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Submitted to : Avantika Maam

Organisational Development
OD is a response to change ,a complex

educational strategy intended to change the beliefs ,attitudes ,values and structure of organisations so that they can better adapt to new technologies ,markets and challenges. It also seeks to improve organisational effectiveness and employ well being.


Organisation development, as a long term strategy for

organisational change, plays key role in organisational improvement. Since OD attempts to bring comprehensive change in the organisation, it is quite suitable for improving organisational performance on long term basis.
Thus OD can be utilised for the following result in organisation: 1. To increase the level of trust among all organisational member 2. To increase the level of enthusiasm and personal satisfaction at all levels of organisation.



can be taken as a process of changing people and other aspects of an organisation.thus it consists of many subprocess or steps: Problem handling Planning strategy for change Intervening in the system Evaluation


In this step the major problems of the organisation is identified and when the problem is identified automatically the gap between desired path and the actual path is narrowed.


When problems are diagnosed the OD consultant plans the various courses of action in od attempts are made to transform diagnosis of the problem into a proper action plan.



Intervening refers to implementation of planned activities during the course of OD programme.

This step relates to evaluate the result of od programme so that suitable actions may be followed up.
Sensitivity training(ability of participants to learn more) Team building Survey feedback(survey research and feedback of data)

Features of OD
Planned Change : OD is a strategy of planned change for oraganisational improvement. 2. Comprehensive Change : OD efforts focus on comprehensive change in the organization, rather than focusing attention on individuals, so that change is easily observed. 3. Long range Change : OD efforts are not meant for solving short term, temporary or isolated problems. Rather, OD focuses on the elevation of an organization to a higher level of functioning by improving the performance and satisfaction of organizational members on long term basis. 4. Dynamic Process : OD is a dynamic process and it recognizes that organizational goals change, so the methods of attaining these goals should also change.

Features of OD
5. Participation of Change Agent : The change agent

is a humanist seeking to get a humanistic philosophy in the orgnisation. 6. Emphasis on Intervention and Action Research : OD approach results into an active intervention in the ongoing activities of the oraganisation. Action research is the basis for such intervention. 7. Normative Education Process : OD is based on the principle that norms form the basis for behavior and change is a re - eduative process of replacing old norms by new ones.

Role of Organisational Development




To place emphasis on humanistic values and goals consistent with these values. To treat each human being as a complex person with a complex set of needs important in his work and his life. To increase the level of trust and mutual emotional support among all organisational members. To increase the level of enthusiasm and personal satisfaction at all levels of the organization To increase the level of self and group responsibility in planning and its implementation To increase the openness of communication in all directions horizontally, vertically and laterally.


1. Individual and group development.
2. Development of organization culture and processes by

constant interaction between members irrespective of levels of hierarchy.

3. Inculcating team spirit.

4. Empowerment of social side of employees.

5. Focus of value development.


6. Employee participation, problem-solving and decision-

making at various levels.

7. Evaluate present systems and introduction of new systems

thereby achieving total system change if required. the organization.

8. Transformation and achievement of competitive edge of 9. Achieve organization growth by total human inputs by way

of research and development, innovations, creativity and exploiting human talent.

basic unit of an organization.

10. Behaviour modification and self managed team as the

Implications of Organizational Development

1. For Individuals :a) Most individuals believe in their personal growth.

Even today, training and development, promotion to the next higher position dominates the organization philosophy.
b) Majority of the people are desirous of making greater

contributions to the organizations they are serving. Achievements of organizational goals are however, subject to limitations or environmental constraints. It is for the organizations to tap the skills that are available in abundance.

Implications of Organizational Development

This leads to adopt the following organization strategy for development: Ask questions to resolve doubts.

Listen to superiors advice. Support employees in their venture. Accept challenge. Leaders to encourage creativity and promote risk taking. Give additional responsibility to subordinates. Set high standards of quality. Empower employees. Initiate suitable reward system that should be compatible, if not more than the industry norms.

Implications of Organizational Development

2. For Groups :a) One of the most important factors in the organization

is the work group around whom the organization functions. This includes the peer group and the leader (boss)
b) More people prefer to be part of the group because the

group accepts them.

c) Most people are capable of making higher

contributions to the groups effectiveness.

Implications of Organizational Development

Following strategy is required to be adopted for group

development based on the above assumptions:

a) Invest in training and development of the group. Money and

time spent on this is an investment for the organization. Leaders should also invest in development of skills and thus help create a position organizational climate.

b) Let the team flourish. Teams are the best approach to get the

work done. Apart from the above teams enjoy emotional and job satisfaction when they work in groups.

c) Leaders should adopt team leadership style and not autocratic

leadership style. To do this, jobs should be allotted to the team and not to the individual. Contd

Implications of Organizational Development

d) It is not possible for one individual (leader) to perform both,

the leadership and maintenance functions. It is therefore necessary for team members to assist leader in performance of his duties. Group should be trained in conflict management, stress management, group decision-making, collaboration, and effective interpersonal communication. This will improve organizational effectiveness. Empowerment is the corner stone of the successful organizations. Leaders should pay particular attention to the feelings of the employees. It should be understood that suppressed feeling and attitudes adversely affect problem-solving, personal growth and job satisfaction. Development of group cohesiveness.




Implications of Organizational Development


For Organizations :a) b) c)

Create learning organization culture.

Adopt win-win strategy for sustained growth. Create cooperative dynamics rather than competitive organizational dynamics in the organization. Needs and aspirations of the employees in the organization must be met. This leads to greater participation of the employees. Organizations should adopt developmental outlook and seek opportunities in which people can experience personal and professional growth. Such orientation creates a self-fulfilling prophecy. People must be treated with due respect and considered important. The credit of success must be given to the employees unconditioned. Promote organizational citizenship.




Problems in Organizational Development

There is discrepancy between ideal and real situations. OD tries to achieve ideal without taking into account real. 2. OD makes people unfit for the real organizational world because no organization can fully adopt open system concept. 3. Resistance to change is a natural phenomenon and OD puts undue pressure to change. Hence, it fails even as a long term strategy. 4. OD fails to motivate people with low level of achievement needs. 5. OD programs are often quite costly and only large organizations can afford this luxury without any guarantee of positive outcome.

Efforts to Solve Problems in Organizational Development

There should be genuine support of OD programme

from top management. Organization must formulate the objectives of OD programme very clearly and specifically. Enough time should be allowed so that the effects of OD programme are realised. There should be proper use of OD interventions. These should be based on the specific needs of the organization.

Group Members

Ankit Osta
Ashish Prasad Md. Shadab Khan Arjun Singh Vivek Kumar

090104028 090104058 090104025 090104114