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is a respiratory illness that is caused by a coronavirus was recognized as a global threat in March 2003. The viral disease first appeared in Southern China in November 2002 and spread to more than 24 countries in Asia, Europe, North America, and South America. By the spring of 2004, the outbreak appeared to be over

In humans, the virus' incubation period from exposure to infection is two to seven days, although infection has taken as long as 10 days in some cases. However, not everyone exposed to the disease becomes ill.

Droplet Direct contact

1. Molecular tests (PCR) 2. Antibody tests detect antibodies produced in response to the SARS coronavirus infection.

Antibiotic supportive therapy

Wash your hands. Wear disposable gloves Wear a surgical mask Wash personal items Disinfect surfaces Build up good body immunity

1. Utilize personal protective equipment ( PPE) N-95 respirator mask Goggles Disposable gown Gloves, caps, shoe cover 2. Apply the principles of handwashing

Meningococcal disease is caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis

Neisseria Meningitidis \
The cause is a bacterial disease Neisseriae meningitidis (N. meningitidis) is also called Meningococcal Neisseriae is a group of gram-negative cocci. Characteristic of this organism is a gram-negative diplokokus, do not move and do not form spores.

lasts for 2-10 days with an average of 3-4 days.

Direct contact with respiratory droplets Indirect contact

High grade fever Weakness Joint/muscle pains Petechiae-widespread purpura and ecchymoses Meningeal irritation Sensoral changes

Stage-I: Local infection at the site of entry i.e. nasopharynx. Most people become carrier & develop no symptoms, except occasional pharyngitis. Stage-II: Characterized by septicemia. There is fever with skin rashes (spotted fever), which may extend to erythema. Occasionally, there may be massive purpuric hemorrhage & involved area becomes gangrenous. Stage-III: Localization, mainly in the meninges. This is associated with headache, vomiting & stiff-neck, followed by delirium & coma. Due to blood-brain barrier bacteria cannot enter to brain tissue. It causes acute inflammation of the leptomeninges (Pia & arachnoid matter). Meningeal vessels are congested with exudates in the subarachnoid space and minute areas of hemorrhage. In advanced stage -thick purulent exudates is seen, mainly in the base of the brain. Inflammation & degenerative changes are present in the superficial layer of brain due to diffusion of toxin. In chronic form, internal hydrocephalus may develop.

1.Respiratory isolation 2.Hospital personnels are advised to wear protective barrier 3.Chemoprophylaxis 4.Avoid overcrowded places

1. The patient must be given prophylaxis before discharge 2. Observe infection control measures 3. Advised isolation of equipments used by the patients 4. Health teachings regarding the importance of healthy lifestyle 5. Advised the importance of check-up after one-week discharge