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Land Use and Environment


Accommodate people: provide livable, healthy, meaningful, productive, fun places for people to live Protect the environment: in urban and metropolitan areas, in the productive hinterlands, in the wildlands, in the world

Challenge of planners, designers, developers, government, and land stewards

Urban Development: Sprawl

Sprawl: land consumptive, dispersed, autodependent land development made up of homogeneous segregated uses: housing subdivisions, shopping centers, office/business parks, large civic institutions, and roadways heavily dependent on collector roads.
Post 1950s housing boom



Development Patterns through:


Development Patterns through:


Development Patterns through:


Development Patterns:

1900 - 1997


Highway & Development Patterns through:



Growth in red; Roads with VMT as width of lines

Highway & Development Patterns through:


Highway & Development Patterns through:


Problems of Urban Sprawl

Environmental Economic Social

U.S. Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) 1960-2005, projections to 2025

Growth at 2.3%/yr, doubling every 30 years


Spatial dependence of automobile

Response to Sprawl

The Design response: New Urbanism

The Government response: Smart Growth through Growth Management The Regional response: The Regional City

Design with Nature for People

Basic Concepts of Sustainable Community Design New Patterns of Development? The Evolving Practice

Toward walkable and transit oriented communities Traditional neighborhoods Community and suburban revitalization The working landscape, rural clusters, conservation subdivisions Greyfield and Brownfield redevelopment Green buildings and green development The regional context

The process of sustainable land use design

Sustainable Design starts with recognizing Environmentally Sensitive Lands

Environmentally and Community Sensitive Design, Development, and Land Use Practices
Preservation/Restoration of Natural Features

(avoid; buffer and mitigate; restore; monitor and steward) Water resource protection (stormwater management, natural drainage channels, riparian lands, blueways, shorelines, aquifer recharge/wellhead areas) Environmental resource land protection (productive use and community character) (agricultural lands, recreation lands, open space) Ecologically sensitive land preservation (natural heritage, wildlife habitats, wetlands, coastal dunes) Protection against natural hazards (floodplains, steep slopes, seismic hazard, coastal storms) Conservation of land (compact development) Conservation of material resources (indigenous materials) Conservation of energy (energy efficient design; renewable energy; compact and mixed use; pedestrian, bicycle, and transit friendly)

Efficient Use of Resources

Environmentally and Community Sensitive Design, Development, and Land Use Practices (cont.)
Enhancement of Community Features

Existing neighborhood/community revitalization and redevelopment Historic and cultural preservation Compact, discrete communities (defined community center)

Mixed, Compact, Walkable Community Design

Mixed land use (mixed housing (income diversity), commercial, employment, education, recreation, open space, greenways) Cluster development on buildable, non-sensitive areas Energy-efficient, time-efficient circulation, transportation (compact scale, pedestrian/bicycle oriented inside, transit-oriented to outside)

Regional Context

Neighborhoods, towns, cities must fit into a regional context Regional growth boundaries, regional environmental policies, regional open space investments, regional transportation

1960s Plan for the Valleys Wallace, McHarg, Roberts & Todd

1970s Village Homes Davis, California

1980s Van der Ryn, Calthorpe

The 1991 Ahwahnee Principles

Community Principles:
1. All planning should be in the form of complete and integrated communities containing housing, shops, work places, schools, parks and civic facilities essential to the daily life of the residents. 2. Community size should be designed so that housing, jobs, daily needs and other activities are within easy walking distance of each other. 3. As many activities as possible should be located within easy walking distance of transit stops. 4. A community should contain a diversity of housing types to enable citizens from a wide range of economic levels and age groups to live within its boundaries. 5. Businesses within the community should provide a range of job types for the community's residents. 10. Each community or cluster of communities should have a well-defined edge, such as agricultural greenbelts or wildlife corridors, permanently protected from development. 12. Wherever possible, the natural terrain, drainage and vegetation of the community should be preserved with superior examples contained within parks or greenbelts. 13. The community design should help conserve resources and minimize waste. 14. Communities should provide for the efficient use of water through the use of natural drainage, drought tolerant landscaping and recycling. 15. The street orientation, the placement of buildings and the use of shading should contribute to the energy efficiency of the community.

