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Update on Adolescents Update on Adolescents

Agenda Agenda
Motivational nterviewing Motivational nterviewing
Process of Treatment Process of Treatment
Change Change
Multi Multi- -systemic Family Therapy systemic Family Therapy
Behavioral Reconditioning Behavioral Reconditioning
Adolescent Sexuality Adolescent Sexuality
our Honor our Honor
am tired of spending day after day am tired of spending day after day
wasting my time listening to this wasting my time listening to this bullcrap bullcrap. .
This is cruel and unusual punishment. The This is cruel and unusual punishment. The
plantif plantif is an idiot. He has no case. Why are is an idiot. He has no case. Why are
we here? think my cat could better we here? think my cat could better
answer these questions . . . and he answer these questions . . . and he
wouldn't keep asking to see a document. wouldn't keep asking to see a document.
've been patient. 've sat in these chairs 've been patient. 've sat in these chairs
for 7 days now. f believed for a second for 7 days now. f believed for a second
this was going to end on Thursday might this was going to end on Thursday might
not go crazy. This is going to last for not go crazy. This is going to last for
another 4 weeks. cannot take this. hate another 4 weeks. cannot take this. hate
these lawyers and prayed one would die these lawyers and prayed one would die
so the case would end so the case would end
shouldn't be on this jury. want to die. shouldn't be on this jury. want to die.
want to die!! Well not die for real but that is want to die!! Well not die for real but that is
how feel sitting here. am the judge, how feel sitting here. am the judge,
you've said that over and over, well am you've said that over and over, well am
not fair and balanced. hate the not fair and balanced. hate the plantif plantif. .
His ignorance is driving me crazy. know His ignorance is driving me crazy. know
'm writing this in vain but have to do 'm writing this in vain but have to do
something . . . for my sanity. These jury something . . . for my sanity. These jury
chairs should come with a straight jacket. . chairs should come with a straight jacket. .
. . Please keep the . . Please keep the disordelies disordelies nearby. nearby.
may need them. may need them.
Motivational nterviewing Motivational nterviewing
What are Explanations What are Explanations
"A claim that pacifies wonder. "A claim that pacifies wonder.
(Furman & (Furman & Ahola Ahola, 1988) , 1988)
Explanations Explanations
Attribute responsibility to an external cause which Attribute responsibility to an external cause which
may may
Give offender a sense of relief Give offender a sense of relief
Reduce culpability Reduce culpability
Absolve him from guilt Absolve him from guilt
Give him a sense of entitlement to Give him a sense of entitlement to
forgiveness forgiveness
Give him permission to make a new Give him permission to make a new
start where all is forgiven start where all is forgiven
(Jenkins, 1993) (Jenkins, 1993)
Searching for a cause Searching for a cause
Sidetracks Sidetracks
Taking responsibility Taking responsibility
Goal of Therapy Goal of Therapy
Take Responsibility for Behavior Take Responsibility for Behavior
"Acknowledge fully the existence and significance "Acknowledge fully the existence and significance
of the abuse of the abuse
"Understand the potential impact on his abuse on "Understand the potential impact on his abuse on
others others
Accept culpability Accept culpability
Cease abusive behavior Cease abusive behavior
(Jenkins, 1993) (Jenkins, 1993)
Evaluate Explanations Evaluate Explanations
How likely is it that it will assist the How likely is it that it will assist the
perpetrator in taking responsibility for his perpetrator in taking responsibility for his
behavior behavior
(Jenkins, 1993) (Jenkins, 1993)
eviant Arousal Pattern eviant Arousal Pattern
Externalizes the cause Externalizes the cause
Blurs the line between arousal and action Blurs the line between arousal and action
Abuse is seen as natural outcome of Abuse is seen as natural outcome of
arousal arousal
mpulse Control mpulse Control
"t is difficult to determine just what "impulse "t is difficult to determine just what "impulse
control means, let alone how a man can control means, let alone how a man can
take responsibility for his abusive take responsibility for his abusive
behaviour if he has 'poor impulse control.' behaviour if he has 'poor impulse control.'
