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STANDARDIZATION

WHAT IS A STANDARD?
 A standard is a rule or example that provides clear expectations  Standards should be consistently communicated, applied and documented to enable consistency

STANDARDS
Standards are established using factual or observed Best Practices

DOCUMENTS IN MANUFACTURING

* Standardized work is only a small subset of documents in manufacturing at Toyota

WHAT IS MOTION AND TIME STUDY?


Motion Study is designed to determine the best way to complete a repetitive job. Time study is the systematic recording and critical examination of existing and proposed ways of doing work as a means to develop and apply easier and more effective methods. Motion and time study is a business efficiency technique to increase productivity and reduce unit cost.

OBJECTIVES AND BENEFITS OF TMS


The objective of applying motion and time study is to obtain the optimum use of the human and material resources to increase the productivity. Following are some benefits of applying work study technique. 1. 2. 3. 4. Increases production Reduces the cost of labour, material and overheads Improves quality Improves the conditions which involve excessive human resource, fatigue or danger 5. Better control of expenditures

TECHNIQUES USED FOR TMS


Both motion and time study are made up of number of different techniques

WHAT IS STANDARDIZED WORK?


 Standardized work is a tool for maintaining PRODUCTIVITY, QUALITY, AND SAFETY at high levels.  Standardized work is defined as work in which the sequence of job elements has been efficiently organized and is repeatedly followed by a team member.  Standardized work is a process whose goal is kaizen.

STANDARDIZED WORK
Clearly visible production and people supported activities that are standardized to reduce process variation and match customer needs Synchronized flow Simplified practices Consistent methods Applying better ideas Leveled work loads

WHY STANDARDIZED WORK?


 Provides a basis for employee training  Establishes process stability  Reveals clear stop and start points for each process  Assists audit and problem solving  Creates baseline for kaizen  Enables effective employee involvement and pokayoke  Maintains organizational knowledge

ELEMENTS OF STANDARDIZED WORK


Takt Time and Cycle Time Takt Time = Daily operating time / Required quantity per day Cycle Time = Actual time for process Goal is to synchronize takt time and cycle time Work Sequence The order in which the work is done in a given process It helps in defining safety and ergonomic issues Standard Work In Process (SWIP) SWIP is the minimum quantity of stock (inventory) needed to complete the steps of one cycle and allow the steps to continue repeatedly for a man-machine operation

STANDARDIZED WORK
BENEFITS
1. Cost decrease Fewer mistakes or errors are made 2. Lead Time is decreased The process becomes more reliable 3. Quality Assurance costs decrease Quality is built into each step, reducing or eliminating the need for inspections downstream
12

STANDARDIZED WORK
4. Customer complaints decrease quality standards and schedules are met more consistently. 5. Process become more efficient and Reliable. 6. Employee skills and morale increase. 7. For anyone, from novice to veteran it is easier and clearer, and boosts enthusiasm, self confidence and skill.
13

STANDARDIZED WORK
Terms to know: Takt time Target cycle time Actual cycle time Manual time Walk time Wait time Unassigned time Machine cycle time

STANDARDIZED WORK
Takt Time:

The amount of time required to produce one piece of the customer demand

STANDARDIZED WORK
Takt Time Calculation: Available Daily Operating Time (Seconds) Total Average Daily Production Requirements (Pieces)

STANDARDIZED WORK
Takt Time Calculation Example:
Working shifts per day = 2 Customer demand / day = 1500 pieces Net working time / shift = 8 hours 2 breaks per day @ 10 min. each Total Available Time

= 480 min = 20 min = 460 min

460 minutes X 60 seconds = 27,600 seconds Net available time / day = 55,200 sec Takt Time = 55,200sec / 1500 units = 36.7 seconds We need to net 1 unit every 36.7 seconds

STANDARDIZED WORK

Target Cycle Time = Takt Time - Special Allowances

STANDARDIZED WORK
Target Cycle Time Example: Production Requirement = 1500 parts per day
15 minutes X 2 shifts = 30 min. 12 minutes X 2 shifts = 24 min. 54 min. 54 minutes X 60 seconds = 3240 seconds P.M. Meeting 3240/ 1500 = 2.15 seconds lost for Special Allowances Target Cycle Time = 36.7(Takt) 2.15(SPA) = 34.55 sec.

