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Sem I 0809/rosdiyana

Chapter 5:
BJT SmaII-SignaI AnaIysis
4390398
ommon-Emitter fixed-bias configuration
2 'oltage divider bias
3 E Emitter bias
4 Emitter-follower configuration
5 ommon-base configuration
r
e
transistor model employs a diode and controlled
current source to duplicate the behavior oI a transistor in
the region oI interest.
The r
e
and hybrid models will be used to analyze small-
signal AC analysis oI standard transistor network
conIigurations.
Ex: Common-base, common-emitter and common-collector
conIigurations.
The network analyzed represent the majority oI those
appearing in practice today.
B1T Small Signal Analysis
AC equivalent oI a network is obtained by:
1. Setting all DC sources to zero
2. Replacing all capacitors by s/c equiv.
3. Redraw the network in more convenient and
logical Iorm
Common-Emitter (CE) Fixed-Bias Configuration
The input (Vi) is applied to the base and the output (Vo) is Irom the collector.
The Common-Emitter is characterized as having high input impedance and low output
impedance with a high voltage and current gain.
#emoving DC effects of VCC and Capacitors
Common-Emitter (CE) Fixed-Bias Configuration
re Model
Determine , re, and ro
,3/74 look in the speciIication sheet Ior the transistor or test the transistor using a
curve tracer.
70 calculate re using dc analysis:
E
e
I
26mV
r =
Common-Emitter (CE) Fixed-Bias Configuration
mpedance Calculations
nput mpedance utput mpedance
e B i
r ,, R Z =
e B

e i
r 10 R
r Z

>
=
O
r ,, R Z
C o
=
c

o
10 ro
Z
#
#
.
>
=
Common-Emitter (CE) Fixed-Bias Configuration
ain Calculations
Voltage ain (Av)
Current ain (Ai)
Current ain from Voltage ain
e
o C
i
o
v
r
) r ,, (R
V
V
A = =
C o
e
C
v
10R r
r
R
A
>
=
) r )(R R (r
r R
I
I
A
e B C o
o B
i
o
i

+ +
= =
e B C o
i
r 10 R , 10R r
A

> >
=
C
i
v i
R
Z
A A =
Common-Emitter (CE) Fixed-Bias Configuration
Voltage Gain
e
C
v C o
e
o C
e b
o C b
v
e b i
o C b O
i
O
v
r
R
A 10R or r iI
r
) r ,, (R

r I
) r ,, (R I
A
r I V
) r ,, (R I V
V
V
A
= > O =
=

=
=
=
=
Common-Emitter (CE) Fixed-Bias Configuration
Current gain


C
i
v i
B o
B o
i
o
i
e B C o
e B C o
B o
i
o
i
e B
B
C o
o
i
b
b
o
i
o
i
e B
B
i
b
e B
i B
b
C o
o
b
o
C o
b o
o
R
Z
A A
oo equation t this use can or we

R r
R r
I
I
A
, r 10 R and 10R r iI
r R R r
R r
I
I
A
r R
R
R r
r
I
I
I
I
I
I
A

r R
R
I
I
and
r R
I R
I
R r
r
I
I
and
R r
I r
I
circuits output and input the to rule divider - current
the applying by determined is gain current The
=
= = =
> >
+ +
= =

'
+

'

'
+

'

+
=

'
+

'

'
+

'

= =
+
=
+
=
+
=
+
=
Common-Emitter (CE) Fixed-Bias Configuration
!ase #elationsip
The phase relationship between input and output is 180 degrees. The negative sign used in
the voltage gain Iormulas indicates the inversion.
Common-Emitter (CE) Fixed-Bias Configuration
CE - Voltage-Divider Bias Configuration
re Model
ou still need to determine , re, and ro.
CE - Voltage-Divider Bias Configuration
mpedance Calculations
nput mpedance utput mpedance
2 1
2 1
2 1
R R
R R
R ,, R R
+
= =
'
e r ,, R Zi B
'
=
o C r ,, R Zo=
C
C
10R ro
R Zo
>
=
CE - Voltage-Divider Bias Configuration
ain Calculations
Voltage ain (Av)
Current ain (Ai)
Current ain from Voltage ain
e
o C
i
o
v
r
r ,, R
V
V
A