(Jenkins, 1993, p. 19) (Jenkins, 1993, p. 19)
Characterological Explanations Characterological Explanations
Why in some contexts and not others? Why in some contexts and not others?
Making Sense of Explanations Making Sense of Explanations
oes it help oes it help perp perp take full responsibility? take full responsibility?
oes it point to "plausible and accessible oes it point to "plausible and accessible
solutions for ceasing to abuse solutions for ceasing to abuse
s it sensitive to all levels of context from s it sensitive to all levels of context from
the individual to the socio the individual to the socio- -cultural? cultural?
(Jenkins, 1993) (Jenkins, 1993)
Explanations Explanations
Should not be used to "excuse behavior Should not be used to "excuse behavior
or diminish responsibility or diminish responsibility
Should be used to factors which "restrain Should be used to factors which "restrain
men from taking responsibility for their men from taking responsibility for their
behaviour behaviour
(Jenkins, 1993) (Jenkins, 1993)
Search for Search for
What has stopped him in the past from What has stopped him in the past from
taking responsibility for his behavior? taking responsibility for his behavior?
What has stopped him from taking What has stopped him from taking
responsibility to develop sensitive and responsibility to develop sensitive and
respectful relationships with the victim and respectful relationships with the victim and
other family members? other family members?
(Jenkins, 1993) (Jenkins, 1993)
Therapist's Role Therapist's Role
ecline invitations to attribute ecline invitations to attribute
responsibility to external factors responsibility to external factors
nvite him to accept responsibility himself nvite him to accept responsibility himself
(Jenkins, 1993) (Jenkins, 1993)
Steps in Therapy Steps in Therapy
nvite offender to attend to the abuse nvite offender to attend to the abuse
nvited him to establish a mission in nvited him to establish a mission in
responsibility responsibility
nvite him to consider his readiness for such a nvite him to consider his readiness for such a
mission mission
Facing the abuse Facing the abuse
Contextualizing the abuse Contextualizing the abuse
emonstrating responsibility emonstrating responsibility
Preventing Relapse Preventing Relapse
(Jenkins, 1993) (Jenkins, 1993)
evels of enial evels of enial
enial of extent or existence of abuse enial of extent or existence of abuse
" might have accidentally touched her. " might have accidentally touched her.
enial of significance enial of significance
" didn't hurt her. She enjoyed it too. " didn't hurt her. She enjoyed it too.
enial of responsibility. enial of responsibility.
"She wanted me to do it. "She wanted me to do it.
enial of likelihood of enial of likelihood of reccurence reccurence..
"t won't happen again. "t won't happen again.
(Jenkins, 1993) (Jenkins, 1993)
Attend to the Abuse Attend to the Abuse
How did the allegations come out into the How did the allegations come out into the
open? open?
How were you told? How were you told?
What contact have you had with authorities? What contact have you had with authorities?
How has this affected other family members? How has this affected other family members?
What do you think the victim feels now? What do you think the victim feels now?
What do you think the victim thinks should What do you think the victim thinks should
happen now? happen now?
What do you think should happen now? What do you think should happen now?
Praise Any Taking of Praise Any Taking of
Responsibility Responsibility
Call abusive behavior abusive. Call abusive behavior abusive.
"t takes a lot of courage to face up to the "t takes a lot of courage to face up to the
fact you sexually abused your step fact you sexually abused your step- -
daughter. Most men can't face it. daughter. Most men can't face it.
(Jenkins, 1993) (Jenkins, 1993)
Total enial Total enial
on't argue with him. on't argue with him.
Work on family. Family confrontations are more Work on family. Family confrontations are more
effective than therapists. effective than therapists.
Acknowledge his fears, e.g., of not going home. Acknowledge his fears, e.g., of not going home.
Ask permission to tell him your role. Ask permission to tell him your role.
Total enial Total enial
"Here we work with teens and sometimes "Here we work with teens and sometimes
members of their families. We are concerned members of their families. We are concerned
with every member of the family and try to find with every member of the family and try to find
ways that will help resolve problems around the ways that will help resolve problems around the
abuse that will help all family members. abuse that will help all family members.
