

Malcom Williamson invented a Diffie-Hellman analog

❍ Only revealed till 1997

Block cipher using integers 0~n-1

❍ Thus block size k is less than log2n

Algorithm:

❍ Encryption: C=Me mod n

❍ Decryption: M=Cd mod n

Cryptography and Network Security 245

RSA (public key encryption)

Alice wants Bob to send her a message. She:

selects two (large) primes p, q, TOP SECRET,

computes n = pq and φ(n) = (p-1)(q-1),

φ(n) also TOP SECRET,

selects an integer e, 1 < e < φ(n), such that

gcd(e, φ(n)) = 1,

computes d, such that de ≡ 1 (mod φ(n)),

d also TOP SECRET,

gives public key (e, n), keeps private key (d, n).

Requirements

Possible to find e and d such that

❍ M=Mde mod n for all message M

Infeasible to compute d

❍ Given n and e

RSA Example

• Select primes: p=17 & q=11

• Compute n = pq =17×11=187

• Compute ø(n)=(p–1)(q-1)=16×10=160

• Select e : gcd(e,160)=1; choose e=7

• Determine d: de=1 mod 160 and d <

160 Value is d=23 since 23×7=161=

10×160+1

• Publish public key KU={7,187}

• Keep secret private key KR={23,17,11}

Cryptography and Network Security 248

RSA Example cont

sample RSA encryption/decryption is:

given message M = 88 (nb. 88<187)

encryption:

C = 887 mod 187 = 11

decryption:

M = 1123 mod 187 = 88

Key Generation

Recall Euler Theorem

❍ aφ(n)+1 =a mod n for all 0<a<n and gcd(a,n)=1

❍ Then ed=1 mod φ(n) is sufficient to make algorithm

correct (need more proofs)

RSA chooses the following

❍ Integer n=pq for two primes p and q

❍ Select e, such that gcd(e, φ(n))=1

❍ Compute the inverse of e mod φ(n)

The result is set as d

Key Generation

The prime numbers p and q must be

sufficiently large

❍ They are chosen by applying primality testing of

randomly chosen large numbers

❍ About n/ln n prime numbers less than n

Implies needs to check about 2ln n random numbers

to find 2 primes numbers around n

Compute n=pq, keep p and q secret!

Select random number e

❍ Test gcd(e, φ(n))=1, and get d if equation holds

Exponentiation

can use the Square and Multiply Algorithm

a fast, efficient algorithm for exponentiation

concept is based on repeatedly squaring base

and multiplying in the ones that are needed to

compute the result

look at binary representation of exponent

only takes O(log2 n) multiples for number n

❍ eg. 75 = 74.71 = 3.7 = 10 mod 11

❍ eg. 3129 = 3128.31 = 5.3 = 4 mod 11

Exponentiation

More on Exponention (PGP)

To compute Cd mod n, we compute

❍ Cd mod p and

❍ Cd mod q

Then Chinese Remainder Theorem to find

❍ Cd mod n

Security of RSA

Brute force: try all possible private keys

Factoring integer n, then know φ(n)

❍ Not proven to be NPC

❍ Equivalent to factoring! (1996)

Determine d directly without knowing φ(n)

❍ Currently appears as hard as factoring

But not proven, so it may be easier!

Practical Considerations

Testing p, q using probability first, then

deterministic methods

A good random number generator is needed for p,q

❍ 'random' and 'unpredictable'

Primes p and q should be in similar scale

Both p-1 and q-1 should have large prime factor

The gcd(p-1,q-1) should be small

The encryption key e = 2 should not be used

The decryption key d should larger then n1/4

RSA is much slower than symmetric cryptosystems.

❍ In practice, typically encrypts a secret message with a symmetric

algorithm, encrypts the (comparatively short) symmetric key with

RSA, and transmits both the RSA-encrypted symmetric key and the

symmetrically-encrypted message to Alice.

Cryptography and Network Security 256

Fixed point of RSA

How many m such that

❍ me=m mod n assume that gcd(m, n)=1

❍ It is same as me-1=1 mod n

❍ Thus, me-1=1 mod p and me-1=1 mod q

❍ Solutions gcd(e-1,p-1)*gcd(e-1,q-1)

Need more proofs.

Cyclic Attack

Compute me mod n, me2 mod n, me3 mod n…till it

reaches some message readable.

Need period large

Let r be the largest prime of p-1, L be the largest

prime of r-1

Then period is at least L with high probability

❍ Implies that we often need find a large prime x

❍ Based on this, find a large prime of y=kx+1 format (by trying

k=2,3,…)

❍ Based on y, then find a large prime p=t y+1 format

Try difference values for t=2,3,4…

How to deal with p, q

Delete them securely

Or used for speed-up calculation from CRT

❍ Compute Me mod p and Me mod q

❍ Then find using Me mod n based on CRT

Timing Attacks

Keep track of how long a computer takes to

decrypt a message!

❍ Paul Kocher, 1995, Dec-7

❍ Stunning attack strategy and cipher only attack!

❍ Guessing the key bit by bit

❍ Constant exponentiation time

❍ Random delay

❍ Blinding (add a random number for encryption and

decryption)

Chosen Ciphertext Attack

Collect ciphertext c (send to Alice), want to find m=cd

mod n

Attacker chooses random r

Compute x= re mod n; y=xc mod n; and t= r-1 mod n

Attacker gets Alice to sign y with private key using

RSA: yd mod n

❍ That is why not use the same key for encryption and digital signature

Alice sends u= yd mod n to Attacker

Attacker then computes tu mod nm

Other attacks on RSA

Comprised decryption key

❍ If the private key d (for decryption of received

ciphertext) of a user is comprised, then the user has to

reselect n and e and d

❍ It cannot use the old number n to produce the key-

pairs!

❍ Otherwise attacker already can factor n almost surely!

The number n can only be used by one

person

❍ If two user uses the same n, even they do not know the

factoring of n, they still could figure out the factoring

of n with probability almost one.

Similar as above

Cryptography and Network Security 262

Bit security of RSA

Given ciphertext C,

❍ We may want to find the last bit of M, denoted by

parity(C)

❍ We may want to find if M>n/2, denoted by half(C)

❍ We may want to find all bits of M

❍ If we can solve one, we can solve the other two!

Other Public Key Systems

Rabin Cryptosystem

❍ Decryption is not unique

Elgamal Cryptosystem

❍ Expansion of the plaintext (double)

Knapsack System

❍ Already broken

❍ If directly implement Elgamal on elliptic curve

Expansion of plaintext by 4; Restricted plaintext

❍ Menezes-Vanston system is more efficient

Cryptography and Network Security 264

Rabin Cryptosystem

Procedure

❍ Let n=pq and p=3 mod 4, q=3 mod 4

❍ Publish n, and a number b<n

❍ For message m

C=m(m+b) mod n

❍ The receiver decrypts ciphertext C

(b2/4+C)1/2-b/2

Analysis

For receiver, need solve equation

❍ x2+xb=C mod n

Solve x12 =c mod n

❍ Chinese Remainder Theorem implies that

x12 =c mod p

x12 =c mod q

❍ When p=3 and q=3 mod 4

Solution x1=c(p+1)/4 mod p and x1=c(q+1)/4 mod q

Then Chinese Remainder Theorem again to combine

solution

Security

Breaking it < factoring n

Secure against

❍ Chosen plaintext attack

Not secure against

❍ Chosen ciphertext attack

one, so that the correct result must be guessed. This is the major

disadvantage of the Rabin cryptosystem and one of the factors

which have prevented it from finding widespread practical use.

❍ It has been proven that decoding the Rabin cryptosystem is

equivalent to the integer factorization problem, which is rather

different than for RSA.

Dealing with 4 solutions

By adding redundancies, for example, the

repetition of the last 64 bits, the system

can be made to produce a single root.

If this technique is applied, the proof of

the equivalence with the factorization

problem fails.

ElGamal Cryptosystem

Based on Discrete Logarithm

❍ Find unique integer a such that gx=y mod p

Here x is a primitive element in Zp, p is prime

Procedure

❍ Make p, g, y public, keep x secret

❍ Encryption:

Ek(m)=(gk mod p, m y k mod p)

❍ Decryption

Dk(y1,y2)=y2(y1x)-1 mod p

Security of ElGamal

ElGamal is a simple example of a semantically

secure asymmetric key encryption algorithm

(under reasonable assumptions).

ElGamal's security rests, in part, on the difficulty

of solving the discrete logarithm problem in G.

❍ Specifically, if the discrete logarithm problem could be solved

efficiently, then ElGamal would be broken. However, the security

of ElGamal actually relies on the so-called Decisional Diffie-

Hellman (DDH) assumption. This assumption is often stronger

than the discrete log assumption, but is still believed to be true for

many classes of groups.

Semantic Security

Semantic security is a widely-used definition for security

in an PKS.

❍ For a cryptosystem to be semantically secure, it must be infeasible

for a computationally-bounded adversary to derive significant

information about a message (plaintext) when given only its

ciphertext and the corresponding public encryption key.

Semantic security considers only the case of a "passive"

attacker, i.e., one who observes ciphertexts and generates

chosen ciphertexts using the public key

Indistinguishability definition is used more

commonly than the original definition of semantic

security.

Indistinguishability: semantic

security.

Indistinguishability under Chosen Plaintext Attack (IND-CPA) is

commonly defined by the following game:

❍ A probabilistic polynomial time-bounded adversary is given a public key, which it

may use to generate any number of ciphertexts (within polynomial bounds).

❍ The adversary generates two equal-length messages m0 and m1, and transmits them

to a challenge oracle along with the public key.

❍ The challenge oracle selects one of the messages by flipping a uniformly-weighted

coin, encrypts the message under the public key, and returns the resulting ciphertext

c to the adversary.

The underlying cryptosystem is IND-CPA (and thus semantically

secure under chosen plaintext attack) if

❍ the adversary cannot determine which of the two messages was chosen by the

oracle, with probability significantly greater than 1 / 2 (the success rate of random

guessing).

a semantically secure encryption scheme must by definition be

probabilistic, possessing a component of randomness; if this were

not the case, the adversary could simply compute the deterministic

encryption of m0 and m1 and compare these encryptions with the

returned ciphertext c to successfully guess the oracle's choice.

Deal with deterministic PKS

RSA, can be made semantically secure

(under stronger assumptions) through the

use of random encryption padding schemes

such as Optimal Asymmetric Encryption

Padding (OAEP).

Bit security of Discrete Log

Given gx=y mod p

❍ We may want to find the value of x

❍ Find some bits of x

❍ We can find the last s bits of x for sure

❍ But to find the other bits of x is same as to find all bits

of x!

Example, the last bit of x is

❍ 0 y is QR iff y(p-1)/2=1 mod p

❍ 1 y is NQR iff y(p-1)/2=-1 mod p

DH Assumption

Consider a cyclic group G of order q. The DDH

assumption states that,

❍ given (g,ga,gb) for a randomly-chosen generator g and random ,

the value gab "looks like" a perfectly random element of G.

This intuitive notion is formally stated by saying

that the following two ensembles are

computationally indistinguishable:

❍ (g,ga,gb,gab), where g,a,b are chosen at random as

described above (this input is called a "DDH tuple");

❍ (g,ga,gb,gc), where g,a,b are chosen at random and c is

chosen at random.

Diffie-Hellman problem

❍ computing gab from (g,ga,gb)

Knapsack Cryptosystem

Based on subset sum problem

❍ Given a set, find a subset with half summation value

❍ It is NPC problem generally

The subset problem over superincreasing

set can be solved in polynomial time!

Been broken by Shamir, 1984

❍ Using integer programming tech by Lenstra

Solve Subset Problem

Let T be the half summation, t=T;

For i=n downto 1 do

❍ If t≥si then

t=t-si

Set xi=1

❍ Else xi=0

If Σxisi=T then (x1, x2,… xn) is the solution

❍ Else, there is no solution

Knapsack System

Procedure

❍ Select a superincreasing set s

❍ Let p be prime larger than set summation of s,

❍ Select integer a, keep s, a, p secret

❍ Encryption

Ciphertext C = E(x1,x2,…xn)=Σxiti mod p

❍ Decryption

Solve the subset summation problem (s, a-1C mod p)

Elliptic Curve Cryptography

majority of public-key crypto (RSA, D-H)

use either integer or polynomial arithmetic

with very large numbers/polynomials

imposes a significant load in storing and

processing keys and messages

an alternative is to use elliptic curves

offers same security with smaller bit sizes

Real Elliptic Curves

an elliptic curve is defined by an equation in

two variables x & y, with coefficients

consider a cubic elliptic curve of form

❍ y2 = x3 + ax + b

❍ where x,y,a,b are all real numbers

❍ also define zero point O

❍ geometrically sum of Q+R is reflection of intersection

R

Real Elliptic Curve Example

Finite Elliptic Curves

Elliptic curve cryptography uses curves

whose variables & coefficients are finite

have two families commonly used:

❍ prime curves Ep(a,b) defined over Zp

use integers modulo a prime p

best in software

❍ binary curves E2m(a,b) defined over GF(2n)

use polynomials with binary coefficients

best in hardware

Elliptic Curve Cryptography

ECC addition is analog of modulo multiply

ECC repeated addition is analog of modulo

exponentiation

need “hard” problem equiv to discrete log

❍ Q=kP, where Q,P belong to a prime curve

❍ is “easy” to compute Q given k,P

❍ but “hard” to find k given Q,P

❍ known as the elliptic curve logarithm problem

ECC Diffie-Hellman

can do key exchange analogous to D-H

users select a suitable curve Ep(a,b)

select base point G=(x1,y1) with large order

n s.t. n*G=O

A & B select private keys nA<n, nB<n

compute public keys: PA=nA×G, PB=nB×G

compute shared key: K=nA×PB, K=nB×PA

❍ same since K=nA×nB×G

ECC Encryption/Decryption

several alternatives, will consider simplest

must first encode any message M as a point

on the elliptic curve Pm

select suitable curve & point G as in D-H

each user chooses private key nA<n

and computes public key PA=nA×G

to encrypt Pm : Cm={kG, Pm+k PA}, k

random

decrypt Cm compute:

Pm+kPA–nA(kG) = Pm+k(nAG)–nA(kG) = Pm

Cryptography and Network Security 285

ECC Security

relies on elliptic curve logarithm problem

fastest method is “Pollard rho method”

compared to factoring, can use much

smaller key sizes than with RSA etc

for equivalent key lengths computations

are roughly equivalent

hence for similar security ECC offers

significant computational advantages

Cryptography and Network

Xiang-Yang Li

Key Exchange

Public key systems are much slower than

private key system

❍ Public key system is then often for short data

Signature, key distribution

Key distribution

❍ One party chooses the key and transmits it to other user

Key agreement

❍ Protocol such two parties jointly establish secret key

over public communication channel

❍ Key is the function of inputs of two users

Distribution of Public Keys

can be considered as using one of:

❍ Public announcement

❍ Publicly available directory

❍ Public-key authority

❍ Public-key certificates

Public Key Management

Simple one: publish the public key

❍ Such as newsgroups, yellow-book, etc.

❍ But it is not secure, although it is convenient

Anyone can forge such a announcement

Ex: user B pretends to be A, and publish a key for A

Then all messages sent to A, readable by B!

Let trusted authority maintain the keys

❍ Need to verify the identity, when register keys

❍ User can replace old keys, or void old keys

Possible Attacks

Observe all messages over the channel

❍ So assume that all plaintext messages are available to

all

Save messages for reuse later

❍ So have to avoid replay attack

Masquerade various users in the network

❍ So have to be able to verify the source of the message

Public Announcement

users distribute public keys to recipients

or broadcast to community at large

❍ eg. append PGP keys to email messages or post to news

groups or email list

major weakness is forgery

❍ anyone can create a key claiming to be someone else

and broadcast it

❍ until forgery is discovered can masquerade as claimed

user

Publicly Available Directory

can obtain greater security by registering

keys with a public directory

directory must be trusted with properties:

❍ contains {name,public-key} entries

❍ participants register securely with directory

❍ participants can replace key at any time

❍ directory is periodically published

❍ directory can be accessed electronically

Public-Key Authority

improve security by tightening control over

distribution of keys from directory

has properties of directory

and requires users to know public key for

the directory

then users interact with directory to

obtain any desired public key securely

❍ does require real-time access to directory when keys

are needed

Public-Key Authority

Cont.

More advanced distribution

❍ A sends request-for-key(B) to authority with time-

stamp, that is, Ida|Idb|Time

❍ Authority replies with key(B) (encrypted by its private

key), that is EKTta(KUb| Ida|Idb|Time)

❍ A initiates a message to B, including a random number

Na, its IDA

❍ B then ask authority to get key(A)

❍ B sends A (encrypted by A’s public key) Na and Nb

Cont.

In above scheme, the authority is

bottleneck

New approach: certificate

❍ Any user can read certificate, determine name and

public key of the certificate’s owner

❍ Any user can verify the authority of certificate

❍ Only the authority can create and update certificate

❍ Any user can verify the time-stamp of certificate

The certificate is

❍ CA=EKRauth[T,IDA, KUA]

❍ Time-stamp is to avoid reuse of voided key

Cryptography and Network Security 297

Public-Key Certificates

certificates allow key exchange without real-time access to

public-key authority

a certificate binds identity to public key

❍ usually with other info such as period of validity, rights of use etc

with all contents signed by a trusted Public-Key or

Certificate Authority (CA)

can be verified by anyone who knows the public-key

authorities public-key

To validate the certificate, we need another certificate, one

that matches the Issuer (of CA) in the first certificate.

