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basic single-loop feedback amplifier topologies, all of which have the structure given in figure below.

The symbol indicated by the circle with the summation sign enclosed represents the summing network whose output is the algebraic sum of the inputs. Thus Xi = Xs + Xf The signal Xi, representing the output of the summing network, is the amplifier input X i . If the feedback signal Xf is 1800 out of phase with the input Xs, as is true in negative-feedback system, then Xi is a difference signal. That is, Xi decreases as |Xf| increases. The reverse transmission of the feedback network F is defined by

Xf F| Xo

The transfer ratio F is often a real number but, in general, is a function of frequency. The gain of the amplifier A is defined by

Xo Xo A| ! Xi Xi

The gain with feedback AF is obtained by substituting the above A Xo equations is

AF |

Xs

1 XF

The gain A in the above equations represents the transfer function without feedback. If F = 0, eliminating the fed-back signal, no feedback exists. Frequently, A is referred to as the open-loop gain (F = 0) and designated by AOL. When F { 0, a feedback loop exists and AF is open called the closed-loop gain. If |AF| < |A|, the feedback is termed negative; if |AF| > |A|, the feedback is positive (regenerative). We see that in the case of negative feedback |1 - AF| > 1.

v0 ! avI v fb ! fv0 vI ! vi v fb

Shunt-Shunt Feedback :

vo a! iI

where a is a transresistance f ! v o

i fb

where f is a transconductance

v0 ! aiI

iI ! ii i fb

Substitution of ifb we get iI ! ii fvo

vo ! ii fvo a

Rearranging terms we find

vo a ! !A ii 1 af

iI !

ii 1 af

vi ii

Zi !

Zi !

vi 1 z ! i iI 1 af 1 T

Zo ! zo 1 T

io a ! ii 1 af

Zi !

zi 1 T

Z o ! zo (1 T )

(a) Equivalent circuit of a shunt-shunt feedback amplifier. (b) Equivalent circuit of a shunt-shunt feedback amplifier for apw.

io a ! vi 1 af

Z i ! zi (1 T ) Z o ! zo (1 T )

The number of poles in a transfer function is equal to the number of independent energy-storing elements in the network. Often, the high-frequency response of an amplifier has no finite zeros; that is, AH(S) contains only poles. For this situation an amplifier with three real poles has a transfer function

Ao AH s
! 1 s p1
1 s p2
1 s p3

Alternatively, equation can, by performing the indicated multiplication, be rewritten as

Ao AH s
! 1 a1s a2 s 2 a3 s 3

where

1 1 1 a1 ! p1 p2 p3

1 1 1 a2 ! p1 p2 p1 p3 p2 p3

1 a3 ! p1 p2 p3

Consider the situation where p1<< p2 < p3; in other words, where p1 is the dominant pole. Then

1 a1 $ p1

or

1 p1 $ a1

a1 p2 $ a2

a2 p3 $ a3

1 a1 a2 $ ! p1 p2 p2

or

1 a2 a3 $ ! p1 p2 p3 p 3

or

The importance of previous equation is that we can approximate the pole locations by knowing the coefficients a1, a2, and a3 in AH(s). Furthermore, the dominant-pole approximation gives the value of the 3-dB frequency fH as

p1 1 ! fH $ 2T 2Ta1

The asymptotic Bode diagram is extremely useful for the penciland- paper calculations made by circuit designers. Again, computer simulations are used to obtain the accuracy required for the component values in the final design.

(a) Determine the phase margin. (b) Is the amplifier stable? Solution: (a) The asymptotic Bode diagram is diagram is displayed in the figure, from which [G = 107.5 = 3.16 v 107 rad/s. On the phase curve, we see that T= -157.50, and use of equation gives

as indicated on figure.

(b) As JM > 0, the amplifier is stable. Calculation of [G and JM using the actual Bode diagram, and verified by MICROCAP II, gives [G = 3.09 v 107 rad/s and JM = 20.20. These are in good agreement with the values obtained from the asymptotic Bode diagram.