"We are not layers or police and we cannot "We are not layers or police and we cannot
determine the truth of the matter. Only you and determine the truth of the matter. Only you and
the victim know this. the victim know this.
Total enial Total enial
"n 99% of the cases that we see, where "n 99% of the cases that we see, where
things are unclear, there turns out to be at things are unclear, there turns out to be at
least a grain of truth in the allegations. . . least a grain of truth in the allegations. . .
When there is some truth to allegations, When there is some truth to allegations,
most men are not able to face this at first. most men are not able to face this at first.
(Jenkins, 1993) (Jenkins, 1993)
Why Teens Can't Face t Why Teens Can't Face t
Shame at what they have done. Shame at what they have done.
Push it to the back of their minds. Push it to the back of their minds.
Fear of consequences Fear of consequences
Seems too big a step. Seems too big a step.
Pushed it so far back they have almost Pushed it so far back they have almost
forgotten it. forgotten it.
Externalize Restraints Externalize Restraints
Most abusers are very caring people. Most abusers are very caring people.
They wanted to stop the abuse but didn't They wanted to stop the abuse but didn't
know how. know how.
Feel panic at it coming out into the open. Feel panic at it coming out into the open.
Most want to make things right. Most want to make things right.
nvitation to Openness nvitation to Openness
When there is some truth and offender When there is some truth and offender
wants to help the victim and build a better wants to help the victim and build a better
family life, family life,
t's his job to decide whether to face up or t's his job to decide whether to face up or
cop out. cop out.
No one should push him. No one should push him.
(Jenkins, 1993) (Jenkins, 1993)
nvitation to Openness nvitation to Openness
Facing up is only way rift in family can be Facing up is only way rift in family can be
healed healed
Copping out is living a lie Copping out is living a lie
Ask, "Would it be possible to have a family Ask, "Would it be possible to have a family
life based on respect and trust if he life based on respect and trust if he
doesn't face up? doesn't face up?
(Jenkins, 1993) (Jenkins, 1993)
Facing Up Facing Up
Only way to help the victim. Only way to help the victim.
Only way court will see progress. Only way court will see progress.
Only way to have self Only way to have self- -respect respect
Ending the nterview Ending the nterview
Take time to consider it. Take time to consider it.
imagine: imagine:
our family is important to you. our family is important to you.
our victim is important to you. our victim is important to you.
ou want a family life based on respect and ou want a family life based on respect and
trust. trust.
He should leave uncomfortable. He should leave uncomfortable.
Even if He Claims nnocence Even if He Claims nnocence
Victim believes he is guilty Victim believes he is guilty
Victim not convinced he respects her/his Victim not convinced he respects her/his
boundaries boundaries
He has failed to make child trust him to He has failed to make child trust him to
keep her safe. keep her safe.
After Some Admission After Some Admission
Goals Goals
Assisting those he has victimized Assisting those he has victimized
Preventing further abuse Preventing further abuse
eveloping self eveloping self- -respect respect
(Jenkins, 1993) (Jenkins, 1993)
Assisting Victim Assisting Victim
ifficult to be away from home. How are ifficult to be away from home. How are
you handling this? you handling this?
What kind of family life do you want? What kind of family life do you want?
How do you want it to be different than How do you want it to be different than
before? before?
What kind of chances do you want to see? What kind of chances do you want to see?
o you think the victim has lost some trust o you think the victim has lost some trust
in you as a result of the abuse? in you as a result of the abuse?
(Jenkins, 1993) (Jenkins, 1993)
Assisting Victim Assisting Victim
s it important to you that the victim have s it important to you that the victim have
as few scars as possible from this? as few scars as possible from this?
Are you the first person in your family who Are you the first person in your family who
has abused others but made a stand to try has abused others but made a stand to try
and stop it? and stop it?
(Jenkins, 1993) (Jenkins, 1993)
Has anyone taken the time to explain to Has anyone taken the time to explain to
you the impact of abuse? you the impact of abuse?
iscuss the fact that kids need boundaries iscuss the fact that kids need boundaries
to feel safe. to feel safe.