Then we take the RSA public key from the second (CA)

certificate, use it to decode the signature on the first

certificate to obtain an MD5 hash, which must match an

actual MD5 hash computed over the rest of the certificate.

X.509

The structure of a X.509 v3 digital certificate is as follows:

Certificate

❍ Version

❍ Serial Number

❍ Algorithm ID

❍ Issuer

❍ Validity

Not Before

Not After

❍ Subject

❍ Subject Public Key Info

Public Key Algorithm

Subject Public Key

❍ Issuer Unique Identifier (Optional)

❍ Subject Unique Identifier (Optional)

❍ Extensions (Optional)

...

Certificate Signature Algorithm

Certificate Signature

Sample Certificate

Certificate:

Data: Version: 1 (0x0)

Serial Number: 7829 (0x1e95)

Signature Algorithm: md5WithRSAEncryption

Issuer: C=ZA, ST=Western Cape, L=Cape Town, O=Thawte Consulting cc, OU=Certification Services

Division, CN=Thawte Server CA/emailAddress=server-certs@thawte.com

Validity

❍ Not Before: Jul 9 16:04:02 1998 GMT

❍ Not After : Jul 9 16:04:02 1999 GMT

Subject: C=US, ST=Maryland, L=Pasadena, O=Brent Baccala, OU=FreeSoft,

CN=www.freesoft.org/emailAddress=baccala@freesoft.org

Subject Public Key Info: Public Key Algorithm: rsaEncryption

RSA Public Key: (1024 bit)

Modulus (1024 bit): 00:b4:31:98:0a:c4:bc:62:c1:88:aa:dc:b0:c8:bb:

33:35:19:d5:0c:64:b9:3d:41:b2:96:fc:f3:31:e1: 66:36:d0:8e:56:12:44:ba:75:eb:e8:1c:9c:5b:66:

70:33:52:14:c9:ec:4f:91:51:70:39:de:53:85:17: 16:94:6e:ee:f4:d5:6f:d5:ca:b3:47:5e:1b:0c:7b:

c5:cc:2b:6b:c1:90:c3:16:31:0d:bf:7a:c7:47:77: 8f:a0:21:c7:4c:d0:16:65:00:c1:0f:d7:b8:80:e3:

d2:75:6b:c1:ea:9e:5c:5c:ea:7d:c1:a1:10:bc:b8: e8:35:1c:9e:27:52:7e:41:8f

Exponent: 65537 (0x10001)

Signature Algorithm: md5WithRSAEncryption

93:5f:8f:5f:c5:af:bf:0a:ab:a5:6d:fb:24:5f:b6:59:5d:9d:

92:2e:4a:1b:8b:ac:7d:99:17:5d:cd:19:f6:ad:ef:63:2f:92:

ab:2f:4b:cf:0a:13:90:ee:2c:0e:43:03:be:f6:ea:8e:9c:67:

d0:a2:40:03:f7:ef:6a:15:09:79:a9:46:ed:b7:16:1b:41:72:

0d:19:aa:ad:dd:9a:df:ab:97:50:65:f5:5e:85:a6:ef:19:d1:

5a:de:9d:ea:63:cd:cb:cc:6d:5d:01:85:b5:6d:c8:f3:d9:f7:

8f:0e:fc:ba:1f:34:e9:96:6e:6c:cf:f2:ef:9b:bf:de:b5:22: 68:9f

Security

In 2005, Arjen Lenstra and Benne de

Weger demonstrated "how to use hash

collisions to construct two X.509

certificates that contain identical

signatures and that differ only in the

public keys," achieved using a collision

attack on the MD5 hash function

See

http://www.win.tue.nl/~bdeweger/Colliding

Certificates/ddl-full.pdf

Cryptography and Network Security 301

Public-Key Certificates

Public-Key Distribution of Secret Keys

can use for secrecy or authentication

but public-key algorithms are slow

so usually want to use private-key

encryption to protect message contents

hence need a session key

have several alternatives for negotiating a

suitable session

Simple Secret Key Distribution

proposed by Merkle in 1979

❍ A generates a new temporary public key pair

❍ A sends B the public key and their identity

❍ B generates a session key K sends it to A encrypted

using the supplied public key

❍ A decrypts the session key and both use

and impersonate both halves of protocol

Secret key Distribution

Simple secret key distribution

❍ A generates KUA and KRA, sends KUA to B

❍ B sends ks to A using A’s public key KUA

❍ A decrypts the message to get the secret key ks

To get more security, the public/private

keys can be regenerated when needed

But vulnerable to the active attack!

❍ Attacker E can compromise the communication

between A and B as follows

Cryptography and Network Security 305

Cont.

Attacking

❍ A generates KUA and KRA, sends IDA, KUA to B

❍ B generates a secret key ks

❍ B sends ks to A using A’s “public key” KUE

❍ E intercepts the message, decrypt it and get ks

❍ E sends A the message Ks, encrypted by KUA

❍ A decrypts the message to get the secret key ks

Now E knows Ks, but A, B are unaware of it

Secret Key Distribution

So need confidentiality and authentication

❍ A and B need to use a secure method to exchange their

public keys

Schemes

❍ A initiates a message to B, EKUB(Na,IDa)

❍ B replies it with EKUA(Na,Nb)

❍ A then replies it with EKUB(Nb)

❍ A sends B the message EKUB (EKRA(Ks))

Security

❍ The first 3 steps are used to assure that A is A, B is B

Public-Key Distribution of Secret

Keys

if have securely exchanged public-keys:

Key Predistribution

Trusted Authority (TA) generates keys for

all pair of users and transmits to them

❍ Large overhead (for TA and user)

Blom Scheme

❍ Keys are chosen from a finite field Zp

❍ TA transmits k+1 elements of Zp to each user over

secure channel

❍ Secure condition: any set of at most k users (not U,V)

can not determine any information about Ku,v

Blom Scheme

Scheme (when k=1)

❍ Each user u has distinct element ru from Zp

f(x,y)=a+b(x+y)+cxy mod p

❍ For each u, TA computes

gu(x)=f(x, ru) mod p

❍ TA transmits gu(x) to user u

❍ Two users u and v compute the common key

f(ru, rv)= a+b(ru + rv)+c ru rv mod p

Here f(ru, rv)= gv(ru)= gu(rv)

Security of Blom Scheme

Less than k users can not determine keys

However, more than k users can compute

any keys

❍ Solving equations to get a,b,c for k=1

Generally

❍ Function f(x,y)=Sum ai,jxiyj mod p

❍ Here ai,j=aj,i

Diffie-Hellman Key Predist.

Computationally secure

❍ if discrete logarithm is intractable

Scheme

❍ Assume prime number p public and an integer c public

❍ Each user u has secret component au

❍ TA certifies it by computing

(ID(u), bu, sigTA(ID(u), bu))

❍ The common key of two users u and v is

K=c au av mod p

Diffie Hellman

Around September 1974, Diffie (Graduate

student) had been traveling USA with his

wife, Mary, discussing cryptography with

anyone who was available.

❍ At the time, there was very little published

material about modern methods and much was

classified. Very few people were interested in the

topic and Marty Hellman even says that many of

his colleagues felt that it was "born classified,"

like secrets about the atomic bomb, because it

was so important to national security.

❍ John Gill gave the idea of exponential

Cryptography and Network Security 313

Diffie-Hellman Problem

Diffie-Hellman problem definition

❍ Given bu=gau mod p, bv=gav mod p, how to compute

gavau mod p? Here g is a primitive element of mod p

❍ The problem is not harder than the discrete log-

arithmetic problem, because the later one can always be

used to solve it

❍ It can be proved that it has the same difficulty as the

ElGamal encryption system

Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange

Computationally secure

❍ if discrete logarithm is intractable

Scheme

❍ Assume prime number p public and an integer c public

❍ Each user u chooses a secret component au (new!)

❍ User v computes bv=c av mod p

❍ The common key of two users u and v is

K=c au av mod p

Middle Attack

Intruder w intercept the communications

❍ Intruder w communications with u

❍ Intruder w communications with v

❍ The key computed by u is

K=c au av’ mod p

c au c au’

w v

u

c av’ c av

Authenticated Key Agreement

Introducing the identification scheme

before key exchange does not help

❍ The attacker remains inactive until identification done

Simplified station to station protocol

❍ Key agreement protocol itself authenticates the user’s

identity at the same time the key being defined

Station-to-station Protocol

Scheme

❍ Each user has a certificate

C(v)=(Idv,verv,sigTA(Idv,verv))

❍ User u selects au and computes bu=c au mod p

❍ User v selects av and computes

Key K=c au av mod p

Signature yv=sigv(bu,bv)

❍ User v sends (C(V), bv, yv) to U

❍ User u computes K=c au av mod p, verifies yv, and C(V)

❍ User u computes yu=sigu(bu,bv), sends (C(u),yu) to V

Cryptography and Network Security 318

❍ User v verifies y , and C(u)

MTI Agreement Protocol

Scheme

❍ Assume prime number p public and an integer c public

Here bu= c au mod p

❍ Each user u chooses a secret component ru (new!)

❍ User u computes su=c ru mod p, sends (c(u),su)

❍ User v computes sv=c rv mod p, sends (c(v),sv)

❍ The common key of two users u and v is

K=c rvau+ ru av mod p= sv aubv ru mod p= su avbu rv mod p

Cryptography and Network

Security

Authentication

Xiang-Yang Li

Message Authentication

Digital Signature

Authentication

❍ Authentication requirements

❍ Authentication functions

Mechanisms

❍ MAC: message authentication code

❍ Hash functions, security in hash functions

❍ Hash and MAC algorithms

MD5, SHA, RIPEMD-160, HMAC

Digital signatures

Message Attacks

Possible attacks

❍ Disclosure

❍ Traffic analysis

❍ Masquerade

❍ Content modification

❍ Sequence modification

❍ Time modification

❍ Repudiation

Denial of the receipt of message by the destination

or

Denial of the transmitting by the source

Authentication

Enables receiver to verify message

authenticity

❍ Using some lower level functions as primitive

Three types of functions

❍ Message encryption

❍ Message authentication code (MAC)

❍ Hash function

Authentication

Goal: Bob wants Alice to “prove” her identity

to him

Protocol ap1.0: Alice says “I am Alice”

“I am Alice”

Failure scenario??

Authentication

Goal: Bob wants Alice to “prove” her identity

to him

Protocol ap1.0: Alice says “I am Alice”

in a network,

Bob can not “see”

Alice, so Trudy simply

“I am Alice” declares

herself to be Alice

Authentication: another try

Protocol ap2.0: Alice says “I am Alice” in an IP packet

containing her source IP address

Alice’s

IP address

“I am Alice”

Failure scenario??

Authentication: another try

Protocol ap2.0: Alice says “I am Alice” in an IP packet

containing her source IP address

a packet

Alice’s

“spoofing”

IP address

“I am Alice” Alice’s address

Authentication: another try

Protocol ap3.0: Alice says “I am Alice” and sends her

secret password to “prove” it.

Alice’s Alice’s

“I’m Alice”

IP addr password

OK

IP addr

Authentication: another try

Protocol ap3.0: Alice says “I am Alice” and sends her

secret password to “prove” it.

Alice’s Alice’s

“I’m Alice”

IP addr password

playback attack: Trudy

Alice’s records Alice’s packet

OK

IP addr and later

plays it back to Bob

Alice’s Alice’s

“I’m Alice”

IP addr password

Authentication: yet another try

Protocol ap3.1: Alice says “I am Alice” and sends her

encrypted secret password to “prove” it.

Alice’s encrypted

“I’m Alice”

IP addr password

OK

IP addr

Authentication: another try

Protocol ap3.1: Alice says “I am Alice” and sends her

encrypted secret password to “prove” it.

Alice’s encrypted

IP addr password

“I’m Alice” record

and

Alice’s

OK playback

IP addr

still works!

Alice’s encrypted

“I’m Alice”

IP addr password

Authentication: yet another try

Goal: avoid playback attack

Nonce: number (R) used only once –in-a-lifetime

ap4.0: to prove Alice “live”, Bob sends Alice nonce, R.

Alice

must return R, encrypted with shared secret key

“I am Alice”

R

KA-B(R) Alice is live, and

only Alice knows

key to encrypt

nonce, so it must

drawbacks? be Alice!

Cryptography and Network Security 332

Authentication: ap5.0

ap4.0 requires shared symmetric key

can we authenticate using public key techniques?

ap5.0: use nonce, public key cryptography

“I am Alice”

Bob computes

R + -

- KA(KA (R)) = R

K A (R) and knows only Alice

“send me your public key”

could have the private

+ key, that encrypted R

KA such that

+ -

K (K (R)) = R

A A

ap5.0: security hole

Man (woman) in the middle attack: Trudy poses as

Alice (to Bob) and as Bob (to Alice)

I am Alice I am Alice

R -

K (R)

T

R - Send me your public key

K (R) +

A K

T

Send me your public key

+

K

A +

K (m)

Trudy gets T

- +

+ m = K (K (m))

K (m)

A sends T T Alice

m to

- + encrypted with

m = K (K (m))

A A Alice’s public key

Cryptography and Network Security 334

ap5.0: security hole

Man (woman) in the middle attack: Trudy poses as

Alice (to Bob) and as Bob (to Alice)

Difficult to detect:

Bob receives everything that Alice sends, and vice

versa. (e.g., so Bob, Alice can meet one week later and

recall conversation)

problem is that Trudy receives all messages as well!

Message Encryption

Conventional Encryption

❍ Authentication provided due to the secret key

❍ But the message need to be meaningful

What happened it message is not readable?

How to determine intelligible automatically?

Approach

❍ Checksum or frame check sequence(FCS) to message

❍ Encrypt the message and the appending FCS

❍ Receiver decrypt the ciphertext

❍ Computes FCS of message, compare with received one

Public Key Encryption

Direct encryption by receiver’s public key

❍ Only confidentiality, no authentication

For authentication

❍ Encrypt using sender’s private key

❍ Assume the message is intelligible

❍ No confidentiality: everyone can decrypt

❍ Encrypt by sender’s, then receiver’s public key

❍ But too time-consuming: 4 rounds RSA on large data

Message Authentication Code

Assume both uses share secret key k

Procedure

❍ Sender computes MAC=Ck(M) for M

❍ Receiver computes the MAC on received M

❍ Compare it with received MAC

❍ If match, then accepts the message

be reversible!

MAC with Confidentiality

Two options

❍ Using another key to encrypt M and MAC

❍ Using another key to encrypt M only

Requirements of MAC

❍ Size of MAC: n

❍ Size of key: k

MACi

Why not Conventional Encrypt

Possible situations

❍ Broadcast a message (one destination can verify)

❍ Authentication is done selectively

❍ Authentication of computer program

❍ Authentication may be important than secrecy

❍ Architecture flexibility

❍ Authentication lasts longer than secret protection

MAC Requirements

Computationally infeasible to construct M’

such that Ck(M’)=Ck(M)

Ck(M) uniformly distributed

Data Authentication Algorithm

ANSI standard X9.17

Based on DES

Using Cipher Block Chaining mode

❍ Data is grouped into 64 bits blocks

Padding 0’s if necessary

❍ Outputi=Ek(Di⊕Outputi-1)

0<i, and Output0=0’s

❍ The data authentication code DAC consists of the

leftmost m bits of the last output, m≥16

Authentication Protocols

Central issues

❍ Confidentiality: prevent masqueraded and

compromised

❍ Timeliness: prevent replay attacks

Simple replay, repetition within timestamp, replay

arrives but not the true messages,backward replay

attack to the sender

Mutual authentication

One-way authentication

Coping with Replay

Time stamps

❍ Party A accepts a message only if has valid timestamp

within a valid time

❍ Need synchronized clock

❍ How to set the synchronized clock?

Network delay consideration?

Challenge/response

❍ Party A, (receiver), sends B a nonce (challenge) and

requires the subsequent message contains it

Challenge-Response

To ensure a password is never sent in the

clear. Given a client and a server share a

key

❍ server sends a random challenge vector

❍ client encrypts it with private key and returns this

❍ server verifies response with copy of private key

❍ can repeat protocol in other direction to authenticate

server to client (2-way authentication)

Secret key management

❍ physically distributed before secure communications

❍ keys are stored in a central trusted key server

Conventional Encryption App.

Each user shares a secret master key with

KDC (Key Distribution Center)

❍ Kerberos is an example

❍ Needham-Schroeder protocol

❍ Party A KDC Ida|Idb|Na

❍ KDCA Eka(Ks|Idb|Na|Ekb(Ks|Ida))

❍ AB Ekb(Ks|Ida)

❍ BA Eks(Nb)

❍ AB Eks(f(Nb))

Analysis

Step 4 and 5 prevent the replay of step 3

❍ Assume that Ks is not compromised

If Ks is compromised

❍ Vulnerable to replay attack

❍ Attacker can replay step 3

❍ Unless B remembers all previous session keys with A,

it can not tell that it is a replay!

Denning Protocol

Denning Protocol

❍ Party A KDC Ida|Idb

❍ KDCA Eka(Ks|Idb|T|Ekb(Ks|Ida|T))

❍ AB Ekb(Ks|Ida|T)

❍ BA Eks(Nb)

❍ AB Eks(f(Nb))

Here T is timestamp assures the freshness

of the key Ks

❍ Rely on synchronized clock

Public-key Encryption App.

The simple one proposed by Denning

❍ AS: authentication server

❍ AAS Ida|Idb

❍ ASA Ekras(KUa|Ida|T)|Ekras(Kub|Idb|T)

❍ AB Ekras(KUa|Ida|T)|Ekras(Kub|Idb|T)|

❍ Ekub(Ekra(Ks|T))

❍ It needs clock synchronization

Cont.

