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Y. Ravi Kumar
Asst. Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg. National Institute of Technology Warangal- 506 004

Credit and Workload

ME 525 CAD Prerequisites

Workload (3-0-0)
3 hours of theory

3 Credits

Lecture Plan
Lecture No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Topic Introduction to CAD: CAD and CAD Tools Display Visualization Aids, Requirements of Modelling

CAD Data Bases, CAD Display devices

Hard copy and Output devices Input devices (ASSIGNMENT I) Computer Graphics: Display techniques: Line Drawing, Raster Screen Digital Differential Analyzer (DDA) and Bresenhams Algorithms Circle generation Generation of Ellipse, Hyperbola and Parabola Addressing Pixes

2 D Transformations: Translation, Scalling, Reflection, Rotation

Homogeneous coordinates, Multiple transformations (MINOR I) Transformation matrix, Transformation of coordinate systems


3 D Transformations: Translation, Scalling, Reflection, Rotation

Homogeneous coordinates, Multiple transformations

Lecture No. 16 17 18

Topic Transformation matrix, Transformation of coordinate systems Representation of Curves: Wireframe models and entities Representation of polygons, Equation of the plane (ASSIGNMENT II) Representation of Curved lines and Surfaces Parametric and Geometric Continuity Splines Bezier Curves Bezier Curves B-Spline Curves B-Spline Curves (MID EXAM) Representation of Surfaces: Surface Models and entities Planar Surfaces

20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

29 30

Cylindrical Surfaces
Ruled Surfaces Surface of Revolution (ASSIGNMENT III)

Lecture No. 31 & 32 Bezier Surfaces 33 & 34 B-Spline Surfaces 35 36 37 38


Solid Modelling: Solid Models and entities B-Rep Models (MINOR II) Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) Feature Based Modelling

40 41 42 43

Quad Trees and Octree

Projections of Geometric Models: Orthographic Projections Axonometric Projections Oblique Projections (ASSIGNMENT IV) Perspective Projections

45 46 47 48

Viewing Coordinates
Viewing Pipe line 3 D Clipping CAD Data Exchange Formats: IGES, STEP ACIS and DXF (END SEMESTER EXAM)

Mode of Evaluation/Grading
1. Assignments (4)
2. Minors (2) 2. Mid Examination 3. End Semester Examination

: 05M
: 15M : 30M : 50M


Text Books: 1) Ibrahim Zeid, CAD/CAM Theory and Practice, TataMcGraw Hill, 2004. 2) Ibrahim Zeid, Mastering CAD/CAM, Tata-McGraw Hill, 2005. References: 1) David F. Roger & J. Alan Adams, Mathematical Elements for Computer Graphics, Tata-McGraw Hill, 2002. 2) Donald Hearn & M. Pauline Baker, Computer Graphics, Pearson Education, 2007. 3) Michael E. Mortenson, Geometric Modeling, Wiley, NY,1997.

CAD (Computer Aided Design) CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing) CAE (Computer Aided Engineering)
Memory capacity, processing speed, Interactive graphics

Product cycle
Design Need Design definition, Specifications Feasibility Study with Collecting Design Information


Design Documentation Design Evaluation Design Optimization Design Analysis Design Modeling Design Conceptualization


Process Planning

Production Planning


Quality Control




Design and Procurement of New Tools

Order Material

NC, CNC, DNC Programming



CAD Based Product Cycle, Steps Involves

Geometric Modeling/Solid Modeling Stress analysis, interference checking Kinematic analysis, etc. Design evaluation and making prototype:
Rapid Prototyping (RP) Virtual Prototyping (VP)

Design documentation
Computer Aided Drafting system Automatic Drafting Program

CAD Based Product cycle, Steps Involved (contd.)

Further Steps:
Process plan (CAPP) NC/CNC/DNC program Robot, CMM (for inspection) program

Globalization Technological Innovation e-commerce Tough Competition

Product cycles becomes shorter

Product Cycle


3 day Prototyping by CAD/CAM/CAE

CATIA AutoCAD Pro/E SolidWorks

MasterCAM PowerMill


Solid model of example part

Part drawing of example part

Finite element analysis model of example part

Finite element meshes Load condition: case 1

Load condition: case 2

Stress distribution on example part

Result for case1

Result for case2

Fill time distribution for

example part

Principle of Rapid Prototyping

1 CAD Model

2 Sliced Model

3 Layered Manufacturing

RP Fused Deposition Modeling

Applications of RP

Physical prototype of example part

Virtual Prototype of Car

Virtual Prototype of Equipment

Construction Equipment from John Deere (Division Inc.)

Virtual Reality
Virtual Reality (VR) is a way for humans to visualize, manipulate and interact with computers and extremely complex data. VR is the term for the creation of an artificial world by the use of computer systems. The user is able to navigate in this world and gets the impression of being inside of it.

Modeling in VR

Applications of VR

VR Devices

Reverse Engineering process


Concept design Detail design CAD / CAM CNC programme Manufacturing

Reverse Engineering


Finished product

Why do you need Reverse Engineering ?

Old product with no drawings A competitors product needs to be analyzed New design based on existing model Refurbish existing tooling Spare parts are not available from original system
makers Internal defects of castings or forgings need to be analyzed A part is first modeled in Clay, Wood or Foam and needs to be transferred in to a CAD format

Reverse Engineering
The process of duplicating an existing component or product, without the aid of drawings, documentation, or computer model. A process that results in creation of a mathematical model from a physical object.

