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Aerodynamics 101

How do those things really fly?

Dr. Paul Kutler
Saturday, March 31, 2007 Monterey Airport

Airbus 380
An aerodynamics challenge

FA-18 Condensation Pattern

Aerodynamics involves multiple flow regimes

Legacy Aircraft

Aerodynamics is a maturing science

Terms and Definitions Forces Acting on Airplane Lift Drag Concluding remarks

Terms and Nomenclature

Airfoil Angle of attack Angle of incidence Aspect Ratio Boundary Layer Camber Chord Mean camber line Pressure coefficient Leading edge Relative wind Reynolds Number Thickness Trailing edge Wing planform Wingspan

Force Diagram

Airfoil Definitions

Definition of Lift, Drag & Moment

L = 1/2 V V2 CL S D = 1/2 V V2 CD S M = 1/2 V V2 CM S c

A Misconception
A fluid element that splits at the leading edge and travels over and under the airfoil will meet at the trailing edge.
The distance traveled over the top is greater than over the bottom. It must therefore travel faster over the top to meet at the trailing edge. According to Bernoullis equation, the pressure is lower on the top than on the bottom.

Hence, lift is produced.

How Lift is Produced

Continuity equation Bernoullis equation Pressure differential Lift is produced

The Truth
A fluid element moving over the top surface leaves the trailing edge long before the fluid element moving over the bottom surface reaches the trailing edge. The two elements do not meet at the trailing edge. This result has been validated both experimentally and computationally.

Airfoil Lift Curve (cl vs. E)

Lift Curve - Cambered & Symmetric Airfoils

Slow Flight and Steep Turns

L = 1/2 V V2 CL S Outcome versus Action Slow Flight
Lift equals weight Velocity is decreased CL must increase E must be increased on the lift curve Velocity can be reduced until CL max is reached Beyond that, a stall results

Slow Flight and Steep Turns

L = 1/2 V V2 CL S Outcome versus Action

Steep Turns (Bank, yank and crank)

Lift vector is rotated inward (bank) by the bank angle reducing the vertical component of lift Lift equals weight divided by cosine F Either V (crank), CL or both must be increased to replenish lift To increase CL, increase E (yank) on the lift curve To increase V, give it some gas
More effective since lift is proportional to the velocity squared

Stalling Airfoil

Effect of Bank Angle on Stall Speed

L = 1/2 V V2 CL S

F equals the bank angle

At stall CL equals CLmax L = W / cos F Thus
Vstall = [2 W / (V CL max S cos F)]

Airplane thus stalls at a higher speed Load factor increases in a bank

Thus as load factor increases, Vstall increases This is whats taught in the Pilots Handbook

Effect of CG Location on Stall Speed

Surface Oil Flow - Grumman Yankee E = 40, 110 , & 240

Airfoil Pressure Distribution

NACA 0012, M

= 0.345, E = 3.930

Supercritical Airfoil & Pressure Distribution

Drag of an Airfoil
D = Df + Dp + Dw D = total drag on airfoil Df = skin friction drag Dp = pressure drag due to flow separation Dw = wave drag (for transonic and supersonic flows)

Skin Friction Drag

The flow at the surface of the airfoil adheres to the surface (no-slip condition) A boundary layer is created-a thin viscous region near the airfoil surface Friction of the air at the surface creates a shear stress The velocity profile in the boundary layer goes from zero at the wall to 99% of the freestream value X = Q (dV/dy)wall Q is the dynamic viscosity of air [3.73 (10) -7 sl/f/s]

The Boundary Layer

Two types of viscous flows
Streamlines are smooth and regular Fluid element moves smoothly along streamline Produces less drag

Streamlines break up Fluid element moves in a random, irregular and tortuous fashion Produces more drag

Xw laminar < Xw turbulent

Reynolds Number
Rex = V V x / Q Ratio of inertia to viscous forces

Boundary Layer Thickness

(Flat Plate)
Laminar Flow
H = 5 x / Rex1/2

Turbulent Flow
H = 0.16 x / Rex1/7

Turbulent Flow-Tripped B.L.

H = 0.37 x / Rex1/5

Example: Chord = 5 f, V = 150 MPH, Sea Level

Rex = 6,962,025 H = 0.114 inches H = 1.011 inches H = 7.049 inches Laminar B.L. Turbulent B.L. Tripped Turbulent B.L.

