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GURJIT SINGH 11814201710 BBA-3-B (M)

In the pure sense of the term, a merger happens when two firms, often of about the same size, agree to go forward as a single new company rather than remain separately owned and operated. This kind of action is more precisely referred to as a "merger of equals." Both companies' stocks are surrendered and new company stock is issued in its place.

In the pure sense of the term, a merger happens when two firms, often of about the same size, agree to go forward as a single new company rather than remain separately owned and operated. This kind of action is more precisely referred to as a "merger of equals." Both companies' stocks are surrendered and new company stock is issued in its

From the perspective of business structures:

Horizontal merger
Two companies that are in direct competition and share the same product lines and markets. For example Combining of two book publishers or two luggage manufacturing companies to gain dominant market share

Vertical merger
It is a combination of two or more firms involved in different stages of production or distribution of the same product. For example Joining of a TV manufacturing(assembling) company and a TV marketing company or joining of a spinning company and a weaving company.

Market-extension merger
Two companies that sell the same products in different markets.

Product-extension merger
Two companies selling different but related products in the same market.

- Two companies that have no common business areas For example Merging of different businesses like manufacturing of cement products, fertilizer products, electronic products, insurance investment and advertising agencies. L&T and Voltas Lt dare examples of such mergers

Purchase Mergers:
This kind of merger occurs when one company purchases another. Consolidation Mergers: With this merger, a brand new company is formed and both companies are bought and combined under the new entity.

When one company takes over another and clearly established itself as the new owner, the purchase is called an acquisition. From a legal point of view, the target company ceases to exist, the buyer "swallows" the business and the buyer's stock continues to be traded .

There are two basic types of acquisitions, which are reverse merger and reverse takeover.
REVERSE TAKEOVER- It is when a smaller firm will acquire management control of a larger and/or longer-established company and retain the name of the latter for the post-acquisition combined entity. REVERSE MERGER- It is a form of transaction that enables a private company to be publicly listed in a relatively short time frame. A reverse merger occurs when a privately held company (often one that has strong prospects and is eager to raise financing) buys a publicly listed shell company, usually one with no business and limited assets.

New Bank Of India merged with Punjab National Bank Global Trust Bank Taken over by OBC Western United Bank taken over by IDBI International Data Management By HCL Ltd Chhabrias took over Shaw Wallace, Dunlop Ashok Leyland By Hindujas Spensers By Goenkas VSNL by Tata Tata Tea Ltd Acquired Consolidated Coffee Company Tomco with HLL Tata Fertilizers Merged With Tata Chemicals Sundaram Clayton Merged With TVS-suzuki Ltd



However, with acquisition, one firm In the case of a merger, two firms takes over another and establishes together form a new company. After its power as the single owner. the merger, the separately owned companies become jointly owned and obtain a new single identity Mergers take place between two companies of more or less same size. In these cases, the process is called Merger of Equals When two firms merge, stocks of both are surrendered and new stocks in the name of new company are issued. The relatively less powerful, smaller firm loses its existence, and the firm taking over, runs the whole business with its own identity Unlike the merger, stocks of the acquired firm are not surrendered, but bought by the public prior to the acquisition, and continue to be traded in the stock market

Shareholders get better information about the business unit because it issues separate financial statements Separating a subsidiary from its parent can reduce internal competition for corporate funds.

For employees of the new separate entity, there is a publicly traded stock to motivate and reward them. Corporate restructuring techniques, which involve the separation of a business unit or subsidiary from the parent, can help a company raise additional equity funds

De-merged firms are likely to be substantially smaller than their parents, possibly making it harder to tap credit markets and costlier finance that may be affordable only for larger companies. There are the extra costs that the parts of the business face if separated. When a firm divides itself into smaller units, it may be losing the synergy that it had as a larger entity


Mergers are generally differentiated from acquisitions partly by the way in which they are financed and partly by the relative size of the companies. Various methods of financing an M&A deal exist:

CASH- Payment by cash. Such transactions are usually termed acquisitions rather than mergers because the shareholders of the target company are removed from the picture and the target comes under the (indirect) control of the bidder's shareholders STOCK- Payment in the form of the acquiring company's stock, issued to the shareholders of the acquired company at a given ratio proportional to the valuation of the latter.


The following motives are considered to improve financial performance:

ECONOMY OF SCALE: This refers to the fact that the combined company can often reduce its fixed costs by removing duplicate departments or operations, lowering the costs of the company relative to the same revenue stream, thus increasing profit margins. ECONOMY OF SCOPE: This refers to the efficiencies primarily associated with demand-side changes, such as increasing or decreasing the scope of marketing and distribution, of different types of products.

INCREASED REVENUE OR MARKET SHARE: This assumes that the buyer will be absorbing a major competitor and thus increase its market power (by capturing increased market share) to set prices.
CROSS-SELLING: For example, a bank buying a stock broker could then sell its banking products to the stock broker's customers, while the broker can sign up the bank's customers for brokerage accounts. Or, a manufacturer can acquire and sell complementary products.

TAXATION: A profitable company can buy a loss maker to use the target's loss as their advantage by reducing their tax liability. In the United States and many other countries, rules are in place to limit the ability of profitable companies to "shop" for loss making companies, limiting the tax motive of an acquiring company. GEOGRAPHICAL OR OTHER DIVERSIFICATION: This is designed to smooth the earnings results of a company, which over the long term smoothens the stock price of a company, giving conservative investors more confidence in investing in the company. However, this does not always deliver value to shareholders (see below). RESOURCE TRANSFER: Resources are unevenly distributed across firms and the interaction of target and acquiring firm resources can create value through either overcoming information asymmetry or by combining scarce resources. ACQUI-HIRE: An "acq-hire" (or acquisition-by-hire) may occur especially when the target is a small private company or is in the startup phase. In this case, the acquiring company simply hires the staff of the target private company, thereby acquiring its talent (if that is its main asset and appeal). The target private company simply dissolves and little legal issues are involved. Acquihires have become a very popular type of transaction in recent years.


Mergers and acquisitions often create brand problems, beginning with what to call the company after the transaction and going down into detail about what to do about overlapping and competing product brands. Decisions about what brand equity to write off are not inconsequential. And, given the ability for the right brand choices to drive preference and earn a price premium, the future success of a merger or acquisition depends on making wise brand choices.


Brand decision-makers essentially can choose from four different approaches to dealing with naming issues, each with specific pros and cons:

Keep one name and discontinue the other. The strongest legacy brand with the best prospects for the future lives on. Keep one name and demote the other. The strongest name becomes the company name and the weaker one is demoted to a divisional brand or product brand. Keep both names and use them together. Some companies try to please everyone and keep the value of both brands by using them together. This can create a unwieldy name. Discard both legacy names and adopt a totally new one.

The factors influencing brand decisions in a merger or acquisition transaction can range from political to tactical. Ego can drive choice just as well as rational factors such as brand value and costs involved with changing brands. Beyond the bigger issue of what to call the company after the transaction comes the ongoing detailed choices about what divisional, product and service brands to keep.