Kids are burdened by secrets Kids are burdened by secrets
They suffer in silence. They suffer in silence.
Some believe they are bad and dirty. Some believe they are bad and dirty.
nvitations to Prevent Recurrence nvitations to Prevent Recurrence
What would it mean to you if you reoffended? What would it mean to you if you reoffended?
s it important to you to take all the steps you s it important to you to take all the steps you
can? can?
Can you talk about what makes you think it Can you talk about what makes you think it
won't happen again. won't happen again.
understand you don't want to abuse again. understand you don't want to abuse again.
My concern is if you have enough My concern is if you have enough
understanding and a plan that will work. understanding and a plan that will work.
Most offenders want to push it out of their Most offenders want to push it out of their
mind and they don't fully face how they got mind and they don't fully face how they got
into abuse. into abuse.
(Jenkins, 1993) (Jenkins, 1993)
nvitation to Embark on a nvitation to Embark on a
Mission of Responsibility Mission of Responsibility
Believe he should be involved in decision to Believe he should be involved in decision to
move out of the home. move out of the home.
Reason this is important. Reason this is important.
Provides an assurance of safety for victim Provides an assurance of safety for victim
Gives everybody space to work on their Gives everybody space to work on their
feelings. feelings.
Victim needs time and space to work on Victim needs time and space to work on
her/his problems. her/his problems.
Are you prepared to do what's best for the Are you prepared to do what's best for the
victim? victim?
Are you ready to do what's right? Are you ready to do what's right?
What tells you What tells you you you are ready? are ready?
How will you handle your fears? How will you handle your fears?
Facing the Abuse Facing the Abuse
Would you be taking yourself seriously Would you be taking yourself seriously
or kidding yourself or kidding yourself if you thought you if you thought you
could understand what you put the victim could understand what you put the victim
through without facing the details of what through without facing the details of what
you did? you did?
f you could face up to this, what would it f you could face up to this, what would it
say about you? say about you?
nvitation to Acknowledge the nvitation to Acknowledge the
Significance of the Abuse Significance of the Abuse
f he says the child thought the abuse was f he says the child thought the abuse was
OK OK
"What will that mean for the victim's future? "What will that mean for the victim's future?
Ask permission to give him information, Ask permission to give him information,
e.g., that abused children get very e.g., that abused children get very
confused because they often love the confused because they often love the
offender. Feel it's their responsibility. offender. Feel it's their responsibility.
nvitation to Take Full Responsibility nvitation to Take Full Responsibility
o you think the victim wanted sex or o you think the victim wanted sex or
affection? affection?
f victim "wanted it what should a big f victim "wanted it what should a big
brother do if their sibling was playing with brother do if their sibling was playing with
matches or running out into the street? matches or running out into the street?
Contextualizing the Abuse Contextualizing the Abuse
gnore "why; consider "how gnore "why; consider "how
How did you fail to realize she wanted it to How did you fail to realize she wanted it to
stop? stop?
What other ways were you abusive to her? What other ways were you abusive to her?
How long have you used the victim to How long have you used the victim to
solve your feelings? solve your feelings?
o you think you used her/him for your o you think you used her/him for your
own purposes? own purposes?
emonstrating Responsibility emonstrating Responsibility
Are you prepared to handle your own Are you prepared to handle your own
stress? stress?
Are you ready to face your own feelings Are you ready to face your own feelings
without using others? without using others?
o you want to use your head to think or o you want to use your head to think or
your penis? your penis?
o you think you are becoming more or o you think you are becoming more or
less aware of other people's feelings and less aware of other people's feelings and
their right to boundaries? their right to boundaries?
Preventing Relapse Preventing Relapse
How have you deal with sexual feelings or How have you deal with sexual feelings or
urges towards the victim or other children urges towards the victim or other children
in recent times? in recent times?
o you think you can be 100% sure you o you think you can be 100% sure you
won't abuse again unless you have tested won't abuse again unless you have tested
yourself against urges? yourself against urges?
What has stopped you from noticing your What has stopped you from noticing your
sexual urges? sexual urges?