TO T s
! 1 s [1
s 107
1 s 108
1

(a) Determine the gain and phase margins for TO = 104 when (1) [1 = 106 rad/s and (2) [1 = 100 rad/s. (b) Is the closed-loop amplifier stable for each case in part a? ( c) Repeat parts a and b for [1 = 106 rad/s, but when TO is reduced to 10.

Figure. Asymptotic Bode diagram for a three-pole amplifier illustrating compensation by narrow-banding the amplifier.

10 T s ! 7 8 ?1 s / [1 A1 s / 10 1 s / 10

? A

(b)

Circuits for the calculation of the input resistance to a feedback amplifier : (a) series connection (b) shunt connection.

Input Resistance : The KVL for the loop gives Vi = Vs + Vf . The feedback signal is Vf = FXo is the output signal and Xo = AVi. Combination of these relationships gives

Vs Vi ! IR i ! 1 AF

from which the resistance with feedback RIF is

R IF

Vs | ! R i (1 AF) ! R i (1 T ) I

Ii ! Is If

R IF

I f ! FX o ;

X o ! AI i

Ri Ri V | ! ! I s 1 AF 1 T

Output Impedance :

Pertaining to the calculation of the output resistance to a feedback amplifier : (a) shunt connections; (b) series connection.

A Vo ! Xs 1 AF

AX i AX s I sc ! ! Ro Ro

With Vo = 0 (short circuit), no signal is fed back, Xf = 0, and Xi = Xs. Formation of the ratio Vo/Isc yields Vo Ro Ro R OF | ! ! I sc 1 AF 1 T The output impedance is increased when a negative-feedback amplifier employs a series-connection output.

A We obtain I o ! I sc ! Xs 1 AF

With terminals 1 and 2 open-circuited, no signal is fed back (Xf = 0) and Xi = Xs and the open-circuit voltage Voc = -AXiRo. Combining these relations and forming Voc/Isc, we obtain

Example Determine AF, T, and ROF for the common-source stage with source resistance in the figure below.

(a)

(b)

(a) Common-source amplifier with source resistance. (b) Schematic diagram and (c) equivalent circuit of the amplifier without feedback.

Solution : The input circuit is analogous to that for the emitter follower and is thus series-connected. Making Vo = 0 does not eliminate the feedback because Io and, hence, Vf do not become zero. When Io = 0, Vf = 0 and the output is also series connected. (This amplifier is a series-series type.) To determine the input circuit of the amplifier without feedback, open-circuit the output (Io = 0). The feedback resistance Rs appears in series with Vs. To find the output circuit, set Ii =0. Again, as indicated in the figure Rs appears in the outer loop. The equivalent circuit in Figure b is depicted in Figure c. In Figure c, Vo = -IoRD and Vf = -IoRs; hence F = Vf/Io = -Rs. Since no current exists in the gate loop, Vgs = Vs. Use of KVL for the drain loop gives Io = QVs/(rd + RD + RS). It follows that

A OL

Io Q ! ! Vs rd R D R S

T ! FA OL QR S ! rd R D R S

Since Vo = -IoRD, Vo/Vs is the same result. Inspection of Figure shows that ROD, the output resistance with the controlled source suppressed, is RS + rd. The return ratios TOC and TSC are obtained by setting RD = w and RD = 0, respectively. Thus TOC = T |RD pw = 0 and TSC = T | RD p0 = QRS/(rd + RS). The output resistance with feedback ROF = ROD(1 + TSC) = (RS + rd) [1 + Q RS/(rd + RS)]. Clearing fractions and rearranging terms, we obtain ROF = rd + RS (1 + Q) } rd(1+gmRS) for Q 1.

Example (a) Determine the input resistance RIF of an inverting Op-Amp stage. Include the Op-Amp input resistance Ri in the model for the stage. (b) Evaluate RIF for Ri p w. Solution :

(a) The equivalent circuit of the stage is displayed in figure. The dead-system input resistance RID obtained by setting Vi = 0, is

R ID ! R1 Ri || R 2

With the input terminals open-circuited, no current exists in R1, and consequently RiAv Vi TOC ! ! Ri R2 Vi The resistance R1 and Ri are in parallel when the input terminals are short-circuited. Hence R1 || Ri

TSC !