STANDARDIZED WORK
Target Cycle Time Exercise: Production Requirement = 1200 parts per day
Takt Time = 46 P. M. EI Meeting Target Cycle Time = ? 15 minutes X 2 shifts = 30 min. 12 minutes X 2 shifts = 24 min. 54 min.

STANDARDIZED WORK
Target Cycle Time Exercise: Production Requirement = 1200 parts per day
Takt Time = 46 P. M. EI Meeting 15 minutes X 2 shifts = 30 min. 12 minutes X 2 shifts = 24 min. 54 min. 54 minutes X 60 seconds = 3240 seconds 3240 / 1200 = 2.7 seconds lost for Special Allowances Target Cycle Time = 46(Takt) 2.7(SPA) = 43.3 sec.

STANDARDIZED WORK

Actual Cycle Time = Manual time + Walk Time + Wait Time

STANDARDIZED WORK
Manual Time:

The time required for an operator to perform the physical tasks for one cycle of operation (Inspecting, loading / unloading, and gauging)

Does not include walking and waiting time. These will be handled separately.

STANDARDIZED WORK
Walk Time:

The time required for the physical movement from one point to another, with or without a part

STANDARDIZED WORK
Wait Time:

The time the operator waits while the machine completes its function

If the operator must hold a part while the machine is running, it is NOT wait time, but is part of manual time. If the operator can release part, but simply stands there and waits, it is wait time.

STANDARDIZED WORK
Unassigned Time: The difference between actual cycle time and target cycle time

STANDARDIZED WORK
Machine Cycle Time: The time required by a machine to complete one cycle of operation

*Machine cycle time may also be referred to as Auto Time Does not include loading and unloading unless it is part of automatic cycle. Manual loading and unloading are included in manual time.

Target Work Unit Staffing


All workers in a cell must have equal or nearly equal amounts of work or productivity of the line will suffer. When the cycle time of a workcell exceeds the takt time for the cell, then late shipments and excessive overtime will result. If the cycle time of the workcell is less than takt time, either overproduction or efficiency reduction will result.

Target Work Unit Staffing

Total Manual Time+ Total Walk Time # Of Members = Target Cycle Time

Forms / Charts for Standardize Work


Standardized Work Combination Table (SWCT) Balance Board Staffing Graph Standardize Work Chart Standardized Production Capacity Sheet

SWCT
The Standard Work Combination Table (SWCT) combines human and machine movement based on takt time. It is used as a tool to determine the range of work and work sequence for which a team member is responsible. It helps allocating manpower. The Standard Work Combination Sheet shows work flow on a graph and clearly depicts:     Walking time Waiting time Machine Cycle time Operator Cycle time

SWCT USES
The Standard Work Combination Sheet provides employees with a quick and easy refresher when posted in a work cell. They can glance up and check that they are doing the process correctly. SWCT provides a standard that can be clearly communicated to employees during the training process. SWCT makes it easy to audit an operation. The Standard Work Combination Sheet helps managers to understand their capacity, manage daily operations and keep things running smoothly. It also helps to eliminate waste.

Part No.: Part Name:

EX4444 Exhaust Ass'y

Cell::

4444

Oper. A
Walk Time

No.

Process Name

Date: 08/30/99 Manual Auto Wait Time Time Time

Standardized Work Combination Table


5 10

Volume

Target Cycle Time Takt Time

Manual Auto

Walk Wait

1840 15

28.6"

30" 20

Red Vertical Line Takt Time; Long Vertical Black Line Target Cycle Time; Short Vertical Black Line Actual Cycle Time

25

30

1 Unload Bender 2 Cut Tube 3 Size Tube 4 5


Stage Tube Pick Tube and Load Bender

Totals

Actual Cycle Time =

Part No.:

EX4444

Cell::