= =
C o
e
C
i
o
v
10R r
r
R
V
V
A
>
= =
) r R )( R (r
r R
I
I
A
e C o
o
i
o
i

+
'
+
'
= =
C o
e i
o
i
10R r
r R
R
I
I
A
>
+
'
'
= =

e C o
i
o
i
r 10 R , 10R r
I
I
A

> ' >


= =
C
i
v i
R
Z
A A =
CE - Voltage-Divider Bias Configuration
Voltage Gain
e
C
v C o
e
o C
v
o C
e
i
o
e
i
b
o C b O
r
R
A 10R or r iI
r
) r ,, (R
A
) r ,, (R
r
V
V
r
V
I
) r ,, )(R I ( V

= > O =

'
+

'

=
=
=
CE - Voltage-Divider Bias Configuration
Current gain



e
e o
o
i
o
i
C o
e C o
o
i
o
i
B 2 1
r R'
R'

r R' r
r R'
I
I
A
, R 10 r Ior
r R' R r
r R'
I
I
A
R R ,, R R'
Iormat. same the have
gain will current Ior the equation the , R' the
Ior except ion, conIigurat bias - Iixed emitter -
common that similar to so is network the since
+
=
+
= =
>
+ +
= =
= =
CE - Voltage-Divider Bias Configuration
C
i
V i
i
o
i
i
o
i
e
R
Z
A A
option an as
I
I
A
R'
R'
I
I
A
, r 10 R' iI And
=
= =
= =
>

CE - Voltage-Divider Bias Configuration


!ase #elationsip
A CE ampliIier conIiguration will always have a phase relationship between input and
output is 180 degrees. This is independent oI the DC bias.
CE - Voltage-Divider Bias Configuration
CE Emitter-Bias Configuration
&nbypassed R
E
re Model
Again you need to determine , re.
CE Emitter-Bias Configuration
mpedance Calculations
nput mpedance utput mpedance
E e b
1)R ( r Z + + =
) R (r Z
E e b
+ =
e E

E b
r R
R Z
>>
=
b B i
Z ,, R Z =
C o
R Z =
CE Emitter-Bias Configuration
DeIining the input impedance oI a transistor with an
unbypassed emitter resistor
E b
e E
E e b
E e
b
i
b
E b e b i
E e e b i
R Z
to reduced be can above eqn , r an greater th much is R since
R r Z
1, an greater th normally is since
R ) 1 ( r
I
V
Z
R I ) 1 ( r I V
R I r I V
: side input the to KVL Applying
=
+ =
+ + = =
+ + =
+ =
CE Emitter-Bias Configuration
Voltage ain (Av)
Current ain (Ai)
Current ain from Voltage ain
ain Calculations
b
C
i
o
v
Z
R
V
V
A

= =
) R (r Z
R r
R
V
V
A
E e b
E e
C
i
o
v
+ =
+
= =

E b
E
C
i
o
v
R Z
R
R
V
V
A
=
= =
b B
B
i
o
i
Z R
R
I
I
A
+
= =

C
i
v i
R
Z
A A =
or
CE Emitter-Bias Configuration
Voltage Gain
E
C
i
o
V
E b
E e
C
i
o
V
E e b
b
C
i
o
V
C
b
i
C b C o o
b
i
b
R
R
V
V
A
R ion Z approximat Ior the and
R r
R
V
V
A
gives ) R (r Z ng substituti
Z
R
V
V
A
R
Z
V

R I R I V
Z
V
I

= =
=
+

= =
+ =

= =

'
+

'

=
= =
=
CE Emitter-Bias Configuration
Current Gain
C
R
Z
A A
Z R
R
I
I
I
I
I
I
A
I
I
I I
Z R
R
I
I
Z R
I R
I
: in result ll circuit wi input the to rule divider - current the Applying . I I
ion approximat permit the to Z to close oIten too is R oI magnitude The
i
v i
b B
B
i
b
b
o
i
o
i
b
o
b o
b B
B
i
b
b B
i B
b
i b
b B
=
+
= = =
=
=
+
=
+
=
=