( R1 || Ri ) R 2

Av

Observe that neither TOC not TSC is zero in this amplifier. Substitution of these values into Equation gives

R IF 1 (R i || R 1 )A v /[(R 1 || R i ) R 2 ] R 2R i ! [R 1 R i || R 2 ] ! R1 1 [R i A v /(R i R 2 )] R i (1 A v ) R 2

R 2 Ri Ri [ R 2 /(1 Av )] R xx ! ! Ri (1 Av ) R 2 Ri [ R 2 /(1 Av )]

The resistance Rxx can be recognized as Ri||R2/(1 + AV); the resistance R2/(1 + Av) is exactly that which is reflected across the X-X terminals by using Millers theorem. (b) From part a, allowing Ri pw, gives

R IF

R2 ! R1 ! R 1 R xx 1 Av

For a large value of Av (Av p w), the input resistance is simply R1 as Rxx p 0. However, this is the expected result, for when Av p w, the inverting terminal is a virtual ground.

Series-shunt configuration fed from a finite source impedance. From the previous equations

v0 a ! vi 1 af

Zi vi ! vs Zi zs

v0 ! avI vi ! vI fvo

vi ! vI afvI ! vI (1 af )

also

vI ii ! zi

ii ! vi 1 zi 1 af

Substituting we get

Thus, from the previous equation input impedance Zi with feedback applied is

Zi ! vi ! (1 T ) zi ii

Series feedback at the input always raises the input impedance by (1+T).

ve f v ! 0

v ave i! zo

Circuit for the calculation of the output impedance of the series-shunt feedback configuration.

(a)

(b)

(a) Equivalent circuit of a series-shunt feedback amplifier. (b) Equivalent circuit of a series-shunt feedback amplifier for apw. Substituting we get

v afv i! zo

From the above equation the output impedance Zo with feedback applied is

v zo Zo ! ! i 1 T

Two sources are present in a single-loop feedback amplifier: the signal source Xs and the controlled source (the basic amplifier) whose control variable is Xi. Initially, let us treat the controlled source as an independent source, that is, assume that X i is an independent variable. The controlled source is treated initially as an independent source and an equation, called a constraint equation, relating the control variable to the nodal (mash) variables, is then written. Since the feedback amplifier is assumed to behave linearly, superposition applies. Hence any voltage or current in the system has two components, one attributed to Xs, and the second to X i . The output Xo is expressable as

X o ! t11 X s t12 X i

where t11Xs and t12 X i are the output components due to Xs and X i respectively. The compared signal Xi can also be written in the form of previous equation, namely, Xi = AXs + B X i . By substitution of the value of X i obtained from previous equation, however, Xi can be written as

X i ! t 21 X s t 22 X o

On the basis of previous equation and above equation, the signalflow graph in the figure is constructed. The constraint equation is simply X i = Xi. This relationship introduces the unity transmittance between Xi and X i shown dashed in the figure and corresponds to closing the loop. The signal-flow graph in the figure., applicable to all single-loop feedback amplifiers independent of their topology, is simply a consequence of the superposition principle.

Signal-flow graph with the amplifier input (Xi) disconnected from the summing network output X i . Since X i is now an independent variable. Xo and Xi each depend on Xs and X i can be determined by use of superposition.

On the basis of the previous equations the various t parameters are defined as

Xo t11 | Xs

X i !0

Xo t12 | Xi

X s !0

Xi t21 | Xs

X o !0

Xi t22 | Xo

X s !0

Observe that the t parameters are defined in a manner analogous to the definitions of the various two-port parameters.