4444

Oper. A
Walk Time

Part Name: Exhaust Ass'y

No. 1

Process Name
Unload Bender

Date: 08/30/99 Manual Auto Wait Time Time Time

Standardized Work Combination Table


5 10

Volume

Target Cycle

Takt Time

Manual Auto

Walk Wait

1840 15

28.6"

30" 20

Red Vertical Line Takt Time; Long Vertical Black Line Target Cycle Time; Short Vertical Black Line Actual Cycle Time

25

30

1" 3"

26"

6"

1" 2 Cut Tube 3 4 5


Size Tube Stage Tube Pick Tube and Load Bender

2" 3" 2" 2" 3" 2" 2"

Totals

12

26

6 9

Actual Cycle Time =27"

Part No.:

EX4444

Cell::

4444

Oper. A
Walk Time

Part Name: Exhaust Ass'y

No. 1

Process Name
Unload Bender

Date: 08/30/99 Manual Auto Wait Time Time Time

Standardized Work Combination Table


5 10

Volume

Target Cycle

Takt Time

Manual Auto

Walk Wait

1840 15

28.6"

30" 20

Red Vertical Line Takt Time; Long Vertical Black Line Target Cycle Time; Short Vertical Black Line Actual Cycle Time

25

30

1" 3"

26"

6"

1" 2 Cut Tube 3 4 5


Size Tube Stage Tube Pick Tube and Load Bender

2" 3" 2" 2" 3" 2" 2"

Totals

12

26

6 9

Actual Cycle Time =27"

Part No.:

EX4444

Cell::

4444

Oper. A
Walk Time

Part Name: Exhaust Ass'y

No. 1

Process Name
Unload Bender

Date: 08/30/99 Manual Auto Wait Time Time Time

Standardized Work Combination Table


5 10

Volume

Target Cycle

Takt Time

Manual Auto

Walk Wait

1840 15

28.6"

30" 20

Red Vertical Line Takt Time; Long Vertical Black Line Target Cycle Time; Short Vertical Black Line Actual Cycle Time

25

30

1" 3"

26"

6"

1" 2 Cut Tube 3 4 5


Size Tube Stage Tube Pick Tube and Load Bender

2" 3" 2" 2" 3" 2" 2"

Totals

12

26

6 9

Actual Cycle Time =27"

Part No.:

EX4444

Cell::

4444

Oper. A
Walk Time

Part Name: Exhaust Ass'y

No.

Process Name

Date: 08/30/99 Manual Auto Wait Time Time Time

Standardized Work Combination Table


5 10

Volume

Target Cycle

Takt Time

Manual Auto

Walk Wait

1840 15

28.6"

30" 20

Red Vertical Line Takt Time; Long Vertical Black Line Target Cycle Time; Short Vertical Black Line Actual Cycle Time

25

30

1 Unload Bender 2 Cut Tube 3 4 5


Size Tube Stage Tube Pick Tube and Load Bender

1" 3"

26"

6"

1" 2" 3" 2" 2" 3" 2" 2"

Totals

12

26

6 9

Actual Cycle Time = 27"

Part No.:

EX4444

Cell::

4444

Oper. A
Walk Time

Part Name: Exhaust Ass'y

No. 1

Process Name

Date: 08/30/99 Manual Auto Wait Time Time Time

Standardized Work Combination Table


5 10

Volume

Target Cycle

Takt Time

Manual Auto

Walk Wait

1840 15

28.6"

30" 20

Red Vertical Line Takt Time; Long Vertical Black Line Target Cycle Time; Short Vertical Black Line Actual Cycle Time

25

30

Unload Bender 1"


3"
Size Tube Stage Tube Pick Tube and Load Bender

26"

6"

1" 2"

2 Cut Tube 3 4 5

3" 2"

2" 2"

3" 2"

Totals

12

26

6 9

Actual Cycle Time =27"

Part No.:

EX4444

Cell::

4444

Oper. A
Walk Time

Part Name: Exhaust Ass'y

No.