Protocol by Woo and Lam, using nonce

❍ AKDC Ida|Idb

❍ KDCA EKRau(Idb|KUb)

❍ AB EKUb(Na|Ida)

❍ BKDC Idb|Ida|EKUau(Na)

❍ KDCB EKRau(Ida|KUa)|EKUb(EkRau(Na|Ks|Ida|Idb))

❍ BA EKUa(EkRau(Na|Ks|Ida|Idb) | Nb)

❍ AB Eks(Nb)

One-way Authentication

Using Public Key approach

❍ If confidentiality is main concern

AB: EKUb(Ks) | Eks(M)

❍ If authentication is main concern

AB: M|EKRa(H(M))

This can not avoid the interception and replay attack

❍ Sign the message then

EKUb(M|EKRa(H(M)) )

Or EKUb(Ks) | Eks(M|EKRa(H(M)) )

Also A can sends the digital certificate EKRau(T|Ida|

KUa)

Authentication Applications

will consider authentication functions

developed to support application-level

authentication & digital signatures

will consider Kerberos – a private-key

authentication service

then X.509 directory authentication

service

Kerberos

Trusted key server system developed by

MIT

❍ Provides centralized third-party authentication in a

distributed network

❍ access control may be provided for

each computing resource

in either a local or remote network (realm)

❍ A Key Distribution Centre (KDC), containing database:

principles (customers and services)

encryption keys

❍ KDC provides non-corruptible authentication

credentials (tickets or tokens)

Kerberos

Two Kerberos versions

❍ 4 : restricted to a single realm

❍ 5 : allows inter-realm authentication, in beta test

❍ Kerberos v5 is an Internet standard specified in RFC1510

To use Kerberos

❍ need to have a KDC on your network

❍ need to have Kerberised applications running on all participating

systems

US export restrictions

❍ Cannot be directly distributed outside US in source format

❍ Crypto libraries must be re-implemented locally

Kerberos Requirements

first published report identified its

requirements as:

❍ security

❍ reliability

❍ transparency

❍ scalability

protocol based on Needham-Schroeder

Kerberos 4 Overview

a basic third-party authentication scheme

have an Authentication Server (AS)

❍ users initially negotiate with AS to identify self

❍ AS provides a non-corruptible authentication credential

(ticket granting ticket TGT)

have a Ticket Granting server (TGS)

❍ users subsequently request access to other services

from TGS on basis of users TGT

Kerberos 4 Overview

Kerberos Realms

a Kerberos environment consists of:

❍ a Kerberos server

❍ a number of clients, all registered with server

❍ application servers, sharing keys with server

❍ typically a single administrative domain

if have multiple realms, their Kerberos

servers must share keys and trust

Kerberos Version 5

developed in mid 1990’s

provides improvements over v4

❍ addresses environmental shortcomings

encryption alg, network protocol, byte order, ticket

lifetime, authentication forwarding, interrealm auth

❍ and technical deficiencies

double encryption, non-std mode of use, session keys,

password attacks

specified as Internet standard RFC 1510

Authentication Protocols

used to convince parties of each others

identity and to exchange session keys

may be one-way or mutual

key issues are

❍ confidentiality – to protect session keys

❍ timeliness – to prevent replay attacks

Replay Attacks

where a valid signed message is copied and

later resent

❍ simple replay

❍ repetition that can be logged

❍ repetition that cannot be detected

❍ backward replay without modification

countermeasures include

❍ use of sequence numbers (generally impractical)

❍ timestamps (needs synchronized clocks)

❍ challenge/response (using unique nonce)

Using Symmetric Encryption

as discussed previously can use a two-level

hierarchy of keys

usually with a trusted Key Distribution

Center (KDC)

❍ each party shares own master key with KDC

❍ KDC generates session keys used for connections

between parties

❍ master keys used to distribute these to them

Needham-Schroeder Protocol

original third-party key distribution

protocol

for session between A B mediated by KDC

protocol overview is:

1. A→KDC: IDA || IDB || N1

2. KDC→A: EKa[Ks || IDB || N1 || EKb[Ks||IDA] ]

3. A→B: EKb[Ks||IDA]

4. B→A: EKs[N2]

5. A→B: EKs[f(N2)]

Needham-Schroeder Protocol

used to securely distribute a new session

key for communications between A & B

but is vulnerable to a replay attack if an

old session key has been compromised

❍ then message 3 can be resent convincing B that is

communicating with A

modifications to address this require:

❍ timestamps (Denning 81)

❍ using an extra nonce (Neuman 93)

Using Public-Key Encryption

have a range of approaches based on the

use of public-key encryption

need to ensure have correct public keys

for other parties

using a central Authentication Server (AS)

various protocols exist using timestamps or

nonces

Denning AS Protocol

Denning 81 presented the following:

1. A→AS: IDA || IDB

2. AS→A: EKRas[IDA||KUa||T] || EKRas[IDB||KUb||T]

3. A→B: EKRas[IDA||KUa||T] || EKRas[IDB||KUb||T] ||

EKUb[EKRas[Ks||T]]

note session key is chosen by A, hence AS

need not be trusted to protect it

timestamps prevent replay but require

synchronized clocks

One-Way Authentication

required when sender & receiver are not in

communications at same time (eg. email)

have header in clear so can be delivered by

email system

may want contents of body protected &

sender authenticated

Using Symmetric Encryption

can refine use of KDC but can’t have final

exchange of nonces, vis:

1. A→KDC: IDA || IDB || N1

2. KDC→A: EKa[Ks || IDB || N1 || EKb[Ks||IDA] ]

3. A→B: EKb[Ks||IDA] || EKs[M]

does not protect against replays

❍ could rely on timestamp in message, though email

delays make this problematic

Public-Key Approaches

have seen some public-key approaches

if confidentiality is major concern, can use:

A→B: EKUb[Ks] || EKs[M]

❍ has encrypted session key, encrypted message

if authentication needed use a digital signature

with a digital certificate:

A→B: M || EKRa[H(M)] || EKRas[T||IDA||KUa]

❍ with message, signature, certificate

Differences between Authentication

and Digital Signature

Two authentications:

❍ Data authentication is comparable to stamping a document in a way disallowing all

future modifications to it. Data authentication is usually accompanied with

❍ data origin authentication that bounds a concrete person to this document

Digital signature is a cryptographic technique that enables to

protect digital information (represented as a bit-stream) from

undesirable modification. Since signature cannot just be appended

to a digital bitstream, more sophisticated methods (also known as

signatures schemes) for signing have been elaborated.

Signature scheme is a function Sig of a key pair (SA,VA) and a

bitstring M, such that

❍ for anyone who knows the secret key SA, it is easy to compute for any plaintext M

the signature C=Sig(PA,M).

❍ for anyone who knows VA (the public key), C and M, it is easy to verify if

C=Sig(SA,M).

❍ for a randomly chosen C, it is intractable for anyone who does not know SA to find

a value M for which C=Sig(SA,M).

Cryptography and Network

Security

Hash Algorithms

Xiang-Yang Li

Hash Function

Map a message to a smaller value

Requirements

❍ Be applied to a block of data of any size

❍ Produced a fixed length output

❍ H(x) is easy to compute (by hardware, software)

❍ One-way: given code h, it is computationally infeasible

to find x: H(x)=h

❍ Weak collision resistance: given x, computationally

infeasible to find y so H(x)=H(y)

❍ Strong collision resistance: Computationally

infeasible to find x, y so H(x)=H(y)

Cryptography and Network Security 372

Hash Algorithms

see similarities in the evolution of hash

functions & block ciphers

❍ increasing power of brute-force attacks

❍ leading to evolution in algorithms

❍ from DES to AES in block ciphers

❍ from MD4 & MD5 to SHA-1 & RIPEMD-160 in hash

algorithms

likewise tend to use common iterative

structure as do block ciphers

Basic Uses of Hash Function

Six basics usages

❍ Ek(M||H(M))

Confidentiality and authentication

❍ M|| Ek(H(M))

Authentication

❍ M|| EKRa(H(M))

Authentication and digital signature

❍ Ek(M|| EKRa(H(M)))

Authentication, digital signature and confidentiality

❍ M||H(M||S)

Authentication (S shared by both sides)

❍ Ek(M||H(M||S))

Confidentiality and authentication

Cryptography and Network Security 374

Birthday Attacks

If 64-bits hash code is used

❍ On average, how many messages need to try to find one

match the intercepted hash code?

Birthday paradox

❍ A will sign a message appended with m-bits hash code

❍ Attacker generates some variations of fraud message,

also variations of good message

❍ Find pair of message each from the two sets messages

Such that they have the same hash code

❍ Give good message to A to get signature

❍ Replace good message with fraud message

Analysis

Using birthday attack, given 64-bits hash

code

❍ How many message variations needed so the success

probability is large, say 90%?

Examples

Simple hash functions

❍ XOR of the input message

H(M)=X1⊕ X2⊕ …⊕ Xm-1⊕ Xm

❍ But not secure

Ym=H(M) ⊕ Y1⊕ Y2⊕ …⊕ Ym-1 has same hash value as

(X1X2 … Xm-1 Xm), where Yi is any value

Cont.

Based on DES, block chaining technique

❍ Rabin, 1978

Assume total n data blocks

❍ H0=initial value

❍ Hi=Emi[Hi-1]

❍ Hn is the hash value

Birthday attack still applies

❍ If still 64-bits code used

More Attacks

Birthday attack applied if chosen plaintext

Meet in the middle attack if known

plaintext

❍ Known signed hash code G

❍ Construct n-2 desired message block Qi

❍ Compute Hi=EQi[Hi-1]

❍ Generate 2m/2 random blocks X

For each X, Compute Hn-1=EX[Hn-2]

❍ Generate 2m/2 random blocks Y

For each Y, Compute H’n-1=DY[G]

❍ Find X, Y such that Hn-1= H’n-1

❍ Then Q1, Q2,…Qn-2, X,Y is a fraud message

Cryptography and Network Security 379

Security

The size of hash code determines security

❍ 128bits is not secure

❍ Currently, most use 160 bits hash code

Now recommend 256 bits

Attack MAC

❍ Objective is to find valid (x, Ck(x)) pair

❍ Attack the MAC value

More Hash Algorithms

Algorithms

❍ Message Digest:MD5 (was mostly widely used)

❍ Secure Hash Algorithm: SHA-1 (from MD4)

❍ RIPEMD-160

❍ HMAC

MD5

designed by Ronald Rivest (the R in RSA)

latest in a series of MD2, MD4

produces a 128-bit hash value

until recently was the most widely used

hash algorithm

❍ in recent times have both brute-force & cryptanalytic

concerns

specified as Internet standard RFC1321

MD5 Overview

1. pad message so its length is 448 mod 512

2. append a 64-bit length value to message

3. initialise 4-word (128-bit) MD buffer

(A,B,C,D)

4. process message in 16-word (512-bit)

blocks:

❍ using 4 rounds of 16 bit operations on message block

& buffer

❍ add output to buffer input to form new buffer value

5. output hash value is the final buffer value

MD5 Overview

MD5 Compression Function

each round has 16 steps of the form:

a = b+((a+g(b,c,d)+X[k]+T[i])<<<s)

a,b,c,d refer to the 4 words of the buffer,

but used in varying permutations

❍ note this updates 1 word only of the buffer

❍ after 16 steps each word is updated 4 times

function in each round (F,G,H,I)

T[i] is a constant value derived from sin

MD5 Compression Function

MD4

precursor to MD5

also produces a 128-bit hash of message

has 3 rounds of 16 steps vs 4 in MD5

design goals:

❍ collision resistant (hard to find collisions)

❍ direct security (no dependence on "hard" problems)

❍ fast, simple, compact

❍ favours little-endian systems (eg PCs)

Strength of MD5

MD5 hash is dependent on all message bits

Rivest claims security is good as can be

known attacks are:

❍ Berson 92 attacked any 1 round using differential

cryptanalysis (but can’t extend)

❍ Boer & Bosselaers 93 found a pseudo collision (again

unable to extend)

❍ Dobbertin 96 created collisions on MD compression

function (but initial constants prevent exploit)

conclusion is that MD5 looks vulnerable

soon

Cryptography and Network Security 388

Bad news

Chinese authors (Wang, Feng, Lai, and Yu) reported a

family of collisions in MD5

❍ (fixing the previous bug in their analysis), and also reported

that their method can efficiently (2^40 hash steps) find a

collision in SHA-0.

❍ August Crypto 2004,

MD5 is fatally wounded; its use will be phased out.

SHA-1 is still alive but the vultures are circling. A

gradual transition away from SHA-1 will now start.

The first stage will be a debate about alternatives,

leading to a consensus among practicing

cryptographers about what the substitute will be.

Why collisions are bad

An example of what you might do with this.

❍ You could request an SSL certificate (for your real identity)

from a certificate authority. After the response comes back,

you can then use that response (which is based on the MD5

of your identity+key) to "authenticate" a carefully chosen

different certificate, one which claims that you are

LargeBankOrSoftwareCorp., but which has the same MD5 as

your real identity. You can then present this to other people

in order to convince them that you are someone whom you

are not.

Another example,

❍ core internet routers use md5 to exchange passwords. I

simply sniff the md5sum, and if I can find a string that

generates the same sum, easily, I can send my own routing

update that takes down the internet. More examples, since a

LOT of applications use md5, but you get the idea.

Cryptography and Network Security 390

Further detail

Obviously the above attack isn't quite so simple, but

this research makes it *possible*. Before, it was

believed to be sufficiently difficult to find a collision,

that nobody worried about it. Now they are saying its

feasible to do it in hours.

The question hanging around right now is that these

researchers managed to find collisions easily, but not

for an artbitrary string. The questions is how long

before someone modifies this method to find any

colllision. That is how much time the world has to

move away.

More at

❍ http://www.freedom-to-tinker.com/archives/000664.html

What to do next

The U.S. National Institute of Standards

and Technology is having a competition for

a new cryptographic hash function.

The phrase "one-way hash function" might

sound arcane and geeky, but hash functions

are the workhorses of modern

cryptography.

Submissions will be due in fall 2008, and a

single standard is scheduled to be chosen

by the end of 2011.

we have an interim solution in SHA-256.

Cryptography and Network Security 392

Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA-1)

SHA was designed by NIST & NSA in

1993, revised 1995 as SHA-1

US standard for use with DSA signature

scheme

❍ standard is FIPS 180-1 1995, also Internet RFC3174

❍ nb. the algorithm is SHA, the standard is SHS

produces 160-bit hash values

now the generally preferred hash algorithm

based on design of MD4 with key

differences

SHA Overview

1. pad message so its length is 448 mod 512

2. append a 64-bit length value to message

3. initialise 5-word (160-bit) buffer (A,B,C,D,E)

to

(67452301,efcdab89,98badcfe,10325476,c3d2e1f0)

4. process message in 16-word (512-bit)

chunks:

❍ expand 16 words into 80 words by mixing & shifting

❍ use 4 rounds of 20 bit operations on message block &

buffer

❍ add output to input to form new buffer value

5. output hash value is the final buffer value

Cryptography and Network Security 394

SHA-1 Compression Function

each round has 20 steps which replaces the

5 buffer words thus:

(A,B,C,D,E) <-

(E+f(t,B,C,D)+(A<<5)+Wt+Kt),A,(B<<30),C,D)

t is the step number

f(t,B,C,D) is nonlinear function for round

Wt is derived from the message block

Kt is a constant value derived from sin

SHA-1 Compression Function

SHA-1 verses MD5

brute force attack is harder (160 vs 128

bits for MD5)

not vulnerable to any known attacks

(compared to MD4/5)

a little slower than MD5 (80 vs 64 steps)

both designed as simple and compact

optimised for big endian CPU's (vs MD5

which is optimised for little endian CPU’s)

Revised Secure Hash Standard

NIST have issued a revision FIPS 180-2

adds 3 additional hash algorithms

SHA-256, SHA-384, SHA-512

designed for compatibility with increased

security provided by the AES cipher

structure & detail is similar to SHA-1

hence analysis should be similar

RIPEMD-160

RIPEMD-160 was developed in Europe as part of

RIPE project in 96

by researchers involved in attacks on MD4/5

initial proposal strengthen following analysis to

become RIPEMD-160

somewhat similar to MD5/SHA

uses 2 parallel lines of 5 rounds of 16 steps

creates a 160-bit hash value

slower, but probably more secure, than SHA

RIPEMD-160 Overview

1. pad message so its length is 448 mod 512

2. append a 64-bit length value to message

3. initialise 5-word (160-bit) buffer (A,B,C,D,E) to

(67452301,efcdab89,98badcfe,10325476,c3d2e1f0)

4. process message in 16-word (512-bit) chunks:

❍ use 10 rounds of 16 bit operations on message block & buffer –

in 2 parallel lines of 5

❍ add output to input to form new buffer value

5. output hash value is the final buffer value

RIPEMD-160 Round

RIPEMD-160 Compression Function

RIPEMD-160 Design Criteria

use 2 parallel lines of 5 rounds for

increased complexity

for simplicity the 2 lines are very similar

step operation very close to MD5

permutation varies parts of message used

circular shifts designed for best results

RIPEMD-160 verses MD5 & SHA-1

vs 128 bits for MD5)

not vulnerable to known attacks, like SHA-1

though stronger (compared to MD4/5)

slower than MD5 (more steps)

all designed as simple and compact

SHA-1 optimised for big endian CPU's vs

RIPEMD-160 & MD5 optimised for little

endian CPU’s

Keyed Hash Functions as MACs

function rather than a block cipher

❍ because hash functions are generally faster

❍ not limited by export controls unlike block ciphers

original proposal:

KeyedHash = Hash(Key|Message)

❍ some weaknesses were found with this

HMAC

specified as Internet standard RFC2104

uses hash function on the message:

HMACK = Hash[(K+ XOR opad) ||

Hash[(K+ XOR ipad)||M)]]

where K+ is the key padded out to size

and opad, ipad are specified padding constants

overhead is just 3 more hash calculations than the

message needs alone

any of MD5, SHA-1, RIPEMD-160 can be used

HMAC Overview

HMAC Security

know that the security of HMAC relates to

that of the underlying hash algorithm

attacking HMAC requires either:

❍ brute force attack on key used

❍ birthday attack (but since keyed would need to observe

a very large number of messages)

choose hash function used based on speed

verses security constraints

Summary

have considered:

❍ some current hash algorithms: MD5, SHA-1, RIPEMD-

160

❍ HMAC authentication using hash function

Cryptography and Network

Security

Digital Signature

Xiang-Yang Li

Digital Signature

Digital Signatures

have looked at message authentication

❍ but does not address issues of lack of trust

❍ verify author, date & time of signature

❍ authenticate message contents

❍ be verified by third parties to resolve disputes

additional capabilities

Digital Signature Properties

must depend on the message signed

must use information unique to sender

❍ to prevent both forgery and denial

must be relatively easy to recognize & verify

be computationally infeasible to forge

❍ with new message for existing digital signature

❍ with fraudulent digital signature for given message

Securities

A total break results in the recovery of

the signing key.

