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Voice over IP

Definition Standard Requirement QoS Application CAFEnet

S.A. (Togo) exemple

Concern about reduction of communication coast. Voice, Fax and Data integration become a challenge and priority for many network manager. Telecommunication deregulation and Multiservice access network development allow this challenge to be achieve. Today voice over packet network (ATM, Frame Relay and IP) is the one most growing aspect of Multi-service access network

VoIP System Model


and signaling transmission using packet network (IP) ITU standard for signaling Model
H.323 ( ITU )- Packet-based Multimedia communication system.

(IETF) Session initiation protocol The voice system resulting from these two standard follow a common Model

VoIP System Model


packet voice system like VoIP follow this model.

A packet network (Internet in most case) Voice agent at edge of the cloud. Convert voice information from it traditional telephony form to a suitable form for packet transmission. the packet are send to another voice agent at the call destination.

VoIP system model


Voice Agent PABX Voice Agent

IP Network
Voice Agent Voice Agent

VoIP System Model


issue from the previous diagram

Voice coding: Voice Packet, Packet Voice Signaling: who is called and where is the called party on the network?

The two models in brief

Gatekeeper Gateway H.323 terminal MCU

UAC (user agent Client) UAS (User agent server) SIP Terminal Proxy Redirect Server Location server



VoIP Addressing
As Internet communication is based on IP address (layer 2), every equipment that want to communicate should have an IP address. For VoiP, the voice interface appear as additional IP host. Translation of dial digits from the PBX to an IP host address is performed by the dial plan mapper. The destination telephone number, or some portion of the number, is mapped to the destination IP address.

Voice packet routing and Delay


take advantage of all strong and sophisticate routing protocols of IP (including best route calculation)
due to the way IP packets are send through the network, the big challenge is the Latency or delay that cause echo and talker overlap.


Voice packet routing and Delay

Source of delay include:

Accumulation delay: caused by need to collect a
frame of voice samples to be processed by the voice coder (from some microsecond to many milliseconds.

Algorithmic Delay: caused by specific voice

encoding delay.

Processing delay: result from the two previous delay

plus collecting the sample in to packet for transmission.

Network delay: Processing that occurs as packets are sent across a network.(from protocol, medium, and buffer use to remove packet jitter on the receive side)

Voice packet routing and Delay

Echo: is generated toward the packet network from the telephone networkas it always greater than 50 ms, it is not acceptable for good audition. Jitter: is the variable inter-packet timing cause by the fact that packets do not all cross the network at the same speed.

Lost packet: Under peak load and congestion, voice frame are dropped at the same rate as data frame.

VoIP Signaling

Three distinct area:

Signaling from PABX router

seize the PABZ with any of the signaling used to seize a trunk (as the local network appear to the BABX as a trunk) FXS or E&M. plan Mapper. seizure signaling.

Signaling from Router router


Signaling from Router PABX


VoIP application
In todays networking, there are several attractive alternatives both to conventional public telephony and to leased lines. Among the most interesting are networking technologies based on a different kind of voice transmission, called packet voice and in our case Voice over IP. VoIP can be used in two broad context differentiated by geography or by the type of users to be served.

VoIP application

Within a national administration or telephony jurisdiction, to support its own voice calling among its own sites. to support the activities of a single company to connect two or more company locations in multiple countries to connect public calls within a company, the packet voice provider is technically providing a local or national telephone service and is subject to regulation as such.

VoIP application

Between different administration or telephony jurisdiction

to connect public calls between countries, the packet voice provider is subject to the national regulations in the countries involved and also to any treaty provisions for international calling to which any of the countries served are signatories.

Be aware of the valid law applicable in your country until setting up VoIP application to avoid any inconvenience.

VoIP application

CAFE Informatique & Telecommunications S.A.

Two application:
International Call



30 local worker. Tele-marketing for America and Canadian company Data scramble for foreign company

VoIP application
Architecture du Rseau CAFEnet
CISCO 3661 10 FXS ports 2 FXO ports


RWeb Hosting Network/ SMS/ FAX/Real Audio CACHE

Real Audio Producer Multimedia and Audio Production Local Usage Net2Phone IPmax
VPN Server

Call Center