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Planning and control is concerned with the reconciliation between what the market requires and what the

operation s resources can deliver

Planning is a formalization of what is intended to happen at some time in the future.

Control is the process of coping with changes in these variables.

A combination of uncertainty in the operation s ability to supply and in the demand for its products and services is particularly difficult to plan for and control.

This contrasts the total length of time customers have to wait between asking for the product or service and receiving it, demand time, D, and the total throughput time, P. Throughput time is how long the operation takes to obtain the resources and produce and deliver the product or service

Loading is the amount of work that is allocated to a work centre Valuable Operating time The amount of time at a piece of equipment or work centre that is available for productive working after stoppages and inefficiencies have been accounted for.

Finite loading is an approach which allocates work to a work centre (a person, a machine or perhaps a group of people or machines) only up to a set limit. Finite loading is relevant to operations where o It is possible to limit the load o It is necessary to limit the load o The cost of limiting the load is not prohibitive

Infinite loading is an approach to loading work which does not limit accepting work, but instead tries to cope with it Infinite loading is relevant to operations where o It is not possible to limit the load o It is not necessary to limit the load o The cost of limiting the load is prohibitive

The activity within planning and control that decides on the order in which work is to be performed.

Sequencing Rules Physical constraints Customer Priority Due Date (DD) Last in First Out (LIFO) First in First Out (FIFO) Longest Operation time (LOT) Shortest Operation time (SOT)

Judging Sequencing Rules


Meeting due date promised to customer


(dependability). Minimizing the time the job spends in the process, also known as flow time (speed). Minimizing work-in-progress inventory (an element of cost). Minimizing idle time of work centres (another element of cost).

A term used in planning and control to indicate the detailed timetable of what work should be done, when it should be done and where it should be done.

Forward and Backward Scheduling

Forward and Backward Scheduling

Gantt Chart

Staff Rostering A term used in planning and control, usually to indicate staff scheduling, the allocation of working times to individuals so as to adjust the capacity of an operation.