Process Name

Date: 08/30/99 Manual Auto Wait Time Time Time

Standardized Work Combination Table


5 10

Volume

Target Cycle

Takt Time

Manual Auto

Walk Wait

1840 15

28.6"

30" 20

Red Vertical Line Takt Time; Long Vertical Black Line Target Cycle Time; Short Vertical Black Line Actual Cycle Time

25

30

1 Unload Bender 2 Cut Tube 3 4 5


Size Tube

1" 3"

26"

6"

1" 2"

3" 2"

2" 2"

Stage Tube
Pick Tube and Load Bender

3" 2"

Totals

12

26

6 9

Actual Cycle Time =27"

Part No.:

EX4444

Cell::

4444

Oper. A
Walk Time

Part Name: Exhaust Ass'y

No. 1

Process Name
Unload Bender

Date: 08/30/99 Manual Auto Wait Time Time Time

Standardized Work Combination Table


5 10

Volume

Target Cycle

Takt Time

Manual Auto

Walk Wait

1840 15

28.6"

30" 20

Red Vertical Line Takt Time; Long Vertical Black Line Target Cycle Time; Short Vertical Black Line Actual Cycle Time

25

30

1" 3" 3" 2"

26"

6"

2 Cut Tube 3 4 5
Size Tube Stage Tube Pick Tube and Load Bender

1"
2" 2" 2"

3" 2"

Totals

12

26

6 9

Actual Cycle Time =27"

Part No.:

EX4444

Cell::

4444

Oper. A
Walk Time

Part Name: Exhaust Ass'y

No.

Process Name

Date: 08/30/99 Manual Auto Wait Time Time Time

Standardized Work Combination Table


5 10

Volume

Target Cycle

Takt Time

Manual Auto

Walk Wait

1840 15

28.6"

30" 20

Red Vertical Line Takt Time; Long Vertical Black Line Target Cycle Time; Short Vertical Black Line Actual Cycle Time

25

30

1 Unload Bender 2 3 4 5

1"

26"

6"

Cut Tube
Size Tube Stage Tube Pick Tube and Load Bender

3"
3" 2"

1" 2" 2" 2"

3" 2"

Totals

12

26

6 9

Actual Cycle Time =27"

Part No.:

EX4444

Cell::

4444

Oper. A
Walk Time

Part Name: Exhaust Ass'y

No.

Process Name

Date: 08/30/99 Manual Auto Wait Time Time Time

Standardized Work Combination Table


5 10

Volume

Target Cycle

Takt Time

Manual Auto

Walk Wait

1840 15

28.6"

30" 20

Red Vertical Line Takt Time; Long Vertical Black Line Target Cycle Time; Short Vertical Black Line Actual Cycle Time

25

30

1 Unload Bender 2 Cut Tube 3 4 5


Size Tube Stage Tube Pick Tube and Load Bender

1" 3" 3" 2"

26"

6"

1"

2"
2" 2"

3" 2"

Totals

12

26

6 9

Actual Cycle Time =27"

Part No.:

EX4444

Cell::

4444

Oper. A
Walk Time

Part Name: Exhaust Ass'y

No. 1

Process Name
Unload Bender

Date: 08/30/99 Manual Auto Wait Time Time Time

Standardized Work Combination Table


5 10

Volume

Target Cycle

Takt Time

Manual Auto

Walk Wait

1840 15

28.6"

30" 20

Red Vertical Line Takt Time; Long Vertical Black Line Target Cycle Time; Short Vertical Black Line Actual Cycle Time

25

30

1" 3"

26"

6"

1" 2 Cut Tube 3 4 5 2"

Size Tube
Stage Tube Pick Tube and Load Bender

3"
2" 3"

2" 2" 2"

Totals

12

26

6 9

Actual Cycle Time =27"

Part No.:

EX4444

Cell::

4444

Oper. A
Walk Time

Part Name: Exhaust Ass'y

No.