A universal forgery attack results in the

ability to forge signatures for any

message.

A selective forgery attack results in a

signature on a message of the

adversary's choice.

An existential forgery merely results in

some valid message/signature pair not

already known to the adversary.

Cryptography and Network Security 414

Classification of Digital Signature

Undeniable

Fail-Stop

Blind

One-time

Multi-party (group signature)

(n,k)-multi-party

Oblivious

Multi-undeniable

Algorithm and legal concerns

several prior requirements

❍ quality algorithms. Some public key algorithms are known to be

insecure, practicable attacks against them having been identified.

❍ quality implementations. An implementation of a good algorithm with

mistake(s) will not work. (about 1 defect per 1,000 lines).

❍ the private key must remain actually secret; if it becomes known to

some other party, that party can produce perfect digital signatures of

anything whatsoever.

❍ distribution of public keys must be done in such a way that the public

key claimed to belong to Bob actually belongs to Bob, and vice versa.

This is commonly done using a public key infrastructure and the public

key user association is attested by the operator of the PKI (called a

certificate authority). For 'open' PKIs in which anyone can request

such an attestation, the possibility of mistake is non trivial.

❍ users (and their software) must carry out the signature protocol

properly.

❍ Legal concerns

Cryptography and Network Security 416

Direct Digital Signatures

involve only sender & receiver

assumed receiver has sender’s public-key

digital signature made by sender signing

entire message or hash with private-key

can encrypt using receivers public-key

important that sign first then encrypt

message & signature

security depends on sender’s private-key

Arbitrated Digital Signatures

involves use of arbiter A

❍ validates any signed message

❍ then dated and sent to recipient

can be implemented with either private or

public-key algorithms

arbiter may or may not see message

RSA signature

N=p q,where p and q are large primes

Alice’s private key (e,n),

Alice’s public key (d,n)

❍ S=H(m)e mod n

❍ Check if h(m) = Sd mod n

From wikipedia

Cryptography and Network Security 420

Cont.

Typically d is chosen small (3 or 216+1)

Problem:

❍ Easy to create the signature of h(m1)h(m2)

RSA-PSS

❍ Use some more randomization to enhance security

❍ It was added in version 2.1 of PKCS #1 (see RFC 3447

).

ElGamal Signature

Global public components

❍ Prime number p with 512-1024 bits

❍ Primitive element g in Zp

❍ Random integer x less than p

❍ Integer y=gx mod p

Elgamal

Signature

❍ For each message M, generates random k

❍ Computes r=gk mod p

❍ Computes s=k-1(H(M)-xr) mod (p-1)

❍ Signature is (r,s)

Verifying

❍ Computes v1=gH(M) mod p

❍ Computes v2=yrrs mod p

❍ Test if v1= v2

Proof of Correctness

Computes v2=yrrs mod q

❍ So v2=yrrs mod q =gxr gks mod p

❍ = gxr+k k-1(H(M)-xr) mod (p-1) mod p

❍ =gH(M) mod p=v1

That g (H(M)-xr) mod (p-1) mod p = g (H(M)-xr) mod p

Cont.

The main disadvantage of ElGamal is

❍ the need for randomness (sometimes it is good), and

❍ its slower speed (especially for signing).

❍ Another potential disadvantage of the ElGamal system

is that message expansion by a factor of two takes place

during encryption. However, such message expansion

is negligible if the cryptosystem is used only for

exchange of secret keys.

Digital Signature Standard

FIPS PUB 186 by NIST, 1991

Final announcement 1994

It uses

❍ Secure Hashing Algorithm (SHA) for hashing

❍ Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) for signature

❍ The hash code is set as input of DSA

❍ The signature consists of two numbers

DSA

❍ Based on the difficulty of discrete logarithm

❍ Based on Elgamal and Schnorr system

DSA

Global public components

❍ Prime number p with 512-1024 bits

❍ Prime divisor q of (p-1) with 160 bits

❍ Integer g=h(p-1)/q mod p

❍ Random integer x less than q

Users public key

❍ Integer y=gx mod p

DSA

Signature

❍ For each message M, generates random k

❍ Computes r=(gk mod p) mod q

❍ Computes s=k-1(H(M)+xr) mod q

❍ Signature is (r,s)

Verifying

❍ Computes w=s-1 mod q, u1=H(M)w mod q

❍ Computes u2=rw mod q,v=(gu1yu2 mod p) mod q

❍ Test if v=r

Proof of Correctness

Notice that v=(gu1yu2 mod p) mod q

❍ =(gH(M)w mod q yrw mod q mod p) mod q

❍ =(gH(M)w mod q gxrw mod q mod p) mod q

❍ =(gH(M)w +xrw mod q mod p) mod q

❍ =(g(H(M)+xr)w mod q mod p) mod q

❍ =(g(H(M)+xr)k(H(M)+xr)-1 mod q mod p) mod q

❍ =(gk mod p) mod q

❍ =r

In practice (Sun Java Library)

❍ g = F7E1A085D69B3DDE CBBCAB5C36B857B9

7994AFBBFA3AEA82 F9574C0B3D078267

5159578EBAD4594F E67107108180B449

167123E84C281613 B7CF09328CC8A6E1

3C167A8B547C8D28 E0A3AE1E2BB3A675

916EA37F0BFA2135 62F1FB627A01243B

CCA4F1BEA8519089 A883DFE15AE59F06

928B665E807B5525 64014C3BFECF492A

❍ p = FD7F53811D751229 52DF4A9C2EECE4E7

F611B7523CEF4400 C31E3F80B6512669

455D402251FB593D 8D58FABFC5F5BA30

F6CB9B556CD7813B 801D346FF26660B7

6B9950A5A49F9FE8 047B1022C24FBBA9

D7FEB7C61BF83B57 E7C6A8A6150F04FB

83F6D3C51EC30235 54135A169132F675

F3AE2B61D72AEFF2 2203199DD14801C7

❍ q = 9760508F15230BCC B292B982A2EB840B F0581CF5

❍ Here g and p have 1024 bits, while q has 160 bits. They fulfill the

requirement that gq = 1 mod p, Cryptography and Network Security 430

Note

Can we use the random number k twice?

❍ What will happen if k used twice?

❍ We have r=(gk mod p) mod q

Another attack (for OpenPGP)

❍ Replace p and g

❍ http://www.tigertools.net/board/?topic=topic4&msg=14

❍ http://www.orlingrabbe.com/DSAflaw_OpenPGP.htm

Cont.

We cannot use small k

Non-deterministic

Non-determined signatures

❍ For each message, many valid signatures exist

❍ DSA, Elgamal

Deterministic signatures

❍ For each message, one valid signature exists

❍ RSA

Comparisons

Speed

❍ DSS has faster signing than verifying

❍ RSA could have faster verifying than signing

❍ Message be signed once, but verified many times

This prefers the faster verification

❍ But the signer may have limited computing power

Example: smart card

This prefers the faster siging

Blind Signature (digital cash)

first introduced by Chaum, allow a person to get a

message signed by another party without revealing any

information about the message to the other party.

Suppose Alice has a message m that she wishes to have

signed by Bob, and she does not want Bob to learn

anything about m.

❍ Let (n,e) be Bob's public key and (n,d) be his private key.

❍ Alice generates a random value r such that gcd(r, n) = 1 and sends x = (re

m) mod n to Bob. The value x is ``blinded'' by the random value r; hence

Bob can derive no useful information from it.

❍ Bob returns the signed value t = xd mod n to Alice.

❍ Since xd≡ (re m)d ≡ r md mod n,

❍ Alice can obtain the true signature s of m by computing

s = r-1 t mod n.

Security Concerns

GnuPG permits creating ElGamal keys

❍ are usable for both encryption and signing.

❍ It is even possible to have one key (the primary

one) used for both operations.

❍ This is not considered good cryptographic

practice, but is permitted by the OpenPGP

standard.

signature is much larger than a RSA or DSA

signature

❍ verification and creation takes far longer and

the use of ElGamal for signing has always been

problematic due to a couple

Cryptographyof

andcryptographic

Network Security 436

Applications of Blind Signature

In an online context the blind signature works as

follows.

❍ Voters encrypt their ballot with a secret key and then blinds it.

❍ Then the voter signs the encrypted vote and sends it to the

validator.

❍ The validator checks to see if the signature is valid (the signature

acts as a I.D. tag and will have to be registered with the voter

before the voting process has started) and if it is the validator signs

it and returns it to the voter.

❍ The voter removes the blinding encryption layer, which then

leaves behind an encrypted ballot with the validator's signature.

Cont.

This is then sent to the tallier who checks to make

sure the validator's signature is present on the

votes.

He then waits until all votes haven been collected and

then publishes all the encrypted votes so that the

voters can verify their votes have been received.

The voters then send their keys to the tallier to

decrypt their ballots.

Once the vote has been counted the tallier publishes

the encrypted votes and the decryption keys so that

voters can then verify the results.

Next we illustrate the transfer of ballots between

the various parties.

Cryptography and Network Security 438

Cont.

Cont,

This protocol has been implemented used in reality

and has been found that the entire voting process

can be completed in a matter of minutes despite

the complex nature of the voting procedure.

Most of the tasks can be automated with the only

user interaction needed being the actual vote

casting.

Encryption, blinding and all the verification needed

can be performed by software in the background.

Of course we'd have to trust this software to

handle the voting procedures correctly and

accurately and to assume it has not been

compromised in some way.

Cryptography and Network Security 440

Cryptography and Network Security

Certificate

Xiang-Yang Li

Certificate

A public-key certificate is a digitally

signed statement from one entity, saying

that the public key (and some other

information) of another entity has some

specific value.

More terms

Digitally Signed

❍ If some data is digitally signed it has been stored with

the "identity" of an entity, and a signature that proves

that entity knows about the data. The data is rendered

unforgeable by signing with the entitys' private key.

Identity

❍ A known way of addressing an entity. In some systems

the identity is the public key, in others it can be anything

from a Unix UID to an Email address to an X.509

Distinguished Name.

Entity

❍ An entity is a person, organization, program, computer,

business, bank, or something else you are trusting to

some degree.

More about CA

Why need it

❍ In a large-scale networked environment it is impossible to

guarantee that prior relationships between communicating entities

have been established or that a trusted repository exists with all

used public keys. Certificates were invented as a solution to this

public key distribution problem. Now a Certification Authority

(CA) can act as a Trusted Third Party. CAs are entities (e.g.,

businesses) that are trusted to sign (issue) certificates for other

entities. It is assumed that CAs will only create valid and reliable

certificates as they are bound by legal agreements. There are many

public Certification Authorities, such as VeriSign, Thawte, Entrust

, and so on. You can also run your own Certification Authority

using products such as the Netscape/Microsoft Certificate Servers

or the Entrust CA product for your organization.

Who uses Certificate?

Probably the most widely visible application of

X.509 certificates today is in web browsers (such

as Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet

Explorer) that support the SSL protocol.

❍ SSL (Secure Socket Layer) is a security protocol that provides

privacy and authentication for your network traffic. These

browsers can only use this protocol with web servers that support

SSL.

Other technologies that rely on X.509

certificates include:

❍ Various code-signing schemes, such as signed Java Archives, and

Microsoft Authenticode.

❍ Various secure E-Mail standards, such as PEM and S/MIME.

❍ E-Commerce protocols, such as SET.

How to create certificate?

There are two basic techniques used to get

certificates:

❍ you can create one yourself (using the right tools, such as keytool)

Not everyone will accept self-signed certificates,

❍ you can ask a Certification Authority to issue you one (either directly or

using a tool such as keytool to generate the request).

The main inputs to the certificate creation are:

❍ Matched public and private keys, generated using some special tools

(such as keytool), or a browser.

❍ information about the entity being certified (e.g., you). This normally

includes information such as your name and organizational address. If

you ask a CA to issue a certificate for you, you will normally need to

provide proof to show correctness of the information.

business

Many companies sale the service of

creating the certificate (such as SSL

certificate)

❍ Comodo

❍ Verisign

❍ Thawte

❍ Entrust

❍ Geotrust

X.509 Authentication Service

Public key certificate associated with user

❍ The certificates are created by Trusted Authority

❍ Then placed in the directory by TA or user

❍ Itself is not responsible for creating certificate

❍ It includes

Version, serial number, signature algorithm identifier,

Issuer name, issuer identifier, validity period, the

user, user identifier, user’s public key, extensions,

signature by TA

❍ The signature by TA guarantees the authority

❍ Certificates can be used to certify other TAs

❍ Y<<X>>: certificate of user X issued by TA Y

What is inside X.509 certificate?

Version

❍ Thus far, three versions are defined.

Serial Number

❍ distinguish it from other certificates it issues. This

information is used in numerous ways, for example when a

certificate is revoked its serial number is placed in a

Certificate Revocation List (CRL).

Signature Algorithm Identifier

❍ This identifies the algorithm used by the CA to sign the

certificate.

Issuer Name

❍ The X.500 name of the entity that signed the certificate.

This is normally a CA. Using this certificate implies trusting

the entity that signed this certificate. root or top-level CA

certificates, the issuer signs its own certificate.

Cryptography and Network Security 449

cont

Validity Period

❍ This period is described by a start date and time and an end

date and time, and can be as short as a few seconds or

almost as long as a century. It depends on a number of

factors, such as the strength of the private key used to sign

the certificate or the amount one is willing to pay for a

certificate. This is the expected period that entities can

rely on the public value, if the associated private key has not

been compromised.

Subject Name

❍ The name of the entity whose public key the certificate

identifies. This name uses the X.500 standard, so it is

intended to be unique across the Internet.

Subject Public Key Information

❍ together with an algorithm identifier

Certificate Revocation

Need the private key together with the

certificate to revoke it

The revocation is recorded at the

directory

Each time a certificate is arrived, check

the directory to see if it is revoked

X.509 Authentication Service

part of CCITT X.500 directory service standards

❍ distributed servers maintaining some info database

❍ directory may store public-key certificates

❍ with public key of user

❍ signed by certification authority

also defines authentication protocols

uses public-key crypto & digital signatures

❍ algorithms not standardised, but RSA recommended

X.509 Certificates

issued by a Certification Authority (CA), containing:

❍ version (1, 2, or 3)

❍ serial number (unique within CA) identifying certificate

❍ signature algorithm identifier

❍ issuer X.500 name (CA)

❍ period of validity (from - to dates)

❍ subject X.500 name (name of owner)

❍ subject public-key info (algorithm, parameters, key)

❍ issuer unique identifier (v2+)

❍ subject unique identifier (v2+)

❍ extension fields (v3)

❍ signature (of hash of all fields in certificate)

notation CA<<A>> denotes certificate for A signed by CA

X.509 Certificates

Obtaining a Certificate

any user with access to CA can get any

certificate from it

only the CA can modify a certificate

because cannot be forged, certificates can

be placed in a public directory

CA Hierarchy

if both users share a common CA then they

are assumed to know its public key

otherwise CA's must form a hierarchy

use certificates linking members of

hierarchy to validate other CA's

❍ each CA has certificates for clients (forward) and

parent (backward)

each client trusts parents certificates

enable verification of any certificate from

one CA by users of all other CAs in

hierarchy

Cryptography and Network Security 456

CA Hierarchy Use

Certificate Revocation

certificates have a period of validity

may need to revoke before expiry, eg:

1. user's private key is compromised

2. user is no longer certified by this CA

3. CA's certificate is compromised

CA’s maintain list of revoked certificates

❍ the Certificate Revocation List (CRL)

users should check certs with CA’s CRL

Authentication Procedures

X.509 includes three alternative

authentication procedures:

One-Way Authentication

Two-Way Authentication

Three-Way Authentication

all use public-key signatures

One-Way Authentication

1 message ( A->B) used to establish

❍ the identity of A and that message is from A

❍ message was intended for B

❍ integrity & originality of message

B's identity and is signed by A

Two-Way Authentication

2 messages (A->B, B->A) which also

establishes in addition:

❍ the identity of B and that reply is from B

❍ that reply is intended for A

❍ integrity & originality of reply

timestamp and nonce from B

Three-Way Authentication

3 messages (A->B, B->A, A->B) which

enables above authentication without

synchronized clocks

has reply from A back to B containing

signed copy of nonce from B

means that timestamps need not be

checked or relied upon

X.509 Version 3

has been recognised that additional

information is needed in a certificate

❍ email/URL, policy details, usage constraints

rather than explicitly naming new fields

defined a general extension method

extensions consist of:

❍ extension identifier

❍ criticality indicator

❍ extension value

Certificate Extensions

key and policy information

❍ convey info about subject & issuer keys, plus indicators

of certificate policy

certificate subject and issuer attributes

❍ support alternative names, in alternative formats for

certificate subject and/or issuer

certificate path constraints

❍ allow constraints on use of certificates by other CA’s

Cryptography and Network Security

Identification

Xiang-Yang Li

Identification

❍ convince system of your identity

❍ before it can act on your behalf

❍ sometimes also require that the computer verify its identity with

the user

Based on three methods

❍ what you know

❍ what you have

❍ what you are

Verification

❍ Validation of information supplied against a table of possible

values based on users claimed identity

Cryptography and Network Security 466

What you Know

Passwords or Pass-phrases

❍ prompt user for a login name and password

❍ verify identity by checking that password is correct

❍ on some (older) systems, password was stored clear

❍ more often use a one-way function, whose output

cannot easily be used to find the input value

❍ either takes a fixed sized input (eg 8 chars)

❍ or based on a hash function to accept a variable sized

input to create the value

❍ important that passwords are selected with care to

reduce risk of exhaustive search

Cryptography and Network Security 467

Weakness

Traditional password scheme is vulnerable

to eavesdropping over an insecure network

Solutions?