CE Emitter-Bias Configuration
!ase #elationsip
A CE ampliIier conIiguration will always have a phase relationship between input and
output is 180 degrees. This is independent oI the DC bias.
CE Emitter-Bias Configuration
Bypassed RE
This is the same circuit as the CE Iixed-bias conIiguration and thereIore can be solved
using the same re model.
CE Emitter-Bias Configuration
Emitter-Follower Configuration
ou may recognize this as the Common-Collector conIiguration. Indeed they are the same
circuit.
Note the input is on the base and the output is Irom the emitter.
re Model
ou still need to determine and re.
Emitter-Follower Configuration
mpedance Calculations
nput mpedance
b B i
Z ,, R Z =
E e b
1)R ( r Z + + =
) R (r Z
E e b
+ =
E b
R Z =
Emitter-Follower Configuration
Calculation Ior the current I
e
E e
i
e
e
e
e
E
e
i
E e
i
e
b
b
i
b e
b
i
b
R r
V
I
r

r
1) (
r
and
1) ( but
R
1) (
r
V

1)R ( r
1)V (
I
gives Ior Z g subtitutin
Z
V
1) ( 1)I ( I
Z
V
I
+
=
= =
+
= +
+

+
=
+ +
+
=
+ = + =
=
Emitter-Follower Configuration
mpedance Calculations (cont`d)
utput mpedance
e E o
r ,, R Z =
e E

e o
r R
r Z
>>
=
E e
i
e
R r
V
I
ion conIigurat Iollower emitter Ior the impedence output the DeIining
+
=
Emitter-Follower Configuration
ain Calculations
Voltage ain (Av)
Current ain (Ai)
Current ain from Voltage ain
e E
E
i
o
v
r R
R
V
V
A
+
= =
E e E e E
i
o
v
R r R , r R
1
V
V
A
= + >>
= =
b B
B
i
Z R
R
A
+
=

E
i
v i
R
Z
A A =
Emitter-Follower Configuration
Voltage gain
1
V
V
A
R r R
, r an greater th much usually R
r R
R
V
V
A
r R
V R
V
i
o
v
E e E
e E
e E
E
i
o
v
e E
i E
o
= =
= +
+
= =
+
=
Emitter-Follower Configuration
Current Gain
E
i
v i
b B
B
i
b B
B
i
b
b
o
i
o
i
b
o
b e o
b B
B
i
b
b B
i B
b
R
Z
A A or
Z R
R
A
, ) 1 ( since
Z R
R
) 1 (
I
I
I
I
I
I
A
) 1 (
I
I
I ) 1 ( I I
Z R
R
I
I
Z R
I R
I
=
+
=
= +
+
+ = = =
+ =
+ = =
+
=
+
=

Emitter-Follower Configuration
!ase #elationsip
A CC ampliIier or Emitter Follower conIiguration has no phase shiIt between input and
output.
'
4
Emitter-Follower Configuration
Common-Base (CB) Configuration
The input (Vi) is applied to the emitter and the output (Vo) is Irom the collector.
The Common-Base is characterized as having low input impedance and high output
impedance with a current gain less than 1 and a very high voltage gain.
re Model
ou will need to determine - and re.
Common-Base (CB) Configuration
mpedance Calculations
nput mpedance utput mpedance
e E i
r ,, R Z =
C o
R Z =
Common-Base (CB) Configuration
ain Calculations
Voltage ain (Av)
Current ain (Ai)
e
C
e
C
i
o
v
r
R
r
R
V
V
A = = =
-
1
I
I
A
i
o
i
= = = -
Common-Base (CB) Configuration
Voltage & Current gain
e
C
e
C
i
o
V
C
e
i
o
e
i
e
C e
C c C o o
r
R
r
R
u
V
V
A
R
r
V
u V
r
V
I
R uI
) R I ( R I V
= = =

'
+

'

=
=
=
= =
1
I
I
A
I I I
I I
i
o
i
i e o
i e
= = =
= =
=
-
- -
Common-Base (CB) Configuration
!ase #elationsip
A CB ampliIier conIiguration has no phase shiIt between input and output.
'
4
Common-Base (CB) Configuration