The closed-loop gain AF is defined as the ratio Xo/Xs. In the previous figure, the branch t11 is in parallel with the path containing t21, t12, and the feedback branch t22. Hence

As previously noted, t12 is the only term in the above equation that depends on the gain of the basic amplifier block. If this gain is reduced to zero, AF becomes

Xo AF ! Xs

! AD ! t11

t12 ! 0

The quantity AD in the above equation is called the dead-system gain. Observe that AD = t11, the parameter associated with the feedforward path through the feedback network.

The return ratio T indicates the transmission around the feedback loop formed by the amplifier t12 and the feedback network t22. If the branch between Xi and X i in the previous figure is removed and the signal source Xs is suppressed, then use of the equation

Xi T ! AF ! Xi

gives Xi T | Xi

X s !0

! t12t 22

X s !0

Note that by removing the branch between Xi and X i , we no longer have a feedback system and, as seen in the previous figure, T is simply the cascade of the basic amplifier and feedback network.

When the transmittance t22 between the amplifier output and the summing circuit is zero, the feedback path is eliminated. The transfer ratio of the resultant nonfeedback amplifier, the open-loop gain AOL, is from the previous equation,

AOL

Xo | Xs

t 22 ! 0

As we are interested in constructing an amplifier, the magnitude of AOL is generally much larger than unity. The magnitude of AD is most often less than unity since it is the transfer ratio of a passive (resistive) network. Thus AOL = t12t21. Using the terms defined in the previous equation through the above equation, we can rewrite AF as

AOL AF ! 1 T

where

t 21 K! t 22

The parameter K depends only on the passive elements which comprise t21 and t22. If `AD` << `KT`, then AOL = KT and

KT AF ! 1 T

For T >> 1, AF } K = -1/F and illustrates that the closed-loop gain is essentially independent of the basic amplifier gain and depends only on the ratio of passive components. This is the situation we encountered in the Op-Amp stages for which the gain was proportinal to the resistance ratio R2/R1.

Example (a) Evaluate the t parameters for the emitter follower in the figure. (b) Use the results in part a to obtain AF, T, AD, and K.

Emitter follower.

Solution: (a) The equivalent circuit of the emitter follower is given in the figure. The parameters Xs = Vs, Xi = VT, Xo = Vo, and X i ! VT are identified in the equivalent circuit. Note that VT is associated with the controlled source, thus making gmVT behave as an independent current source.

ROF

Vo Ro Ro | ! ! I sc 1 AF 1 T

in the figure (a). In the figure (a), use of the voltage-divider relationship gives

Vo t11 ! Vs

VT ! 0

RE ! Rs rT RE

VT t 21 ! Vs

Vo !0

rT ! Rs rT

Circuit used to evaluate the t parameters: (a) t11, the dead system; (b) t21; (c) t12; (d) t22.

In the circuit of figure (c), Vs = 0 and the equivalent resistance between node E and C is RE `` (Rs + rT). Thus

Vo t12 ! VT

Vs ! 0

RE Rs rT ! gm Rs rT RE

For evaluation of t22, the circuit in the figure (d) is used. Recall that t22 signifies the transmission from output to the comparison circuit through the feedback network. Consequently, Vo is treated as the independent variable, as we are interested in what fraction of Vo contributes to VT rather than how Vo is obtained (the parameters t12 and t11 indicate this). In the figure (d), use of the voltage divider technique gives

rT VT t 22 ! ! Rs rT Vo

g m RE Rs rT rT T ! t12t 22 ! Rs rT RE Rs rT

F o RE T! Rs rT RE

t 21 rT Rs rT
!1 ! K ! rT Rs rT
t 22

1? Vo AD KT ?RE Rs rT RE
A
F o RE Rs rT RE
A ! ! AF ! 1 T 1 ?F o RE Rs rT RE
A Vs

F o 1 RE AE ! Rs rT F o 1 RE

Using current-divider techniques, we obtain RE I b ! g mVT RE Rs rT and VT = IbrT. Combination of these relations and use of the previous equation gives

VT T! VT

as before.

Vs !0

F o RE ! RE Rs rT

Note that only t12 depends on the controlled-source parameter gm (or Fo). Each of the other t parameters depends on the resistive elements in the circuit.

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