One-time password

❍ these are passwords used once only

❍ future values cannot be predicted from older values

Password generation

❍ either generate a printed list, and keep matching list on

system to be accessed

❍ or use an algorithm based on a one-way function f (eg

MD5) to generate previous values in series (eg SKey)

start with a secret password s, and number N , p0 =

fN(s)

ith password in series is pi = fN-i(s)

❍ must reset password after N uses

Cryptography and Network Security 469

What you Have

Magnetic Card, Magnetic Key

❍ possess item with required code value encoded

❍ may interact with system

❍ may require information from user

❍ could be used to actively calculate:

❍ a time dependent password

❍ a one-shot password

❍ a challenge-response verification

❍ public-key based verification

What you Are

Verify identity based on your physical

characteristics, known as biometrics

Characteristics used include:

❍ Signature (usually dynamic)

❍ Fingerprint, hand geometry

❍ face or body profile

❍ Speech, retina pattern

Tradeoff between

❍ false rejection (type I error)

❍ false acceptance (type II error)

Cryptography and Network Security

Secret Sharing

Xiang-Yang Li

Threshold Scheme

A (t,w)-threshold scheme

❍ Sharing key K among a set of w users

❍ Any t users can recover the key

❍ Any t-1 users can not do so

Schemes

❍ Shamir’s scheme

❍ Geometric techniques

❍ Matroid theory

Information Theory

The secret sharing is as large as the original

secret

❍ This result is based in information theory, but can be understood

intuitively. Given t-1 shares, no information whatsoever can be

determined about the secret. Thus, the final share must contain as

much information as the secret itself.

All secret sharing schemes use random bits.

❍ To distribute a one-bit secret among threshold t people, t-1 random

bits are necessary. The final share contains as much information as

the secret, but the other t-1 shares still provide relevant

information individually. This information cannot be the secret, so

it must be random.

Shamir’s Scheme

Initialization phase

❍ Dealer chooses a large prime number p

Share distribution of key k from Zp

❍ Dealer choose t-1 random number ai

❍ Dealer computes yi=f(xi)

Here f(x)=k+Σajxj mod p

❍ Dealer gives share yi to person pi

Geometry View

Simple (t,t) Sharing

Procedure

❍ D secretly chooses t-1 random elements yi from Zn

❍ D computes

Value yt=K- Σyj mod n

❍ D distributes yi to person pi for all i

It is secure and easy

❍ Number n can be any number

❍ Easy to recover the key

Blakley's Scheme

Secret is a point in an t-dimensional space

Dealer gives each user a hyper-plane

passing the secret point

Any t users can recover the common point

Geometry View

Avoid Cheating

Two major distinct weaknesses

❍ Bogus values are undetectable.

❍ Participants need not reveal their true share.

would not necessarily give any information

about the true value

One participant did not reveal its true

value after get the true values from other

one

Ben-Or/Rabin Solution

Using Checking Vectors

For any two participants A and B

❍ Dealer gives A (SA, YAB)

❍ Here CAB = BAB YAB+ SA mod p

❍ SA is the secret share of A

❍ A and B keep their values secret

❍ B can use (BAB, CAB) to verify the value (SA, YAB) of A

Avoid Cheating

Participant B can send A bogus value after

receive A’s value

Solution: bit transfer

❍ Dealer gives A (SAi, YABi)

❍ Dealer gives B (BABi, CABi)

❍ Here CABi = BABi YABi+ SAi mod p

❍ SAi is the ith bit of the secret share of A

Cont.

Protocol

❍ Participant A gives its value (SAi, YABi) to B

❍ B then sends its value (SBi, YBAi) to A

❍ A verifies: CBAi = BBAi YBAi+ SBi mod p

❍ The protocol terminates whenever

One side detects cheating, or

All values transferred

Chinese Remainder Theorem

Given a number m<n, and n=n1n2…nk,

❍ Numbers ni and nj are coprimes

❍ Let ai=m mod ni

❍ Number n is public

❍ Dealer delivers ai and ni to the ith participant

Why it is not a good secret sharing

scheme?

❍ Is it computationally for any k-1 users to recover the

key if n is large?

Cryptography and Network Security 484

Recover method

Each user pre-computes

❍ Ni=n/ni

❍ Compute the product si=aiNiyi mod n

Recover the secret m

❍ Each user submits si

Access Structure

Threshold scheme allows any t users to

recover key!

Access structure allows some subsets to

recover the key!

❍ Example: {{p1,p2,p4},{p1,p3,p4},{p2,p3}} among

p1,p2,p3,p4,p5 able to recover the key

❍ Assume the accessing subset is minimized

No subset of any accessing subset is able to recover

Monotone Circuit

Assign sharing for each accessing subset

p1 p2 p3 p4

c1 k-c

1

a1 a2

b2 k-b1-b2

b1

k-a1-a2

∧ ∧ ∧

k k

k

∨

k

Cryptography and Network Security 487

Cont.

Distribution

❍ (a1,b1) to p1

❍ (a2,c1) to p2

❍ (k-c1,b2) to p3

❍ (k-a1-a2,k-b1-b2) to p4

The sharer needs know

❍ The circuit used by dealer

❍ Which shares corresponding to which wires

The shared value is secret

Visual Secret Sharing

There is a secret picture to be shared

among n participants.

❍ The picture is divided into n transparencies (shares)

such that

❍ if any m transparencies are placed together, the picture

becomes visible

❍ but if fewer than m transparencies are placed together,

nothing can be seen.

Visual Secret Sharing

Such a scheme is constructed by viewing

the secret picture as a set of black and

white pixels and handling each pixel

separately.

❍ The schemes are perfectly secure and easily

implemented without any cryptographic computation.

A further improvement allows each

transparency (share) to be an innocent

picture

❍ For example, a picture of a landscape or a picture of a

building

❍ thus concealing the fact of secret sharing

Interactive Proof

Interactive proof is a protocol between

two parties in which one party, called the

prover, tries to prove a certain fact to the

other party, called the verifier

Often takes the form of a challenge-

response protocol

cont

protocol in which one or more provers try

to convince another party, called the

verifier, that the prover(s) possess certain

true knowledge, such as the membership of

a string x in a given language, often with

the goal of revealing no further details

about this knowledge. The prover(s) and

verifier are formally defined as

probabilistic Turing machines with special

"interaction tapes" for exchanging

messages.

Cryptography and Network Security 492

Desired Properties

Desired properties of interactive proofs

❍ Completeness: The verifier always accepts the proof if

the prover knows the fact and both the prover and the

verifier follow the protocol.

❍ Soundness: Verifier always rejects the proof if prover

doesnot know the fact, and verifier follows protocol.

❍ Zero knowledge: The verifier learns nothing about the

fact being proved (except that it is correct) from the

prover that he could not already learn without the

prover. In a zero-knowledge proof, the verifier cannot

even later prove the fact to anyone else.

Typical Protocol

A typical round in a zero-knowledge proof

consists of a "commitment" message from the

prover, followed by a challenge from the

verifier, and then a response to the challenge

from the prover. The protocol may be

repeated for many rounds. Based on the

prover's responses in all the rounds, the

verifier decides whether to accept or reject

the proof.

An example

Ali Baba’s Cave

Cont.

Alice wants to prove to Bob that

❍ she knows the secret words to open the portal at CD

❍ but does not wish to reveal the secret to Bob.

❍ In this scenario, Alice’s commitment is to go to C or D.

Proof Protocol

A typical round in the proof proceeds as

follows:

❍ Bob goes to A, waits there while Alice goes to C or D.

❍ Bob then asks Alice to appear from either the right side

or the left side of the tunnel.

❍ If Alice does not know the secret words

there is only a 50 percent chance that she will come

out from the right tunnel.

❍ Bob will repeat this round as many times as he desires

until he is certain that Alice knows the secret words.

❍ No matter how many times that the proof repeats, Bob

does not learn the secret words.

Graph Isomorphism

Problem Instance

❍ Two graphs G1=(V1,E1) and G2=(V2,E2)

Question

❍ Is there a bijection f from V1 to V2, so (u,v)∈E1 implies

that (f(u),f(v))∈E2

❍ If such bijection exists, then graphs G1 and G2 are said

to be isomorphic

❍ If such bijection does not exist, then graphs G1 and G2

are said to be non-isomorphic

Graph Non-isomorphism

Input: graphs G1 and G2 over {1,2,…n}

Prover want to prove

❍ G1 and G2 are not isomophic

Assumption

❍ Prover has unbounded computational power

❍ Verifier has limited computational power

Proof Protocol

Protocol (repeated for n rounds)

❍ Verifier

Randomly chooses i=1 or 2

Selects a random permutation f and compute H to be

the image of Gi under f, sends H to prover

❍ Prover

Determines the value j such that Gj is isomorphic to H

Sends j to verifier

❍ Verifier checks if j=i

❍ If equal for n rounds, then accepts the proof

Correctness and Soundness

Correctness

❍ If G1 and G2 are not isomorphic, then for any round,

there is only one graph of G1, G2 that could produce H

under a permutation f

❍ So if the verifier knows non-isomorphism, then each

round a correct j will be computed

Soundness

❍ If the verifier does not know (G1 and G2 are

isomorphic), then each round two answers possible, and

it has half chance to get the correct i chosen by the

prover.

Cryptography and Network Security 501

Graph Isomorphism

Input: graphs G1 and G2 over {1,2,…n}

Prover want to prove

❍ G1 and G2 are isomophic

Assumption

❍ Prover has unbounded computational power

❍ Verifier has limited computational power

Proof Protocol

❍ Prover

Selects a random permutation f and compute H to be the

image of G1 under f, sends H to prover

❍ Verifier

Randomly chooses i=1 or 2, sends it to prover

❍ Prover

Computes the permutation g such that H is the image of Gj

under g, and sends g to verifier

❍ Verifier

checks if H is the image of Gj under g

❍ If yes for n rounds, then accepts the proof

Correctness and Soundness

Correctness

❍ If G1 and G2 are isomorphic, and the verifier knows

how to find the permutation between G1 and G2, then

each round a correct g will be computed

Soundness

❍ If the verifier does not know (G1 and G2 are non-

isomorphic or the permutation between G1 and G2),

then each round prover can deceive the verifier is to

guess the value i chosen by the verifier

Perfect Zero-Knowledge

The graph isomorphism proof is ZKP

❍ All information seen by the verifier is the same as

generated by a random simulator

❍ Define transcript of the proof as

t=(G1,G2,(H1,i,g1),(H2,i,g2),….(Hn,i,gn))

❍ Anyone can generate the transcript without knowing

which permutation carries G1 to G2

❍ Hence the verifier gains nothing by knowing the

transcript (I.e., the proof history)

ZKP for Verifier

Perfect Zero-knowledge for verifier

❍ Suppose we have a poly-time interactive proof system

and a poly-time simulator S. Let T be all yes-instance

transcripts and let F be all transcripts generated by S.

For any transcript t if

Pr(t occurs in T)=Pr(t occurs in F)

❍ We say the interactive proof system are perfect zero-

knowledge for the verifier

Isomorphism Proof: ZKP-verifier

Graph isomorphism is a perfect zero-

knowledge for verifier

❍ A triple (H,i,g). There are 2n! valid triples.

❍ All triples (H,i,g) occurs equiprobable in some

transcript

Here, assume that both the verifier and the prover

are honest

Both of them randomly chooses parameters that

supposed to be chosen randomly

Cheating Verifier

What happened if verifier does not follow

the protocol (does not choose i randomly)

❍ Transcript produced by ZKP is not same as that

produced by the random simulator anymore

❍ The verifier may gain some information due to this

imbalance

❍ But, there is another expected poly-time simulator to

generate the same transcript

❍ Hence, the verifier still gains nothing

Perfect Zero-Knowledge

Definition

❍ Suppose we have a poly-time interactive proof system,

a poly-time algorithm V to generate random numbers

by verifier, and a poly-time simulator S. Let T be all

yes-instance transcripts (depending on V) and let F be

all transcripts generated by S and V. For any transcript

t if

Pr(t occurs in T)=Pr(t occurs in F)

❍ We say the interactive proof system are perfect zero-

knowledge

Forging Simulator

Initial transcript t=(G1,G2), repeat n rounds

❍ Let old-state=state(V), repeat follows

Chooses ij from {1,2} randomly

Chooses gj to be a random permutation over {1,...n}

Compute Hj to be the image of Gi under g

Call V with input Hj, obtaining a challenge ij’

If ij=ij’, then concatenate (Hj, ij, gj) onto the end of t

Else reset V by state(V)=old-state

❍ Until ij=ij’

Perfect Zero-knowledge

The graph isomorphism is perfect ZKP

❍ The expected running time of simulator is 2n

❍ For the kth round of the interactive proof system

Let pk be the probability that verifier chooses i=1

Then (H,1,g) occurs in actual transcript with pk/n!,

(H,2,g) occurs in actual transcript with (1-pk)/n!

For simulator, when it terminates the simulation for

the kth round, same probability distribution for (H,1,g)

and (H,2,g)

Therefore, all transcripts by simulator or actual has

the same probability distribution

Quadratic Residue

Fiat-Shamir Identification

Question

❍ Given integer n=pq, here p, q are primes.

❍ Prover wants to prove

Integer x is a quadratic residue mod n

In other words, knows u so x=u2 mod n

❍ Quadratic residue is hard to solve if do not knowing the

factoring of n

Proof Protocol

Repeat the following for log2n times

❍ Prover

Chooses random v less than n and computes y=v2 mod

n. Sends y to verifier

❍ Verifier

Chooses a random I from {0,1}, sends it to prover

❍ Prover

Computes z=u2v mod n, sends z to verifier

❍ Verifier

Checks if z2=xiy mod n

❍ Accepts the proof if equation holds all log2n rounds

Cryptography and Network Security 513

Cont

Correctness

❍ Show that verifier will accept the prover if indeed

knows

Soundness

❍ Show that verifier will detect the prover if it does not

know with a good probability

Zero-knowledge

❍ Show that verifier gets nothing from the protocol

Guillou Quisquater Protocol

The GQ protocol is an extension of the Fiat

Shamir protocol that limits the number t of

rounds required.

One Time Set-up:

A trusted authority T selects two random

primes p and q and forms a modulus n = p · q.

T defines a public exponent v > 4 with gcd(v,

(p-1)(q -1) = 1 so that T can compute s = v-1

mod (p-1) (q-1).

T publishes parameters n and v.

Cont.

Selection of per-user parameters:

Each entity A has a unique identification

Id(A). Everyone can calculate a value J(A) =

f(Id(A)) mod n (the redundant identity).

T gives to each entity A the secret data

secret(A) = J(A)-s, which it can calculate.

Cont.

Protocol: A proves her identity to B using t rounds, each

of which consists of:

A selects a random secret r and sends her identity Id(A)

and x = rv mod n to B.

B selects a random challenge e in {1, 2, ... , v}.

A computes and sends the following response to B: y = r ·

secret(A)e mod n.

B receives y, constructs J(A) = f(Id(A)) mod n, computes

z = J(A)eyv, and accepts this round if z = x mod n.

In this protocol, v determines the security level. In Fiat

Shamir, v = 2 and there are many rounds. A fraudulent

claimant can defeat the protocol by correctly guessing

the challenge e (with a 1 in v chance.) GQ seems secure,

because we need to extract v-roots modulo n.

Cryptography and Network Security 517

Discrete Logarithm

Question:

❍ Prover wants to prove to verifier that he knows x such

that y=gx mod p .

❍ Here g, y, and p are public information

❍ Prover does not want to publicize the value of x.

Proof Protocol

Repeat the following for log2n times

❍ Prover

Chooses random j < p-1 and computes r=gj mod p.