Regional Principles:
17. Regions should be bounded by and provide a continuous system of greenbelt/wildlife corridors to be determined by natural conditions. Signators: Peter Calthorpe, Peter Katz, Michael Corbett, Judy Corbett, Andres Duany, Steve Weissman, Elizabeth Moule, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Stefanos Polyzoides

Walkability and transit orientation

1990s Transit Oriented Development (TOD)

The Regional Context for TOD

Arlington County TOD

Washington Metro & TODs


Portland Light Rail and TODs

The Urban Turnaround

Simmons and Lang, 2001

Central City Rebound

Land Conservation, Development, and Farmland Conversion

In 2006, more land put into permanent conservation than into development, but still considerable conversion of prime farmland to development By 2009, land development crashed due to recession, housing market, higher gasoline prices In 2011, with housing prices in the tank and food prices soaring, land destined for development was being sold and converted back to agriculture

Wall Street Journal, Nov 14, 2011

Foundation of New Urbanism: The Neighborhood

The optimal size of a neighborhood is a quartermile from center to edge. For most people, a quarter mile is a five-minute walk. For a neighborhood to feel walkable, many daily needs should be supplied within this fiveminute walk. That includes not only homes, but stores, workplaces, schools, houses of worship, and recreational areas.

Communities with high incidence of New Urbanism developments (2002)

New Urbanism: Bright side, Dark side

Bright side:

Compact, walkable, community oriented, mixed use Can be transit-oriented, can provide natural drainage, natural areas, open space Often up-scale, non-affordable Often restrictive designs

Dark side:

Kentlands, Gaithersburg, Maryland

King Farm, Rockville, MD New Urbanism Development

High Point, Seattle



Rural Options: Prairie Crossing, IL

Small town revitalization Rural cluster

Conservation Subdivisions


Greyfield Redevelopment

Brownfields are abandoned, idled, or under-used industrial and commercial facilities where expansion or redevelopment is complicated by real or perceived environmental contamination

EPA: 1 brownfield acre redeveloped protects 21.4 acres greenfields

Green Building
Provide greater energy efficiency and reduce pollution Provide healthier indoor air quality Reduce water usage Preserve natural resources through effective material usage Improve durability and reduce maintenance Certification Systems: LEED, EnergyStar, 80 Local systems

U.S. Green Building Council: LEED

U.S. Green Building Council (US GBC)

A national non-profit organization Developer and administrator of the LEED Green Building Rating System

Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design Green Building Rating System

A leading-edge system for designing, constructing, operating and certifying the worlds greenest buildings Consensus-based checklist approach

Green Building

US GBC Definition

Design and construction practices that significantly reduce or eliminate the negative impact of buildings on the environment and occupants

Three Steps of LEED Certification

Step 1: Project Registration (Registered Projects) Step 2: Technical Support Step 3: Building Certification (Certified Projects)

LEED protocols (USGBC)


LEED-ND (neighborhood development)

Location efficiency Environmental protection Compact, complete, connected neighbohoods Resource efficiency

LEED-H Homes

Location and Linkages Sustainable Sites

10 14

Water Efficiency Indoor Air Quality

1 ENERGY STAR with Indoor Air Quality Package (IAP) 2 Combustion Venting 3 Humidity Control 4 Outdoor Air Ventilation 5 Local Exhaust 6 Supply Air Distribution 7 Supply Air Filtering 8 Contaminant Control 9 Radon Protection 10 Vehicle Emissions Protection Req

