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The science of biological classification, by grouping organisms with similar characteristics.

Background Definitions
Eukaryotic Cell: Has a nucleus, membrane-bound organelles, complex Has many organelles (Mitochondria, Chloroplast, Ribosome, Lysosome, Endoplasmic Reticulum, etc.) Prokaryotic Cell: Lacks a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles Has some organelles Ribosomes, Cell Membrane, Cilia or Flagella

Background Definitions
Heterotroph: Consumes something for energy Autotroph: Makes its own energy

Five Kingdom System

Animalia Plantae Fungi Protist Bacteria

1. Multicellular
2. Heterotrophs 3. Eukaryotic

4. Important adaptation: Folds

1. In an organism or an organelle, folds increase surface area

1. Multicellular
2. Autotrophs 3. Eukaryotic

4. Three main groups:

1. Non-vascular

2. Gymnosperm
3. Angiosperm

1. Absorptive Chemoheterotrophs 2. Decomposers 3. Have a Cell Wall, made from chitin 4. Eukaryotic

1. 2. 3. 4. Unicellular Autotrophic or Heterotrophic Eukaryotic Catch all group, includes many infectious diseases like Malaria

Monera (Bacteria)
1. Prokaryotic 2. Unicellular 3. Lack a nucleus 4. Lack membranebound organelles 5. Has some simple organelles

Six Kingdom System

Taxonomic Hierarchy
(Carl Woese 1978)

Kingdom Phylum/Division Class Order Family Genus Species


Carolus Linnaeus 1753

1. Kingdom Through Species
2. Binomial Nomenclature 3. Bacillus subtilis Bacillus subtilis 3. Common/Descriptive Names

Tubercule Bacillus
Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Dichotomous Keys
1a. Bean round
1b Bean elliptical or oblong

Garbanzo Bean
Go to 2

2a Bean white
2b Bean dark

White Navy
Go to 3

3a. Bean evenly pigmented 3b Bean pigmentation mottled

Kidney Bean Pinto Bean

Phylogenetic Classification
Genetic Similarity and Evolutionary Relatedness

Reflects Genetic Similarity and Evolutionary Relatedness

Species verses Strain

Species A specific or defined type of organism capable of producing young that can also reproduce. Strain Variation within a species.
descended from a single organism different isolates may be same species but are different strains; often have slight differences

Noncellular Nonliving Either DNA or RNA Capsid (Protein Shell) Envelope

Virus Species A population of viruses with similar characteristics that occupy a particular ecological niche. No Independent Metabolism or Replication Requires a Host (Parasitic)

Major Criteria and Methods Used in the Taxonomy of Organisms

Classical Approach
Morphology Differential Staining Biochemical Tests Oxygen Requirements Serology Phage Typing

Molecular Approach The BEST way to determine classification

DNA Sequencing