Sends r to verifier

❍ Verifier

Chooses a random i from {0,1}, sends it to prover

❍ Prover

Computes h=i x +j mod p-1, sends h to verifier

❍ Verifier

Checks if gh=yir mod n

❍ Accepts the proof if equation holds all log2n rounds

Cryptography and Network Security 519

Cont

Correctness

❍ Show that verifier will accept the prover if indeed

knows

Soundness

❍ Show that verifier will detect the prover if it does not

know with a good probability

Zero-knowledge

❍ Show that verifier gets nothing from the protocol

Bit Commitments

Bit commitment

❍ Sometimes, it is desirable to give someone a piece of

information, but not commit to it until a later date. It

may be desirable for the piece of information to be held

secret for a certain period of time.

❍ Example: stock up and down

Properties

Bit commitment scheme

❍ The sender encrypts the b in some way

❍ The encrypted form of b is called blob

❍ Scheme f: (X,b)Y

Properties

❍ Concealing: verifier cannot detect b from f(x,b)

❍ Binding: sender can open the blob by revealing x

❍ Hence, the sender must use random x to mask b

Methods

One can choose any encryption method E

❍ Function f((x0,k),b)=Ek((x0,b))

Need supply decryption k to reveal b

Assume the decryption method D is known

Choose any integer n=pq, p and q are large

primes

❍ Function f(x,b)=mbx2 mod n

Goldwasser-Micali Scheme

Here n=pq, m is not quadratic residule, m,n public

mx12 mod n ≠ x22 mod n

So sender can not change mind after commitment

Cryptography and Network Security 523

Coin Flip

Even protocols

❍ Alice has a coin flip result i or j

❍ Bob wants to guess the result

❍ Alice has a message M that is commitment

❍ If bob guesses correct, Bob should have M received

❍ Alice starts with 2 pairs of public keys (Ei,Di) and

(Ej,Dj)

❍ Bob starts with a symmetric encryption S and a key k

Protocol

Procedure

❍ Alice sends Ei, Ej to Bob

❍ Bob guess h and sends y=Eh(k) to Alice

❍ Alice computes p=Dj(y) and sends the encryption z of

M by p using S to Bob

❍ Bob decrypts the encryption z using S and key k

❍ If the guess is correct, then Bob gets the commitment

Oblivious Transfer

What is oblivious transfer

❍ Alice wants to send Bob a secret in such a way that

Bob will know whether he gets it, but Alice won't.

Another version is where Alice has several secrets and

transfers one of them to Bob in such a way that Bob

knows what he got, but Alice doesn't. This kind of

transfer is said to be oblivious (to Alice).

Transfer Factoring

By means of RSA, oblivious transfer of any

secret amounts to oblivious transfer of the

factorization of n=pq

❍ Bob chooses x and sends x2 mod n to Alice

❍ Alice (who knows p,q) computes the square roots x,-

x,y,-y of x2 mod n and sends one of them to Bob. Note

that Alice does not know x.

❍ If Bob gets one of y or -y, he can factor n. This means

that with probability 1/2, Bob gets the secret. Alice

doesn't know whether Bob got one of y or -y because

she doesn't know x.

Cryptography and Network Security 527

Factoring

If one knows x and y such that

❍ 1) x2=y2 mod n

❍ 2) 0<x,y<n, x≠y and x+y≠0 mod n

❍ Number n is the production of two primes

❍ First gcd(x+y,n) is a factor of n

❍ And gcd(x-y,n) is a factor of n

Quadratic Solution

Given n=p, and a is a quadratic residue

❍ Then there is two positive integers x less than n

❍ Such that x2=a mod n

❍ Then there is four positive integers x less than n

❍ Such that x2=a mod n

Oblivious Transfer of Message

Alice has a message M, bob wants to get M

through oblivious transfer

❍ Alice does not know if Bob get M or not

❍ Bob knows if he gets it or not

❍ Bob gets M with probability ½

❍ Coin flipping can be used to achieve this

Contract Signing

It requires two things

❍ Commitment: after certain point, both parties are bound

by the contract, until then, neither is

❍ Unforgeability: it must be possible for either party to

prove the signature of the other party

With Pen and Paper

❍ Two party together, face to face

❍ Sign simultaneously (or one character by one)

Remote Contract Signing

Simple one

❍ Alice generate a signature, divided into SL, SR

❍ Alice randomly select two keys KL, KR

❍ Encrypt the signatures SL, SR

❍ Transfer encrypted SL,SR to Bob

❍ Obliviously transfer KL, KR to bob

Bob gets one, but Alice does not know which one

❍ Bob decrypts the encrypted SL or SR

Verify the decrypted signature, if invalid, stop

❍ Alice sends the ith bits of keys KL and KR to Bob

Here i=1 to the length of the keys

Cont.

The protocol will be conducted by Bob also

❍ What is the chance of Alice to cheat successfully?

Alice can guess which key will be transferred

obliviously ---(1/2 chance)

Then send wrong signature for the other half or send

the wrong key of the other half

Bob can not detect it if Alice can guess which key Bob

got

❍ How about Alice stop prematurely?

One bit advance over Bob

Enhanced protocol

❍ Use many pair of keys and signatures instead of one

Cryptography and Network Security

Pseudo-random Number

Xiang-Yang Li

Random number, Pseudorandom

The outputs of pseudorandom number

generators are not truly random

❍ they only approximate some of the properties of

random numbers.

❍ "Anyone who considers arithmetical methods of

producing random digits is, of course, in a state of

sin.”--- John von Neumann

❍ Truely random numbers can be generated using

hardware random number generators

Randomness Definition

Chaitin-Kolmogorov randomness (also called

algorithmic randomness)

❍ a string of bits is random if and only if it is shorter than

any computer program that can produce that string

this basically means that random strings are those

that cannot be compressed.

Statistical Randomness

❍ A numeric sequence is said to be statistically random

when it contains no recognizable patterns or

regularities;

sequences such as the results of an ideal die roll, or

the digits of Pi (as far as we can tell) exhibit

statistical randomness.

Cryptography and Network Security 536

Inherent non-randomness

Because any PRNG run on a deterministic computer

(contrast quantum computer) is deterministic, its

output will inevitably have certain properties that

a true random sequence would not exhibit.

❍ guaranteed periodicity—it is certain that if the generator uses only

a fixed amount of memory then, given a sufficient number of

iterations, the generator will revisit the same internal state twice,

after which it will repeat forever. A generator that isn't periodic

can be designed, but its memory requirements would grow as it

ran. In addition, a PRNG can be started from an arbitrary starting

point, or seed state, and will always produce an identical sequence

from that point on.

cont

❍ In practice, many PRNGs exhibit artifacts which can

cause them to fail statistically significant tests. These

include, but are certainly not limited to:

Shorter than expected periods for some seed states

(not full period)

Poor dimensional distribution

Successive values are not independent

Some bits may be 'more random' than others

Lack of uniformity

Pseudo-random Bit Generator

Several applications

❍ Key generation

❍ Some encryption algorithms, or one-time pad

❍ Function f: Z2k Z2l computable in poly-time

❍ Then f called (k,l)-pseudo-random bit generator

❍ The input s0∈ Z2k is called the seed

Desired Properties

Three important properties:

❍ Unbiased (uniform distribution):

All values of whatever sample size is collected are

equiprobable

❍ Unpredictable (independence):

It is impossible to predict what the next output will

be, given all the previous outputs, but not the internal

"hidden" state.

❍ Irreproducible:

Two of the same generators, given the same starting

conditions, will produce different outputs.

Desired Properties

Usually when a person says

❍ A "good" pseudo-random number generator

they mean it is unbiased.

❍ A "true" PRNG

they usually mean it's irreproducible

❍ A "cryptographically strong" PRNG

they mean it's unpredictable

❍ Very rarely they mean it's all threes

More Properties

Long period

❍ The generator should be of long period

Fast computation

❍ The generator should be reasonably fast

Security

❍ The generator should be secure

❍ What is security level of PRNG?

Security

A PRNG suitable for cryptographic applications is

called a cryptographically secure PRNG (CSPRNG).

❍ Its output should not only pass all statistical tests for randomness

but satisfy some additional cryptographic requirements.

❍ Used in many aspects of cryptography require random numbers,

for example:

Key generation

Nonces

Salts in certain signature schemes, (ECDSA, RSASSA-PSS).

One-time pads

CSPRNG

CSPRNG requirements fall into two groups:

❍ their statistical properties are good (passing tests of randomness),

❍ they hold up well in case of attack, even when (part of) their secrets are

revealed.

A CSPRNG should satisfy the 'next-bit test'.

❍ Given the first l bits of a random sequence there is no polynomial-time

algorithm that can predict the next bit with probability of success

significantly higher than 1/2.

❍ It has been proven that a generator passing the next-bit test will pass all

other polynomial-time statistical tests for randomness.

should withstand state compromise extensions.

❍ That is, in the unfortunate case that part or all of the state has been

revealed (or guessed correctly), it should be impossible to reconstruct

the stream of random numbers prior to the incident. Also if there is an

input of entropy, it should be infeasible to use knowledge of the state to

predict future conditions of the state.

Cryptography and Network Security 544

Example

the CSPRNG being considered produces

output by computing some function of the

next digit of pi (ie, 3.1415...),

it may well be random as pi appears to be a random

sequence.

However, this does not satisfy the next-bit test, and

thus is not cryptographically secure.

There exists an algorithm that will predict the next bit.

Design

divide designs of CSPRNGs into classes:

❍ those based on block ciphers;

❍ those based upon hard mathematical problems, and

❍ special-purpose designs.

Designs based on cryptographic

primitives

Designs based on cryptographic primitives

❍ A secure block cipher can also be converted into a CSPRNG by

running it in counter mode.

This is done by choosing an arbitrary key and encrypting a zero, then

encrypting a 1, then encrypting a 2, etc. The counter can also be

started at an arbitrary number other than zero. Obviously, the period

will be 2n for an n-bit block cipher; equally obviously, the initial

values (i.e. key and 'plaintext') must not become known to an attacker

lest, however good this CSPRNG construction might be otherwise, all

security be lost.

A cryptographically secure hash of a counter might

also act as a good CSPRNG in some cases.

❍ it is necessary that the initial value of this counter is random and secret.

If the counter is a bignum, then CSPRNG could have an infinite period.

DES Based Generator

ANSI X9.17 PRNG (used by PGP,..)

❍ Inputs: two pseudo-random inputs

one is a 64-bit representation of date and time

The other is 64-bit seed values

❍ Keys: three 3DES encryptions using same keys

❍ Output:

a 64-bit pseudorandom number and

A 64-bit seed value for next-round use

ANSI X9.17

K1,K2

DT

EDE

EDE

Si+1

Si

EDE

Ri

Linear Congruential Generator

Protocol

❍ Let M be an integer and a, b less than M

❍ Let k be number of bits of M

❍ Integer l is between k+1 and M-1

❍ Then the ith random bit is si mod 2

❍ It is not proved to be secure

Parameter Setting

Not all a, b are good and m should be large

For example, m is a large prime number

For fast computation, usually m=231-1

❍ And b is set to 0 often

integers a

❍ It generates all numbers less than m

❍ The generated sequences appear to be random

❍ Used in IBM 360 family of computers

RSA Generator

Protocol

❍ Let p, q be two k/2 bits primes and define n=pq

❍ Integer b: gcd(b, ϕ(n))=1

❍ Public: n, b; Private p,q

❍ Then the ith random bit is si mod 2

❍ It is proved to be secure!

BBS Generator

Blum-Blum-Shub Generator

❍ Let p, q be two k/2 bits primes and define n=pq

❍ Here p=q=3 mod 4

this guarantees that each quadratic residue has one

square root which is also a quadratic residue

❍ gcd(φ(p-1), φ(q-1)) should be small

this makes the cycle length large.

❍ Let QR(n) be all quadratic residues modulo n

❍ Public: n; Private p,q

❍ A seed s0 with k bits from QR(n)

❍ Sequence si+1=si2 mod n

❍ Then the ith random bit is si mod 2

Cont on BBS

Provably “secure”

❍ When the primes are chosen appropriately,

output bits from random will be at least as difficult as

factoring n.

However,

❍ it's theoretically possible that a fast algorithm for

factoring will someday be found, so BBS is not yet

guaranteed to be secure.

Discrete Logarithm Generator

Protocol

❍ Let p be a k-bit prime,

❍ Let α be primitive element modulo p

❍ Then the ith random bit is

1 if si is larger than p/2

0 if si is less than p/2

Standards

A number of designs of CSPRNGs have

been standardized. They can be found in:

❍ FIPS 186-2

❍ ANSI X9.17-1985 Appendix C

❍ ANSI X9.31-1998 Appendix A.2.4

❍ ANSI X9.62-1998 Annex A.4

Network Security

Topics to be covered

Applications

❍ Email security

❍ www security

❍ Malicious software

Networks

❍ Wireless LAN security 802.11

❍ IPsec

❍ Firewall

❍ Intrusions

Cryptography and Network Security

Email Security

Xiang-Yang Li

Electronic Mail Security

appear, the Board's access to other sources of information

filled much of this gap. The FBI provided documents taken from

the files of the National Security Advisor and relevant NSC

staff members, including messages from the PROF system

between VADM Poindexter and LtCol North. The PROF messages

were conversations by computer, written at the time events

occurred and presumed by the writers to be protected from

disclosure. In this sense, they provide a first-hand,

contemporaneous account of events.

—The Tower Commission Report to President Reagan on the

Iran-Contra Affair, 1987

Email Security

email is one of the most widely used and

regarded network services

currently message contents are not secure

❍ may be inspected either in transit

❍ or by suitably privileged users on destination system

Email Security Enhancements

confidentiality

❍ protection from disclosure

authentication

❍ of sender of message

message integrity

❍ protection from modification

non-repudiation of origin

❍ protection from denial by sender

Pretty Good Privacy (PGP)

widely used de facto secure email

developed by Phil Zimmermann

selected best available crypto algs to use

integrated into a single program

available on Unix, PC, Macintosh and Amiga

systems

originally free, now have commercial

versions available also

PGP

Five services

❍ Authentication, confidentiality, compression, email

compatibility, segmentation

Functions

❍ Digital signature

❍ Message encryption

❍ Compression

❍ Email compatibility

❍ segmentation

PGP Operation – Authentication

1. sender creates a message

2. SHA-1 used to generate 160-bit hash code of

message

3. hash code is encrypted with RSA using the

sender's private key, and result is attached to

message

4. receiver uses RSA or DSS with sender's public

key to decrypt and recover hash code

5. receiver generates new hash code for message

and compares with decrypted hash code, if

match, message is accepted as authentic

PGP Operation – Confidentiality

1. sender generates message and random 128-bit

number to be used as session key for this

message only

2. message is encrypted, using CAST-128 /

IDEA/3DES with session key

3. session key is encrypted using RSA with

recipient's public key, then attached to message

4. receiver uses RSA with its private key to decrypt

and recover session key

5. session key is used to decrypt message

PGP Operation – Confidentiality &

Authentication

uses both services on same message

❍ create signature & attach to message

❍ encrypt both message & signature

❍ attach RSA encrypted session key

PGP Operation – Compression

by default PGP compresses message after

signing but before encrypting

❍ so can store uncompressed message & signature for

later verification

❍ & because compression is non deterministic

PGP Operation – Email Compatibility

send (encrypted message etc)

however email was designed only for text

hence PGP must encode raw binary data

into printable ASCII characters

uses radix-64 algorithm

❍ maps 3 bytes to 4 printable chars

❍ also appends a CRC

PGP Operation – Summary

Segmentation & Reassembly

Email systems impose maximum length

❍ 50 Kb, for example

❍ Done after all other operations

❍ Thus only one session key needed

Key management

Generating unpredictable session keys

Identifying keys

❍ Multiple public, private key pairs for a user

Maintain keys

❍ Its own public, private keys of a PGP entity

❍ Public keys of correspondents

Session Key Generation

Algorithm used: CAST-128

Input to CAST-128

❍ A 128-bit key

❍ Two 64 bits plaintexts to be encrypted

❍ Generates 2 64-bits ciphers form session key

Plaintexts are from 128-bits randomized

number

❍ Based on key stroke of user (timing and actual keys)

❍ Then combined with previous session key

Key Identifiers

Receiver has multiple public keys

❍ How to know which private key is proper?

Approach

❍ Sending the least significant 64 bits as key ID

❍ Need send the receiver’s public key ID used for

encrypting the session key

❍ Need send the sender’s public key ID, whose

corresponding private key used for signature

Key Rings

Private key rings

❍ Timestamp, Key ID, public key, encrypted private key,

user ID

Public key rings

❍ Timestamp, Key ID, public key, owner trust, user ID,

key legitimacy, signature, signature trust

Public Key Management

A public key attributed to B may belong to

C

❍C can send messages to A forge B’s sig

❍ C can read any encrypted message to B

Approach to true public key

❍ Physically get key from B

❍ Obtain B’s key from mutual trusted authority

❍ Using key legitimacy field

computed from the signature trust field and number

of certificates for the key

Revoking Public Key

Reason

❍ It is compromised: private key is open

❍ Simply to avoid use of same key for a period

Approach

❍ Owner issues key revocation certificate, signed by

owner

❍ Using corresponding private key to sign the certificate

❍ Disseminate the certificate as widely and as quickly as

possible

S/MIME (Secure/Multipurpose

Internet Mail Extensions)

security enhancement to MIME email

❍ original Internet RFC822 email was text only

❍ MIME provided support for varying content types and

multi-part messages

❍ with encoding of binary data to textual form

❍ S/MIME added security enhancements

mail agents: MS Outlook, Netscape etc

S/MIME Functions

enveloped data

❍ encrypted content and associated keys

signed data

❍ encoded message + signed digest

clear-signed data

❍ cleartext message + encoded signed digest

❍ nesting of signed & encrypted entities

S/MIME Cryptographic Algorithms

digital signatures: DSS & RSA

session key encryption: ElGamal & RSA

message encryption: Triple-DES, RC2/40

and others

have a procedure to decide which

algorithms to use

S/MIME Certificate Processing

S/MIME uses X.509 v3 certificates

managed using a hybrid of a strict X.509

CA hierarchy & PGP’s web of trust

each client has a list of trusted CA’s certs

and own public/private key pairs & certs

certificates must be signed by trusted

CA’s

Certificate Authorities

have several well-known CA’s

Verisign one of most widely used

Verisign issues several types of Digital IDs

with increasing levels of checks & hence

trust

Class Identity Checks Usage

1 name/email check web browsing/email

2+ enroll/addr check email, subs, s/w validate

3+ ID documents e-banking/service access

Email SPAM

Spam is flooding the Internet with many

copies of the same message, in an attempt

to force the message on people who would

not otherwise choose to receive it. Most

spam is commercial advertising, often for

dubious products, get-rich-quick schemes,

or quasi-legal services. Spam costs the

sender very little to send -- most of the

costs are paid for by the recipient or the

carriers rather than by the sender

Email Spam

E-mail spam has existed since the beginning

of the Internet, and has grown to about 90

billion messages a day, although about 80%

is sent by fewer than 200 spammers.