12 14
10 1 Req+3 Req+2 Req+2 Req+3 Req+2 Req+1 Req

Materials and Resources

1 2 3 4 5 6 Home Size: Smaller than National Average Material Efficient Framing Local Sources Materials Durability Plan Environmentally Preferable Products Waste Management Req+2

10 3 Req+3 Req+4 Req+2

Energy and Atmosphere

Homeowner Awareness Innovation and Design Process

1 4

Project Maximum Points: Certified 30-49 pts; Silver 50-69 pts; Gold 70-89 pts; Platinum 90-108 pts


LEED-ND Neighborhood Development

Title # Credits Location Efficiency 7 Reduced Automobile Dependence Environmental Preservation Compact, Complete, & Connected Neighborhoods 22 Compact Development Transit-Oriented Compactness Diversity of Uses Comprehensively Designed Walkable Streets Superior Pedestrian Experience Transit Amenities Access to Nearby Communities Resource Efficiency 17 Certified Green Building Energy Efficiency in Buildings Heat Island Reduction Infrastructure Energy Efficiency On-Site Power Generation On-Site Renewable Energy Sources Reuse of Materials Recycled Content Regionally Provided Materials Construction Waste Management Other 2 TOTAL 48 Points 28 13 42 1 to 5 1 1 to 3 2 1 to 2 1 1 25 1 to 5 1 to 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 114 % of total 25% 2 to 6 11% 37%



Certified: 46 56; Silver: 57 67; Gold: 68 90; Platinum: 91 114

Process of Sustainable Land Use Design

The process for developing sustainable and livable land use designs is technical, creative, and participatory. It combines:



Land analysis to understand the lands natural features and development opportunities and constraints; Creative design that incorporates features of land protection, community aesthetics, and livability; and Stakeholder involvement, including community groups, local government, land conservation organizations, existing residents, and potential consumers, to provide local knowledge, perceptions, and cultural context.

Participatory Design

Green mapping (inventory) Charrettes Participatory mapping (developing scenarios) Visual Surveys Photo simulations Design/planning charrettes Scenario development Good examples: Calthorpe Associates projects in Minnesota and Utah

Photo simulation: Stillwater, Minnesota

Steve Price, UrbanAdvantage, for Calthorpe Associates and Twin Cities Metro Council

American Institute of Architects (AIA) Ten Principles for Livable Communities

1. Design on a Human Scale: Compact, pedestrian-friendly communities allow residents to walk to shops, services, cultural resources, and jobs and can reduce traffic congestion and benefit people's health. 2. Provide Choices: People want variety in housing, shopping, recreation, transportation, and employment. Variety creates lively neighborhoods and accommodates residents in differentstages of their lives. 3. Encourage Mixed-Use Development: Integrating different land uses and varied building types creates vibrant, pedestrian-friendly and diverse communities. 4. Preserve Urban Centers: Restoring, revitalizing, and infilling urban centers takes advantage of existing streets, services and buildings and avoids the need for new infrastructure. This helps to curb sprawl and promote stability for city neighborhoods. 5. Vary Transportation Options: Giving people the option of walking, biking and using public transit, in addition to driving, reduces traffic congestion, protects the environment and encourages physical activity.

American Institute of Architects (AIA) Ten Principles for Livable Communities

6. Build Vibrant Public Spaces: Citizens need welcoming, well-defined public places to stimulate face-to-face interaction, collectively celebrate and mourn, encourage civic participation, admire public art, and gather for public events. 7. Create a Neighborhood Identity: A "sense of place" gives neighborhoods a unique character, enhances the walking environment, and creates pride in the community. 8. Protect Environmental Resources: A well-designed balance of nature and development preserves natural systems, protects waterways from pollution, reduces air pollution, andprotects property values. 9. Conserve Landscapes: Open space, farms, and wildlife habitat are essential for environmental, recreational, and cultural reasons. 10. Design Matters: Design excellence is the foundation of successful and healthy communities. Source: AIA, 2010.