Process Name

Date: 08/30/99 Manual Auto Wait Time Time Time

Standardized Work Combination Table


5 10

Volume

Target Cycle

Takt Time

Manual Auto

Walk Wait

1840 15

28.6"

30" 20

Red Vertical Line Takt Time; Long Vertical Black Line Target Cycle Time; Short Vertical Black Line Actual Cycle Time

25

30

1 Unload Bender 2 3 4 5
Cut Tube Size Tube Stage Tube Pick Tube and Load Bender

1" 3"

26"

6"

1" 2" 3" 2" 3" 2"

2"
2"

Totals

12

26

6 9

A ctual Cycle Time = 27"

Part No.:

EX4444

Cell::

4444

Oper. A
Walk Time

Part Name: Exhaust Ass'y

No. 1

Process Name
Unload Bender

Date: 08/30/99 Manual Auto Wait Time Time Time

Standardized Work Combination Table


5 10

Volume

Target Cycle

Takt Time

Manual Auto

Walk Wait

1840 15

28.6"

30" 20

Red Vertical Line Takt Time; Long Vertical Black Line Target Cycle Time; Short Vertical Black Line Actual Cycle Time

25

30

1" 3"

26"

6"

1" 2 Cut Tube 3 4 5


Size Tube

2" 3"

Stage Tube
Pick Tube and Load Bender

2"
3"

2" 2" 2"

Totals

12

26

6 9

Actual Cycle Time =27"

Part No.:

EX4444

Cell::

4444

Oper. A
Walk Time

Part Name: Exhaust A ss'y

No. 1 2 3 4 5

Process Name
Unload Bender Cut Tube Size Tube Stage Tube Pick Tube and Load Bender

Date: 08/30/99 Manual Auto Wait Time Time Time

Standardized Work Combination Table


5 10

Volume

Target Cycle

Takt Time

Manual Auto

Walk Wait

1840 15

28.6"

30" 20

Red Vertical Line Takt Time; Long Vertical Black Line Target Cycle Time; Short Vertical Black Line Actual Cycle Time

25

30

1" 3"

26"

6"

1" 2" 3" 2" 3" 2" 2"

2"

Totals

12

26

6 9

A ctual Cycle Time = 27"

Part No.:

EX4444

Cell::

4444

Oper. A
Walk Time

Part Name: Exhaust A ss'y

No.

Process Name

Date: 08/30/99 Manual Auto Wait Time Time Time

Standardized Work Combination Table


5 10

Volume

Target Cycle

Takt Time

Manual Auto

Walk Wait

1840 15

28.6"

30" 20

Red Vertical Line Takt Time; Long Vertical Black Line Target Cycle Time; Short Vertical Black Line Actual Cycle Time

25

30

1 Unload Bender 2 Cut Tube 3 4 5


Size Tube Stage Tube

1" 3"

26"

6"

1" 2" 3" 2" 2" 2" 2"

Pick Tube and Load Bender

3"

Totals

12

26

6 9

A ctual Cycle Time = 27"

Part No.:

EX4444

Cell::

4444

Oper. A
Walk Time

Part Name: Exhaust A ss'y

No. 1

Process Name
Unload Bender

Date: 08/30/99 Manual Auto Wait Time Time Time

Standardized Work Combination Table


5 10

Volume

Target Cycle

Takt Time

Manual Auto

Walk Wait

1840 15

28.6"

30" 20

Red Vertical Line Takt Time; Long Vertical Black Line Target Cycle Time; Short Vertical Black Line Actual Cycle Time

25

30

1" 3"

26"

6"

1" 2 Cut Tube 3 4 5


Size Tube Stage Tube Pick Tube and Load Bender

2" 3" 2" 2" 3" 2"

2"

Totals

12

26

6 9

A ctual Cycle Time = 27"

Part No.:

EX4444

Cell::

4444

Oper. A
Walk Time

Part Name: Exhaust A ss'y

No.