Botnets, virus infected computers, account

for about 80% of spam.

E-mail addresses are collected from

chatrooms, websites, newsgroups, and

viruses which harvest users address books,

and are sold to other spammers

Cryptography and Network Security 584

Anti-Spam Techs

Some popular methods for filtering and

refusing spam include

❍ e-mail filtering based on the content of the e-mail,

DNS-based blackhole lists (DNSBL), greylisting,

spamtraps, enforcing technical requirements,

checksumming systems to detect bulk email, and by

putting some sort of cost on the sender via a

Proof-of-work system or a micropayment.

❍ Each method has strengths and weaknesses and each is

controversial due to its weaknesses.

Filtering Methods

Bayesian spam filtering

CRM114

dSPAM

Markovian discrimination

POPFile

Policyd-weight Postfix policy-daemon before SMTP DATA

Procmail is an MDA (Mail Delivery Agent) for Unix systems.

Maildrop is an MDA (Mail Delivery Agent) for Unix systems.

Sendmail supports libmilter for mail filtering

Sieve (mail filtering language) is an RFC standard for

describing mail filters

SpamAssassin

Anti-Spam SMTP Proxy

information filtering

White list#E-mail whitelists

Summary

have considered:

❍ secure email

❍ PGP

❍ S/MIME

Cryptography and Network Security

Security on WWW

Xiang-Yang Li

Introduction

Introduction

Presentation of SSL

• The inner workings of SSL

• Attacks on SSL

Presentation of S-HTTP

• Comparison with SSL/TLS

• Attacks on S-HTTP

Other aspects of Web security

• TLS

• IPSec, Kerberos, SET

Conclusion

Web Security

Web now widely used by business,

government, individuals

but Internet & Web are vulnerable

have a variety of threats

❍ integrity

❍ confidentiality

❍ denial of service

❍ authentication

SSL (Secure Socket Layer)

transport layer security service

originally developed by Netscape

version 3 designed with public input

subsequently became Internet standard

known as TLS (Transport Layer Security)

uses TCP to provide a reliable end-to-end

service

SSL has two layers of protocols

Location of SSL

Application Layer SSL is build on top of

TCP

Provides a TCP like

Secure Socket Layer interface

(SSL)

In theory can be used

by all type of

Transmission Control Protocol applications in a

(TCP) transparent manner

Internet Protocol

(IP)

SSL Architecture

SSL Architecture

SSL session

❍ an association between client & server

❍ created by the Handshake Protocol

❍ define a set of cryptographic parameters

❍ may be shared by multiple SSL connections

SSL connection

❍ a transient, peer-to-peer, communications link

❍ associated with 1 SSL session

SSL Record Protocol

confidentiality

❍ using symmetric encryption with a shared secret key

defined by Handshake Protocol

❍ IDEA, RC2-40, DES-40, DES, 3DES, Fortezza, RC4-

40, RC4-128

❍ message is compressed before encryption

message integrity

❍ using a MAC with shared secret key

❍ similar to HMAC but with different padding

SSL Change Cipher Spec Protocol

the SSL Record protocol

a single message

causes pending state to become current

hence updating the cipher suite in use

SSL Alert Protocol

conveys SSL-related alerts to peer entity

severity

warning or fatal

specific alert

unexpected message, bad record mac, decompression

failure, handshake failure, illegal parameter

close notify, no certificate, bad certificate,

unsupported certificate, certificate revoked,

certificate expired, certificate unknown

compressed & encrypted like all SSL data

SSL Handshake Protocol

allows server & client to:

❍ authenticate each other

❍ to negotiate encryption & MAC algorithms

❍ to negotiate cryptographic keys to be used

❍ Establish Security Capabilities

❍ Server Authentication and Key Exchange

❍ Client Authentication and Key Exchange

❍ Finish

General purpose

1.Handshake

`

2. Data transmission

• Handshake : exchange private keys using a public key encryption

algorithm

• Data transmission: exchange the required data using a private key

encryption

SSL Handshake Protocol

handshake

Client Server

Client Hello

Server Hello

Server Certificate

Server Hello Done

Client Key Exchange

Change Cipher Specification

Handshake Finished

Change Cipher Specifications

Handshake Finished

hello

Client “Hello”:

• List of supported private

key encryptions +

`

• Client random number

Server

Server “Hello”: Client Client Hello

Server Hello

• Selected encryption Server Certificate

algorithm Server Hello Done

• Server Random number Client Key Exchange

• Session ID Change Cipher Specification

Handshake Finished

Server Certificate: Change Cipher Specifications

• Verify server’s identity Handshake Finished

Key exchange

Client Key Exchange:

• Client

Generate second

random: Pre Master `

Key Client

Server

Client Hello

Send Pre Master Key

Server Hello

Calculate Master Key Server Certificate

Calculate Secret Key Server Hello Done

Calculate MAC Key Client Key Exchange

Change Cipher Specification

• Server

Handshake Finished

Calculate Master Key

Change Cipher Specifications

Calculate Secret Key Handshake Finished

Calculate MAC Key

Resumed based on Session Id

Client Server

Client Hello

Server Hello

Change Cipher Specification

Handshake Finished

Change Cipher Specifications

Handshake Finished

Cryptography and Network Security 604

Certificate authority

Certificate Authority (CA) is a trusted

third party that helps identify the server.

How does everything work?

• Server sends ID, public key to CA

• CA creates and signs the server’s Certificate

• Client receives the Certificate from Server

• Client verifies the Certificate using the signature and

the CA’s public key

MAC

MAC = Message Authentication Code

The initial message is split into fragments

For each fragment a “fingerprint” is

calculated using the MAC key

The fragment, fingerprint and record

header are encrypted and sent

Receiver checks the “fingerprint” using

MAC key to detect inconsistent messages

Attacks on SSL

Certificate Injection Attack

• The list of trusted Certificate Authorities is altered

• Can be avoided by upgrading the OS or switching to a safer one.

Man in the Middle

• Cipher Spec Rollback : regresses the public key encryption algorithms

• Version Rollback : regression from SSL 3.0 to weaker SSL 2.0

• Algorithm rollback : modify public encryption method

• Truncation attack : TCP FIN|RST used to terminate connection

Timing attack

• Can be avoided by randomly delaying the computations

Brute force

• Can be used on servers that accept small key sizes: 40 bits for symmetric

encryptions and 512 for the asymmetric one.

TLS (Transport Layer Security)

IETF standard RFC 2246 similar to SSLv3

with minor differences

❍ in record format version number

❍ uses HMAC for MAC

❍ a pseudo-random function expands secrets

❍ has additional alert codes

❍ some changes in supported ciphers

❍ changes in certificate negotiations

❍ changes in use of padding

TLS

authentication in IP headers.

TLS

key exchange, encryption method, and hashing method.

and AES

versions.)

Secure Electronic Transactions

(SET)

open encryption & security specification

to protect Internet credit card

transactions

developed in 1996 by Mastercard, Visa etc

not a payment system

rather a set of security protocols &

formats

❍ secure communications amongst parties

❍ trust from use of X.509v3 certificates

❍ privacy by restricted info to those who need it

SET Components

SET Transaction

1. customer opens account

2. customer receives a certificate

3. merchants have their own certificates

4. customer places an order

5. merchant is verified

6. order and payment are sent

7. merchant requests payment authorization

8. merchant confirms order

9. merchant provides goods or service

10. merchant requests payment

Dual Signature

customer creates dual messages

❍ order information (OI) for merchant

❍ payment information (PI) for bank

but must know they are linked

use a dual signature for this

❍ signed concatenated hashes of OI & PI

Purchase Request – Customer

Purchase Request – Merchant

Purchase Request – Merchant

1. verifies cardholder certificates using CA sigs

2. verifies dual signature using customer's public

signature key to ensure order has not been

tampered with in transit & that it was signed

using cardholder's private signature key

3. processes order and forwards the payment

information to the payment gateway for

authorization (described later)

4. sends a purchase response to cardholder

Payment Gateway Authorization

1. verifies all certificates

2. decrypts digital envelope of authorization block to obtain

symmetric key & then decrypts authorization block

3. verifies merchant's signature on authorization block

4. decrypts digital envelope of payment block to obtain

symmetric key & then decrypts payment block

5. verifies dual signature on payment block

6. verifies that transaction ID received from merchant

matches that in PI received (indirectly) from customer

7. requests & receives an authorization from issuer

8. sends authorization response back to merchant

Payment Capture

merchant sends payment gateway a

payment capture request

gateway checks request

then causes funds to be transferred to

merchants account

notifies merchant using capture response

A

C- Secure-HTTP

B

C

D Presentation of S-HTTP

of EIT to secure HTTP connections

commercially

HTTP messages at the application level

Cryptography and Network Security 620

A

C- Secure-HTTP

B

C

D Location of S-HTTP

Message encryption and encryption

signature Can possibly be used

HTTP message Designed to be

compatible with HTTP

for handling at lower

Transmission Control Protocol layers

(TCP)

Internet Protocol

(IP)

Cryptography and Network Security 621

A

C- Secure-HTTP

B

C

D S-HTTP vs. SSL/TLS

POPS, LDAPS…)

Burden of encryption not on

transmission/reception but rather on message

production/unpacking

Similar set of available ciphers, plus added

capabilities for signing (DSS, RSA)

Very general specifications, leaving a lot to

implement and a potential for incompatible

implementations

Only one reference implementation in NCSA

Mosaic

Cryptography and Network Security 622

A

C- Secure-HTTP

B

C

D S-HTTP vs. SSL/TLS: functionalities

Encryption of the complete HTTP Complete communication encryption

transaction

Authentication Key management on the keys used, During the initial public key

or digital signature exchange (server auth. mandatory,

client auth. optional)

Non-repudiation is not provided by SSL

Signing is optional, but a major attraction to S-HTTP

Cryptography and Network Security 623

A

C- Secure-HTTP

B

C

D S-HTTP vs. SSL/TLS: proxy traversal

OR

cleartext

SSL tunnel SSL tunnel

External

secure server SSL-aware proxy Enterprise environment

Encrypted data

Authentication

External

secure server S-HTTP-aware proxy Enterprise environment

Cryptography and Network Security 624

A

C- Secure-HTTP

B

C

D S-HTTP inner working

Message-based encryption

Superset of HTTP: “outer” envelope

Specific headers added

S-HTTP message

S-HTTP headers

Request:

HTTP payload headers: Secure*Secure-HTTP/1.2

Security-Scheme, Encryption-Identity,

Certificate-Info… + regular HTTP headers Response:

Secure-HTTP/1.2 200 OK

HTTP message body

Cryptography and Network Security 625

A

C- Secure-HTTP

B

C

D S-HTTP attacks

Basically the same as on SSL, since the ciphers are the same

Default values more secure in S-HTTP than SSL at the time

of proposal (e.g. DES vs. RC4)

S-HTTP generally stronger by design (more resilient to

proxy compromising)

More complex and wider specifications create a potential for

faulty implementations

No real-world use to field test the actual security of S-

HTTP

Cryptography and Network Security 626

A

D- Other protocols

B

C

D

protocol.

• Supported by almost all browsers and web servers.

(base64 encoded) in the HTTP request message.

HTTP Digest Authentication, which sends a MD5 hash of the

password and other information.

Cryptography and Network Security 627

IPsec

stack in the kernel (Below TCP). It is invisible to the

application. It is implemented by adding additional

protocol numbers in the IP protocol field.

Transported with only the data portion of the original

packet encrypted.

must implement IPSec for it to work.

Summary

have considered:

❍ need for web security

❍ SSL/TLS transport layer security protocols

de facto standard, versatile and low-level enough

to accommodate many types of payloads

❍ SET secure credit card payment protocols

❍ IPSec: true network-layer security for any applications

(not just the Web)

❍ Kerberos: robust 2-way authentication framework with

emphasis on security manageability

A

D- Conclusion

B

C

Web Security

D

enough to accommodate many types of payloads

applications (not just the Web)

with emphasis on security manageability

Cryptography and Network Security 630

Cryptography & Network Security

Malicious Software

XiangYang Li

Malicious Software

of a blow. What is its characteristic feature:

Awaiting the blow.

—On War, Carl Von Clausewitz

Viruses and Other Malicious Content

one of a family of malicious software

effects usually obvious

have figured in news reports, fiction,

movies (often exaggerated)

getting more attention than deserve

are a concern though

Malicious Software

Trapdoors

secret entry point into a program

allows those who know access bypassing

usual security procedures

have been commonly used by developers

a threat when left in production programs

allowing exploited by attackers

very hard to block in O/S

requires good s/w development & update

Logic Bomb

one of oldest types of malicious software

code embedded in legitimate program

activated when specified conditions met

❍ eg presence/absence of some file

❍ particular date/time

❍ particular user

❍ modify/delete files/disks

Trojan Horse

program with hidden side-effects

which is usually superficially attractive

❍ eg game, s/w upgrade etc

❍ allows attacker to indirectly gain access they do not

have directly

often used to propagate a virus/worm or

install a backdoor

or simply to destroy data

Zombie

program which secretly takes over another

networked computer

then uses it to indirectly launch attacks

often used to launch distributed denial of

service (DDoS) attacks

exploits known flaws in network systems

Viruses

a piece of self-replicating code attached to

some other code

❍ cf biological virus

both propagates itself & carries a payload

❍ carries code to make copies of itself

❍ as well as code to perform some covert task

Virus Operation

virus phases:

❍ dormant – waiting on trigger event

❍ propagation – replicating to programs/disks

❍ triggering – by event to execute payload

❍ execution – of payload

❍ exploiting features/weaknesses

Virus Structure

program V :=

{goto main;

1234567;

subroutine infect-executable := {loop:

file := get-random-executable-file;

if (first-line-of-file = 1234567) then goto loop

else prepend V to file; }

subroutine do-damage := {whatever damage is to be done}

subroutine trigger-pulled := {return true if some condition holds}

main: main-program := {infect-executable;

if trigger-pulled then do-damage;

goto next;}

next:

}

Types of Viruses

can classify on basis of how they attack

parasitic virus

memory-resident virus

boot sector virus

stealth

polymorphic virus

macro virus

Macro Virus

macro code attached to some data file

interpreted by program using file

❍ eg Word/Excel macros

❍ esp. using auto command & command macros

code is now platform independent

is a major source of new viral infections

blurs distinction between data and program

files making task of detection much harder

classic trade-off: "ease of use" vs

"security"

Email Virus

spread using email with attachment

containing a macro virus

❍ cf Melissa

triggered when user opens attachment

or worse even when mail viewed by using

scripting features in mail agent

usually targeted at Microsoft Outlook mail

agent & Word/Excel documents

Worms

replicating but not infecting program

typically spreads over a network

❍ cf Morris Internet Worm in 1988

❍ led to creation of CERTs

system vulnerabilities

widely used by hackers to create zombie PC's,

subsequently used for further attacks, esp DoS

major issue is lack of security of permanently

connected systems, esp PC's

Worm Operation

worm phases like those of viruses:

❍ dormant

❍ propagation

search for other systems to infect

establish connection to target remote system

replicate self onto remote system

❍ triggering

❍ execution

Morris Worm

best known classic worm

released by Robert Morris in 1988

targeted Unix systems

using several propagation techniques

❍ simple password cracking of local pw file

❍ exploit bug in finger daemon

❍ exploit debug trapdoor in sendmail daemon

Recent Worm Attacks

new spate of attacks from mid-2001

Code Red

❍ exploited bug in MS IIS to penetrate & spread

❍ probes random IPs for systems running IIS

❍ had trigger time for denial-of-service attack

❍ 2nd wave infected 360000 servers in 14 hours

Code Red 2

❍ had backdoor installed to allow remote control

Nimda

❍ used multiple infection mechanisms

email, shares, web client, IIS, Code Red 2 backdoor

Virus Countermeasures

viral attacks exploit lack of integrity

control on systems

to defend need to add such controls

typically by one or more of:

❍ prevention - block virus infection mechanism

❍ detection - of viruses in infected system

❍ reaction - restoring system to clean state

Anti-Virus Software

first-generation

❍ scanner uses virus signature to identify virus

❍ or change in length of programs

second-generation

❍ uses heuristic rules to spot viral infection

❍ or uses program checksums to spot changes

third-generation

❍ memory-resident programs identify virus by actions

fourth-generation

❍ packages with a variety of antivirus techniques

❍ eg scanning & activity traps, access-controls

Advanced Anti-Virus Techniques

generic decryption

❍ use CPU simulator to check program signature &

behavior before actually running it

digital immune system (IBM)

❍ general purpose emulation & virus detection

❍ any virus entering org is captured, analyzed,

detection/shielding created for it, removed

Behavior-Blocking Software

integrated with host O/S

monitors program behavior in real-time

❍ eg file access, disk format, executable mods, system

settings changes, network access

for possibly malicious actions

❍ if detected can block, terminate, or seek ok

has advantage over scanners

but malicious code runs before detection

Summary

have considered:

❍ various malicious programs

❍ trapdoor, logic bomb, trojan horse, zombie

❍ viruses

❍ worms

❍ countermeasures

Cryptography & Network Security

Road to 802.11i

Xiangyang Li

Contents

Introduction

Problem: 802.11b Not Secure!