Steps in Reverse Engineering

Reverse Engineering Equipment

Computer Aided Drafting

Core, cavity, and side cores for example part

Completely designed mold base

NC tool paths to machine mold

CNC Machine

3-Axes Machining Centre

5-Axes CNC Machine

Scope of CAD/CAM
Geometric modeling CAD Computer graphics CAD Automation





CAD CAD/CAM Automation Manufacturing

Geometric modeling

Computer graphics

Activities of CAD/CAM Processes

Mass properties Finite Element Analysis (FEA) Dimensioning Tolerancing Assembly Modelling Generating shaded Images Documentation Drafting

Computer Aided Process Planning (CAPP) NC Programming Design of Injection Moulds CMM verification Inspection Assembly via robots Packaging

CAD/CAM Softwares
Client/Server or Standalone Applications

Data structure
Well-defined storage scheme that store model data (geometry & topology)

Stores the model information with file extensions (.prt, .asm, .dwg)

Operating systems

Learning CAD/CAM softwares

Learn the theoretical concepts of geometrical modeling and computer graphics.

Learn the structure of software GUI and where to find commands when needed.

Modules of CAD/CAM packages Geometric Engine (Module)

Application Module

Programming Module
Communication Module

Collaborative Module

Geometric Module
It is the heart of a CAD/CAM system It includes:
Geometric Modeling Construction

Editing & Manipulation of exiting geometry

Drafting Documentation including shaded images

The ultimate goal of an engineer is to utilize these models for design and manufacturing purposes.

Application Module
The model is utilized Manufacturing purposes. It includes:




Mass property calculations Assembly Analysis Mechanisms Analysis Tolerance Analysis Sheet metal design Finite Element Modeling & Analysis Animation Simulation & Analysis of plastic injection moulding CAPP CNC programming Robot programming & Simulation

Programming Module
It allows users to customize systems by Programming them to fit certain design & manufacturing tasks.

It requires advanced knowledge of the system architecture, its database format, and a high level programming language such as C,C++, Java etc.,

Communication Module
It is crucial if integration is to be achieved between the CAD/CAM systems, other computer systems, and manufacturing facilities. It is common to network the system to transfer the CAD database to the shop floor for production. This module also serves the purpose of translating databases between CAD/CAM systems using Graphics Standards such as IGES & STEP.

Collaborative Module
It is emerging as an outcome of the widespread of the WWW and Internet. This module supports collaborative design. Various design teams in different geographical locations can work concurrently on the same part, assembly, or drawing file in real time over the Web. One team can make changes that other teams can view and accept or reject.

Classification of CAD/CAM Systems

Low end systems
These tend to target users who are not sophisticated and whose products consists of a small number of parts whose geometry is not complicated. These users tend to focus on basic geometric modeling and drafting. Examples: AutoCAD, Autodesk Inventor, CADKEY

Midrange systems
These tend to target users who have complex modeling needs. The number of parts per products is large. They either bundle them with the geometric modeling engine or work with partners. Examples: SolidWorks, Pro/E, MasterCAM

High end systems

These legacy CAD/CAM systems. These systems support the modeling, analysis and manufacturing of complex products such as aeroplanes, cars and others. Examples: Unigraphics, I-DEAS, CATIA, Parasolid

2D Drawing v.s. Digital Playdo

Geometric Modeling Historical Development

1960-1962: The first Graphical User Interface (GUI), Sketchpad, developed at MIT.
1964-1965: DAC-1 by GM and CADAM by Lockheed. 1970-1980: Various systems that ran on proprietary hardware only a handful survived beyond the 1990s. 1990-2000: Pro/Engineer, SolidWorks and I-DEAS run on PC platforms.

3D Object Geometric Modeling

Wireframe Modeling
Surface Modeling Solid Modeling

List of
Curve equations Coordinates of points

Easy method

No mass, no surface


Surface Modeler
Wireframe data + Surfaces
Connectivity, Adjacency Interpolation of points, curve nets Translation or sweeping of curves

Fit to complex free formed surfaces

Visual, aesthetic design NC code generation

Solid Modeler
Has a closed volume
Knows in or out

Has a mass and inertia Huge input data, maths

User friendly is a must

Primitives +/- by Boolean operations Sweeping, rounding, lifting

Hybrid (Solid + Surface, CSG

+ BREP, Parametric + explicit)


Boolean Operations

By Sweeping, Skinning surfaces

By modifying existing shapes

Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG)

CSG modelers allow designers to combine a set of primitives through Boolean operations:

Boundary Representation (B REP)

Feature-based Design

Parametric Modeling

Dimension data
Geometric Constrains Assembly Modeling No standard of data exchange IGES (Initial Graphic Exchange Standards)

Geometric Modeling - Curves

Geometric Modeling - Curves

B- Spline : more flexible than Bezier NURB (Non-Uniform Rational B- Spline)

Geometric Modeling Free form Surface

NURB (Non-Uniform Rational B- Spline) : combine all

New Challenges to Geometric Modeling

Modeling Porous Medium

Modeling Non-homogeneous Materials

Varying density Changing composition

Multiple phases (solid, liquid)

Biomedical Applications (geometry, materials, motion and mechanics)

Medical Images (surgical operation simulator, training and planning)
Computer models from CT scans (quality motion in actual keens)