Process Name

Date: 08/30/99 Manual Auto Wait Time Time Time

Standardized Work Combination Table


5 10

Volume

Target Cycle

Takt Time

Manual Auto

Walk Wait

1840 15

28.6"

30" 20

Red Vertical Line Takt Time; Long Vertical Black Line Target Cycle Time; Short Vertical Black Line Actual Cycle Time

25

30

1 Unload Bender 2 Cut Tube 3 4 5


Size Tube Stage Tube Pick Tube and Load Bender

1" 3"

26"

6"

1" 2"

3" 2"

2" 2"

3" 2"

Totals

12

26

6 9

A ctual Cycle Time = 27"

Part No.:

PIPE396

Line:

4440

Oper. B
Walk Time

Part Name: Tail Pipe

No. 1 2 3 4

Process Name
Pick steel Stam p s teel

Date: 08/30/99 Manual Auto Wait Time Time Time

Standardized Work Combination Table


5 10

Volume

Target Cycle

Takt Time

Manual Auto

Walk Wait

1840 15

28.6"

30" 20

Red Line = Takt Time, Black Line = Target Cycle Time, Short Black Line = Actual Cycle Time

25

30

1" 3"

1" 2" 1" 1" 1" 2" 4"

Load Lockseamer Unload Lockseamer

3"

3"

5 Load & Act. Flare Pres s

Totals

3 8

Actual Cycle Time =19"

Balance Board
 Shows whether or not line is balanced  Is a visual tool to help us better balance the work load  Is to be used by the work team

BALANCE BOARD
Wait On Bender 6.0 Walk to F.P. 5.0 Stage Part 2.0

Takt Time 30 Target Cycle Time 28.6

Walk to Unload 2.0 Walk to Steel Pick Tube & Load Bender 3.0 4.0 Load & Act. FP 2.0 Walk to F. P. Unload L. S. Wait on L. S. 1.0 1.0 3.0

Walk to Stage 3.0 Pack Part Walk to F.G. Pick Part Load & Act. 2.0 2.0 1.0 9.0

Walk to Tubes 2..0 Stage Tube 2.0

Walk to Stage 1.0 Unload Spin 1.0 Wait on Spin Load Spinner 3.0 1.0

Walk to Stage 2.0 Size Tube 3.0 Walk to Sizer 2.0 Cut Tube 2.0

Load Lockseam 1.0 Walk to L.S. Stamp Steel 2.0 3.0

Walk to Spinner 2.0 Load Unload S 3.0 Walk to Stuffer 1.0 Unload F.P. 1.0 Wait on Welder 1.0 Walk to Welder 1.0 Pick Pipe & Muff 2.0

Walk to Cutoff 1.0 Unload bender 1.0

Walk to Press 1.0 Pick Steel 1.0

Operator A 27 seconds

Operator B 19 seconds

Operator C 20 seconds

Operator D 21 seconds

Staffing Graph

Total Total Operator Manual Walk Time Time

Total Wait Time

Actual Cycle Time

Target Cycle Time

Unassigned Time

A B C D
Total

12 8.0 8.0 14 42

9.0 8.0 9.0 6.0 32

6.0 3.0 3.0 1.0 13

27 19 20 21 87

28.6 28.6 28.6 28.6

1.6 9.6 8.6 7.6 27.4

50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10

4 Members

Takt Time Target Cycle Time

Wait Time Walk Time Manual Time

5 0
A B C D

50 45 40 35

4 Members Balanced but not to Target Cycle Time

Takt Time

30
Target Cycle Time

25 20 15 10
Manual Time Wait Time Walk Time

5 0
A B C D

50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10

4 Members Balanced to Target Cycle Time

Takt Time Target Cycle Time

Wait Time Walk Time Manual Time

5 0
A B C D

50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10

3 Members Eliminated Wait and Balanced to Target Cycle Time

Takt Time Target Cycle Time

Wait Time Walk Time Manual Time

5 0
A B C D

50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10

2 Members Eliminated Wait, Reduced Walk & Balanced to Target Cycle Time

Takt Time Target Cycle Time

Wait Time Walk Time Manual Time

5 0
A B C D

Standardized Work Chart


 Three elements (takt time, work sequence, SWIP)  Tool for visual control and improvement in the work area Benefits:  Understand and indicate work priorities  Identify the flow of work  Demonstrate all the elements required for safe and effective work  Cut down on meetings to discuss work issues.

The standardized Production Capacity Sheet specifies the maximum production volume that each machine of a certain process is capable of achieving, useful information in identifying production bottlenecks.