Wired Equivalent Privacy – WEP

Types of Attacks

802.11b Proposed Solutions

802.1X

Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA)

802.11i: The Solution

Conclusion

Introduction

(airport, coffee shop)

Most popular: 802.11b

❍ Example: Yahoo! DSL Wireless Kit

❍ Theoretical max @ 11Mbps

❍ Operate at 2.4GHz band

❍ DSSS/FSSS modulation – similar to CDMA phones

Introduction

Standards: IEEE 802.11 Series

❍ 802.11b – 11Mbps @ 2.4GHz

❍ 802.11a – 54Mbps @ 5.7GHz band

❍ 802.11g – 54Mbps @ 2.4GHz band

❍ 802.1X – security add-on

❍ 802.11i – high security

Problem: 802.11b Not Secure!

“No inherent security”

❍ Wired Wireless media change was the objective

❍ The only “security” built into 802.11

❍ Uses RC4 Stream Cipher – in a bad way

❍ Vulnerable to several types of attacks

Sometimes not even turned ON

Wired Equivalent Privacy – WEP

❍ Designed by Ron Rivest for RSA Security

❍ Very simple

Initialization Vector (IV)

Shared Key

The issue is in the way RC4 is used

❍ IV (24 bits) reuse and fixed key

❍ Early versions used 40-bit key

❍ 128-bit mode effectively uses 104 bits

Wired Equivalent Privacy – WEP

http://mason.gmu.edu/~gharm/wireless.html)

Types of Attacks

Attacks

❍ Confidentiality

❍ Integrity

❍ Availability

Types of Attacks

Attacks on Confidentiality

❍ Traffic Analysis

❍ Passive Eavesdropping

Very easy to do

❍ Active Eavesdropping

❍ Unauthorized Access

Types of Attacks

Integrity

❍ Man-In-The-Middle

Attacks on Integrity

❍ Session Hijacking

❍ Replay

Attacks on Availability

❍ Denial of Service

802.11b Proposed Solutions

Virtual Private Network

Closed Network

❍ Through the use of SSID

Replace RC4 with block cipher

Don’t reuse IV

Automatic Key Assignment

802.1X: Interim Solution

Port-based authentication

❍ Not specific to wireless networks

Authentication servers

❍ RADIUS

Client authentication

❍ EAP

802.1X Problems

802.1X still has problems

❍ Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP)

One-way authentication

❍ Attacks

Man-in-Middle

Session Hijacking

802.1X Proposed Solutions

Per-packet authenticity and integrity

❍ Lots of overhead

messages

Two-way authentication

Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA)

Addresses issues with WEP

❍ Key management

TKIP

Key expansion

❍ Message Integrity Check

Software upgrade only

Compatible with 802.1X

Compatible with 802.11i

802.11i

Finalized: June, 2004

Robust Security Network

Wi-Fi Alliance: WPA2

Improvements made

❍ Authentication enhanced

❍ Key Management created

❍ Data Transfer security enhanced

802.11i - Authentication

Authentication Server

Two-way authentication

❍ Prevents man-in-the-middle attacks

❍ Master Key (MK)

❍ Pairwise Master Key (PMK)

802.11i – Key Management

Key Types

❍ Pairwise Transient Key

❍ Key Confirmation Key

❍ Key Encryption Key

❍ Group Transient Key

❍ Temporal Key

802.11i – Key Management

Source: http://csrc.nist.gov/wireless/S10_802.11i%20Overview-jw1.pdf

802.11i – Data Transfer

CCMP

❍ Long term solution – mandatory for 802.11i

compliance

❍ Latest AES encryption

❍ Requires hardware upgrades

WRAP

❍ Provided for early vendor support

TKIP

❍ Carried over from WPA

802.11i – Additional Enhancements

Pre-authentication

❍ Roaming clients

Client Validation

Password-to-key mappings

Random number generation

Conclusion

Basic 802.11b (with WEP)

❍ Massive security holes

❍ Easily attacked

802.1X

❍ Good interim solution

❍ Allows use of existing hardware

❍ Can still be attacked

Conclusion

Wi-Fi Protected Access

❍ Allows use of existing hardware

❍ Compatible with 802.1X

❍ Compatible with 802.11i

802.11i

❍ May require hardware upgrades

❍ Very secure

❍ Nothing is ever guaranteed

Cryptography & Network Security

IPsec

XiangYang Li

IP Security

before the time is ripe, he must be put to

death, together with the man to whom the

secret was told.

—The Art of War, Sun Tzu

IP Security

have considered some application specific

security mechanisms

❍ eg. S/MIME, PGP, Kerberos, SSL/HTTPS

however there are security concerns that

cut across protocol layers

would like security implemented by the

network for all applications

IPSec

general IP Security mechanisms

provides

❍ authentication

❍ confidentiality

❍ key management

& private WANs, & for the Internet

IPSec Uses

Benefits of IPSec

in a firewall/router provides strong

security to all traffic crossing the

perimeter

is resistant to bypass

is below transport layer, hence transparent

to applications

can be transparent to end users

can provide security for individual users if

desired

IP Security Architecture

specification is quite complex

defined in numerous RFC’s

❍ incl. RFC 2401/2402/2406/2408

❍ many others, grouped by category

IPSec Services

Access control

Connectionless integrity

Data origin authentication

Rejection of replayed packets

❍ a form of partial sequence integrity

Confidentiality (encryption)

Limited traffic flow confidentiality

Security Associations

a one-way relationship between sender &

receiver that affords security for traffic

flow

defined by 3 parameters:

❍ Security Parameters Index (SPI)

❍ IP Destination Address

❍ Security Protocol Identifier

has a number of other parameters

❍ seq no, AH & EH info, lifetime etc

have a database of Security Associations

Authentication Header (AH)

provides support for data integrity &

authentication of IP packets

❍ end system/router can authenticate user/app

❍ prevents address spoofing attacks by tracking sequence

numbers

based on use of a MAC

❍ HMAC-MD5-96 or HMAC-SHA-1-96

Authentication Header

Transport & Tunnel Modes

Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)

limited traffic flow confidentiality

can optionally provide the same

authentication services as AH

supports range of ciphers, modes, padding

❍ incl. DES, Triple-DES, RC5, IDEA, CAST etc

❍ CBC most common

❍ pad to meet blocksize, for traffic flow

Encapsulating Security Payload

Transport vs Tunnel Mode ESP

transport mode is used to encrypt &

optionally authenticate IP data

❍ data protected but header left in clear

❍ can do traffic analysis but is efficient

❍ good for ESP host to host traffic

❍ add new header for next hop

❍ good for VPNs, gateway to gateway security

Combining Security Associations

to implement both need to combine SA’s

❍ form a security bundle

Combining Security Associations

Key Management

handles key generation & distribution

typically need 2 pairs of keys

❍ 2 per direction for AH & ESP

❍ sysadmin manually configures every system

automated key management

❍ automated system for on demand creation of keys for

SA’s in large systems

❍ has Oakley & ISAKMP elements

Oakley

a key exchange protocol

based on Diffie-Hellman key exchange

adds features to address weaknesses

❍ cookies, groups (global params), nonces, DH key

exchange with authentication

can use arithmetic in prime fields or

elliptic curve fields

ISAKMP

Internet Security Association and Key

Management Protocol

provides framework for key management

defines procedures and packet formats to

establish, negotiate, modify, & delete SAs

independent of key exchange protocol,

encryption alg, & authentication method

ISAKMP

Summary

have considered:

❍ IPSec security framework

❍ AH

❍ ESP

❍ key management & Oakley/ISAKMP

Cryptography & Network Security

Firewalls

XiangYang Li

Firewalls

forces holding it practically unassailable

—On War, Carl Von Clausewitz

Introduction

seen evolution of information systems

now everyone want to be on the Internet

and to interconnect networks

has persistent security concerns

❍ can’t easily secure every system in org

a Firewall usually part of this

What is a Firewall?

a choke point of control and monitoring

interconnects networks with differing

trust

imposes restrictions on network services

❍ only authorized traffic is allowed

auditing and controlling access

❍ can implement alarms for abnormal behavior

provides perimeter defence

Firewall Limitations

cannot protect from attacks bypassing it

❍ eg sneaker net, utility modems, trusted organisations,

trusted services (eg SSL/SSH)

cannot protect against internal threats

❍ eg disgruntled employee

cannot protect against transfer of all virus

infected programs or files

❍ because of huge range of O/S & file types

Firewalls – Packet Filters

Firewalls – Packet Filters

simplest of components

foundation of any firewall system

examine each IP packet (no context) and

permit or deny according to rules

hence restrict access to services (ports)

possible default policies

❍ that not expressly permitted is prohibited

❍ that not expressly prohibited is permitted

Firewalls – Packet Filters

Attacks on Packet Filters

IP address spoofing

❍ fake source address to be trusted

❍ add filters on router to block

❍ attacker sets a route other than default

❍ block source routed packets

❍ split header info over several tiny packets

❍ either discard or reassemble before check

Firewalls – Stateful Packet Filters

❍ keeps tracks of client-server sessions

❍ checks each packet validly belongs to one

context

Firewalls - Application Level Gateway

(or Proxy)

Firewalls - Application Level Gateway

(or Proxy)

use an application specific gateway / proxy

has full access to protocol

❍ user requests service from proxy

❍ proxy validates request as legal

❍ then actions request and returns result to user

❍ some services naturally support proxying

❍ others are more problematic

❍ custom services generally not supported

Firewalls - Circuit Level Gateway

Firewalls - Circuit Level Gateway

imposes security by limiting which such

connections are allowed

once created usually relays traffic without

examining contents

typically used when trust internal users by

allowing general outbound connections

SOCKS commonly used for this

Bastion Host

highly secure host system

potentially exposed to "hostile" elements

hence is secured to withstand this

may support 2 or more net connections

may be trusted to enforce trusted

separation between network connections

runs circuit / application level gateways

or provides externally accessible services

Firewall Configurations

Firewall Configurations

Firewall Configurations

Access Control

given system has identified a user

determine what resources they can access

general model is that of access matrix with

❍ subject - active entity (user, process)

❍ object - passive entity (file or resource)

❍ access right – way object can be accessed

can decompose by

❍ columns as access control lists

❍ rows as capability tickets

Access Control Matrix

Trusted Computer Systems

information security is increasingly important

have varying degrees of sensitivity of information

❍ cf military info classifications: confidential, secret etc

of access to objects (information)

want to consider ways of increasing confidence in

systems to enforce these rights

known as multilevel security

❍ subjects have maximum & current security level

❍ objects have a fixed security level classification

Bell LaPadula (BLP) Model

one of the most famous security models

implemented as mandatory policies on system

has two key policies:

no read up (simple security property)

❍ a subject can only read/write an object if the current security level

of the subject dominates (>=) the classification of the object

no write down (*-property)

❍ a subject can only append/write to an object if the current security

level of the subject is dominated by (<=) the classification of the

object

Reference Monitor

Evaluated Computer Systems

governments can evaluate IT systems

against a range of standards:

❍ TCSEC, IPSEC and now Common Criteria

with increasingly stringent checking

have published lists of evaluated products

❍ though aimed at government/defense use

❍ can be useful in industry also

Summary

have considered:

❍ firewalls

❍ types of firewalls

❍ configurations

❍ access control

❍ trusted systems

Cryptography and Network

Security

Third Edition

by William Stallings

Intruders

for Charles Mabledene. It was neither more

nor less than that Dragon should get Stern's

code. If he had the 'in' at Utting which he

claimed to have this should be possible, only

loyalty to Moscow Centre would prevent it. If

he got the key to the code he would prove his

loyalty to London Central beyond a doubt.

—Talking to Strange Men, Ruth Rendell

Intruders

significant issue for networked systems is

hostile or unwanted access

either via network or local

can identify classes of intruders:

❍ masquerader

❍ misfeasor

❍ clandestine user

Intruders

clearly a growing publicized problem

❍ from “Wily Hacker” in 1986/87

❍ to clearly escalating CERT stats

may use compromised system to launch

other attacks

Intrusion Techniques

aim to increase privileges on system

basic attack methodology

❍ target acquisition and information gathering

❍ initial access

❍ privilege escalation

❍ covering tracks

so then exercise access rights of owner

Password Guessing

one of the most common attacks

attacker knows a login (from email/web page etc)

then attempts to guess password for it

❍ try default passwords shipped with systems

❍ try all short passwords

❍ then try by searching dictionaries of common words

❍ intelligent searches try passwords associated with the user (variations on

names, birthday, phone, common words/interests)

❍ before exhaustively searching all possible passwords

check by login attempt or against stolen password file

success depends on password chosen by user

surveys show many users choose poorly

Password Capture

another attack involves password capture

❍ watching over shoulder as password is entered

❍ using a trojan horse program to collect

❍ monitoring an insecure network login (eg. telnet, FTP,

web, email)

❍ extracting recorded info after successful login (web

history/cache, last number dialed etc)

using valid login/password can impersonate

user

users need to be educated to use suitable

precautions/countermeasures

Cryptography and Network Security 730

Intrusion Detection

inevitably will have security failures

so need also to detect intrusions so can

❍ block if detected quickly

❍ act as deterrent

❍ collect info to improve security

a legitimate user

❍ but will have imperfect distinction between

Approaches to Intrusion Detection

❍ threshold

❍ profile based

rule-based detection

❍ anomaly

❍ penetration identification

Audit Records

fundamental tool for intrusion detection

native audit records

❍ part of all common multi-user O/S

❍ already present for use

❍ may not have info wanted in desired form

❍ created specifically to collect wanted info

❍ at cost of additional overhead on system

Statistical Anomaly Detection

threshold detection

❍ count occurrences of specific event over time

❍ if exceed reasonable value assume intrusion

❍ alone is a crude & ineffective detector

profile based

❍ characterize past behavior of users

❍ detect significant deviations from this

❍ profile usually multi-parameter

Audit Record Analysis

foundation of statistical approaches

analyze records to get metrics over time

❍ counter, gauge, interval timer, resource use

current behavior is acceptable

❍ mean & standard deviation, multivariate, markov

process, time series, operational

key advantage is no prior knowledge used

Rule-Based Intrusion Detection

observe events on system & apply rules to

decide if activity is suspicious or not

rule-based anomaly detection

❍ analyze historical audit records to identify usage

patterns & auto-generate rules for them

❍ then observe current behavior & match against rules to

see if conforms

❍ like statistical anomaly detection does not require prior

knowledge of security flaws

Rule-Based Intrusion Detection

rule-based penetration identification

❍ uses expert systems technology

❍ with rules identifying known penetration, weakness

patterns, or suspicious behavior

❍ rules usually machine & O/S specific

❍ rules are generated by experts who interview & codify

knowledge of security admins

❍ quality depends on how well this is done

❍ compare audit records or states against rules

Base-Rate Fallacy

practically an intrusion detection system

needs to detect a substantial percentage

of intrusions with few false alarms

❍ if too few intrusions detected -> false security

❍ if too many false alarms -> ignore / waste time

existing systems seem not to have a good

record

Distributed Intrusion Detection

traditional focus is on single systems

but typically have networked systems

more effective defense has these working

together to detect intrusions

issues

❍ dealing with varying audit record formats

❍ integrity & confidentiality of networked data

❍ centralized or decentralized architecture

Distributed Intrusion Detection -

Architecture

Distributed Intrusion Detection –

Agent Implementation

Honeypots

decoy systems to lure attackers

❍ away from accessing critical systems

❍ to collect information of their activities

❍ to encourage attacker to stay on system so

administrator can respond

are filled with fabricated information

instrumented to collect detailed

information on attackers activities

may be single or multiple networked

systems

Cryptography and Network Security 742

Password Management

front-line defense against intruders

users supply both:

❍ login – determines privileges of that user

❍ password – to identify them

❍ Unix uses multiple DES (variant with salt)

❍ more recent systems use crypto hash function

Managing Passwords

need policies and good user education

ensure every account has a default password

ensure users change the default passwords to

something they can remember

protect password file from general access

set technical policies to enforce good passwords

❍ minimum length (>6)

❍ require a mix of upper & lower case letters, numbers, punctuation

❍ block know dictionary words

Managing Passwords

may reactively run password guessing tools

❍ note that good dictionaries exist for almost any

language/interest group

may enforce periodic changing of passwords

have system monitor failed login attempts, &

lockout account if see too many in a short

period

do need to educate users and get support

balance requirements with user acceptance

be aware of social engineering attacks

Proactive Password Checking

most promising approach to improving

password security

allow users to select own password

but have system verify it is acceptable

❍ simple rule enforcement (see previous slide)

❍ compare against dictionary of bad passwords

❍ use algorithmic (markov model or bloom filter) to

detect poor choices

Summary

have considered:

❍ problem of intrusion

❍ intrusion detection (statistical & rule-based)

❍ password management

Cryptography and Network Security 748

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