Infinite vs. Finite Wings

AR = b2 / S

Finite Wings

The Origin of Downwash

The Origin of Induced Drag

Di = L sin Ei

Elliptical Lift Distribution

CD,I = CL2/ (Te AR)

Change in Lift Curve Slope for Finite Wings

Ground Effect
Occurs during landing and takeoff Gives a feeling of floating or riding on a cushion of air between wing and ground In fact, there is no cushion of air Its effect is to increase the lift of the wing and reduce the induced drag The ground diminishes the strength of the wing tip vortices and reduces the amount of downwash The effective angle of attack is increased and lift increases

Ground Effect

Mathematically Speaking
L = 1/2 V


An increased angle of attack, increases CL Hence L is increased

D = 1/2 V V2 S [CD,0 + J CL2/(T e AR)]

CD,0 is the zero lift drag (parasite) J CL2/(T e AR) is the induced drag e is the span efficiency factor J = (16 h / b)2 / [1 + (16 h / b)2 ] b is the wingspan h is the height of the wing above the ground

Wing Dihedral (+)

Wings are bent upward through an angle +, called the dihedral angle Dihedral provides lateral stability, i.e., an airplane in a bank will return to its equilibrium position This is a result of the lift on the higher wing being less than the lift on the lower wing providing a restoring rolling moment

Drag of a Finite Wing

D = Df + Dp + Dw + Di D = total drag on wing Df = skin friction drag Dp = pressure drag due to flow separation Dw = wave drag (for transonic and supersonic flows) Di = Induced drag (drag due to lift)

Drag of a Wing

Induced drag - drag due to lift Parasite drag - drag due to non-lifting surfaces
Profile drag
Skin friction Pressure drag (Form drag)

Interference drag (e.g., wingfuselage, wing-pylon)

A Mechanism for High Lift

Effect of Flaps on Lift Curve

High Lift Devices

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. No flap Plain flap Split flap L. E. slat Single slotted flap Double-slotted flap Double-slotted flap with slat Double-slotted flap with slat and boundary layer suction Not shown - Fowler flap


Shape Comparison
Modern vs. Conventional Airfoils

Maximum Lift Coefficient Comparison

Modern vs. Conventional Airfoils

Whats Next on the Agenda

Boeing 787 Dreamliner

Boeing 787

Whats Next on the Agenda

Boeing Blended Wing-Body Configuration

Boeing 797

Concluding Remarks
What was not discussed
Transonic flow Drag-divergence Mach number Supersonic flow Wave drag Swept wings Compressibility effects Boundary layer theory The history of aerodynamics

Airbus 380 Interior

Good aerodynamics results in improved creature comforts

Questions and Answers

Backup Slides

Reduced induced drag Equivalent to extending wingspan 1/2 of winglet height Less wing bending moment and less wing weight than extending wing Hinders spanwise flow and pressure drop at the wing tip Looks modern/esthetically pleasing

Boeing 737 Winglet

Vortex Generators

Swept-Wing Principle

Wave Drag


HondaJet Engine Position

The Sweet Spot
Location where the engine coexists with the wing and enjoys favorable interference effects

The reason - Transonic Area Rule

Richard Whitcomb - NASA Scientist The total cross-sectional area must vary smoothly from the nose to tail to minimize the wave drag Wave drag is created by shock waves that appear over the aircraft as a result of local regions of embedded supersonic flow

HondaJet Aerodynamics
Engine inlet is positioned at 75% chord As the cross-sectional area decreases at the trailing edge of the wing, the engine adds area thus yielding a smooth area variation This engine position also slows the flow and decreases the wing-shock strength The critical Mach number is thus increased from .70 to .73 The pylon is positioned near the outer portion of the nacelle and cambered inward to follow the flow direction During stall, separation starts outboard of the pylon; separation does not occur between the pylon and fuselage

HondaJet Aerodynamics
(Continued) Natural laminar flow fuselage nose
Following the area rule, the nose expands from its tip and then contracts as the windshield emerges. As the wing is approached, the fuselage cross-sectional area increases smoothly; this helps maintain the laminar flow

HondaJet Aerodynamics

Natural laminar flow wing Utilizes integral, machined panels that minimizes the number of parts for smoother flow when mated together Employs winglets to reduce induced drag 30% more efficient than other business jets

Eagle in Flight
cl = 2 L/ V V2 S
Variable Twist Adaptive Dihedral Tail ? Turbulator STOL/VTOL Capabilities Winglets

Smart Structures

b/2 c

Variable Camber

Elastic Flaps

cd,i = cl2 / AR

Smooth Fairings

Tilting Minimized Noise Control & Detectability Center Retractable Landing Gear