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Designation : Head of the section
Branch : Electronics and communications engg.

Year / semester : First year
Subject : Electronic Component and Devices
Subject Code : EC-105
Topic :Transistors
Duratilon : 50 Mts
Sub Topic : Formation of Transistors
Teaching Aids : PPT DIAGRAMS.
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On completion of this period, you would be able to

understand :

• What is a transistor?

• How it is formed?

• Symbols of transistors.

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• What are the extrinsic semi conductors?

• What is meant by a Hole?

• What is major difference between P type to N type


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• The Transistor was invented in 1947 by Dr.John Bardeen, Brattain and Shockley at Bell Laboratory in U.S.A.

• It is the invention of the transistor that has brought

revolutionary changes in the field of Electronics.

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• Dr. Bardeen (left)
• Dr. Shockley (seated)
• Dr. Brattain.

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• Transistor is an acronym for Transfer Resistor.

• Transistor is an active device.

• Transistor is a semiconductor device made of Germanium (Ge)

or Silicon (Si).

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Basically, there are two types of transistors

1.Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs),

2.Field Effect Transistors(FETs).

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• From the previous chapter you got an idea about PN Diode

• Basically Transistor Consists of two back-to-back PN

junctions (diodes) manufactured as a single piece of
semiconductor crystal.

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• These two junctions give rise to three regions namely
Emitter (E),
Base (B) and
Collector (C).

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• A junction transistor is simply a sandwich of a thin layer
of one type (either N type or P type) of semiconductor
material between two layers of other type of
semiconductor materials.

• Transistors are of either PNP or NPN.

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Symbol of Transistor

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Fig 1.Formation of pnp Transistor
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• Fig (1) Shows a thin layer of N type material
Sandwiched between two layers of P type
materials it is PNP transistor.

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Fig 2. Formation of npn Transistor

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• Fig (2) shows an NPN transistor consisting
of a thin layer of P type material sandwiched
between two layers of N type materials.

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• The two junctions give rise to three regions.

• The middle region is called Base and the outer two

regions are called as Emitter and Collector.

• Three terminals were taken from three regions,

namely E, B & C.

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• Although Emitter & Collector are made of same
material their functions cannot be inter changed
because they have different physical & electrical

• Emitter :
It is that region of the transistor which emits
majority charge carriers into Base region.

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• The doping concentration of Emitter is more than both
Base and Collector.

• Physical size of Emitter is less than Collector but

more than the Base.

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Base :

• It is the middle region of the transistor.

• It is very thin and lightly doped as compared to either the

Emitter or Collector.

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Collector :

It is that region of the transistor which

Collects the majority charge carriers emitted by the
Emitter Passing through the Base region.

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• Collector region is made physically larger than
Emitter and Base to dessipate the heat generated
by high velocity charge carriers.

• It's doping concentration is greater than Base region

and less than that of Emitter region.

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• The PN junction between Emitter and Base is called
Emitter junction and the junction between Base and
Collector is called Collector junction.

• The horizontal line represents Base (B) while the two

inclined lines represents the Emitter (E) and Collector

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• Emitter is distinguished from the collector by an arrow
head. Arrow head on the Emitter represents the
direction of conventional current.

• In PNP transistor arrow points towards the Base meaning

that Emitter is at positive potential with respect to Base.

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• In NPN transistor arrow points from Base to Emitter
meaning that the Base (and Collector as well) is at
positive potential with respect to Emitter.

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• Transistor is a semiconductor active device.

• Transistors are made of Germanium (Ge) or
silicon (Si).
• Transistor is a 3 layer,2 junction, 3 terminal device.
• Transistors are of either PNP or NPN.
• PNP is complement of NPN.

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Transistor is an ___________ device.


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Emiter is ___________ doped and
moderate area.

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Base is ____________ and _________
lightly doped.

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Collector is ________
larger in area and
moderately doped.

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Arrow head on Emiter points the direction of

Conventional current

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Frequently Asked Questions

4. What is a transistor ?

6. Explain how the transistor is formed ?

3. Draw the symbols of transistor ?

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