Sei sulla pagina 1di 34

DEPARTMENT OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION

ANDHRA PRADESH

Name : K.LAKSHMIAH
Designation : Head of the section
Branch : Electronics and communications engg.
Institute : 028, SIR C.R.REDDY POLYTECHNIC

ELURU.
Year / semester : First year
Subject : Electronic Component and Devices
Subject Code : EC-105
Topic :Transistors
Duratilon : 50 Mts
Sub Topic : Formation of Transistors
Teaching Aids : PPT DIAGRAMS.
EC105.131 to 132 1
OBJECTIVES :

On completion of this period, you would be able to


understand :

• What is a transistor?

• How it is formed?

• Symbols of transistors.

EC105.131 to 132 2
RECAP

• What are the extrinsic semi conductors?

• What is meant by a Hole?

• What is major difference between P type to N type


materials?

EC105.131 to 132 3
INTRODUCTION

• The Transistor was invented in 1947 by Dr.John Bardeen,


Dr.walter Brattain and Shockley at Bell Laboratory in U.S.A.

• It is the invention of the transistor that has brought


revolutionary changes in the field of Electronics.

EC105.131 to 132 4
• Dr. Bardeen (left)
• Dr. Shockley (seated)
• Dr. Brattain.

EC105.131 to 132 5
• Transistor is an acronym for Transfer Resistor.

• Transistor is an active device.

• Transistor is a semiconductor device made of Germanium (Ge)


or Silicon (Si).

EC105.131 to 132 6
Basically, there are two types of transistors

1.Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs),

2.Field Effect Transistors(FETs).

EC105.131 to 132 7
FORMATION OF TRANSISTORS :

• From the previous chapter you got an idea about PN Diode

• Basically Transistor Consists of two back-to-back PN


junctions (diodes) manufactured as a single piece of
semiconductor crystal.

EC105.131 to 132 8
• These two junctions give rise to three regions namely
Emitter (E),
Base (B) and
Collector (C).

EC105.131 to 132 9
• A junction transistor is simply a sandwich of a thin layer
of one type (either N type or P type) of semiconductor
material between two layers of other type of
semiconductor materials.

• Transistors are of either PNP or NPN.

EC105.131 to 132 10
Symbol of Transistor

EC105.131 to 132 11
EC105.131 to 132 12
Fig 1.Formation of pnp Transistor
EC105.131 to 132 13
• Fig (1) Shows a thin layer of N type material
Sandwiched between two layers of P type
materials it is PNP transistor.

EC105.131 to 132 14
Fig 2. Formation of npn Transistor

EC105.131 to 132 15
• Fig (2) shows an NPN transistor consisting
of a thin layer of P type material sandwiched
between two layers of N type materials.

EC105.131 to 132 16
EC105.131 to 132 17
• The two junctions give rise to three regions.

• The middle region is called Base and the outer two


regions are called as Emitter and Collector.

• Three terminals were taken from three regions,


namely E, B & C.

EC105.131 to 132 18
• Although Emitter & Collector are made of same
material their functions cannot be inter changed
because they have different physical & electrical
properties.

• Emitter :
It is that region of the transistor which emits
majority charge carriers into Base region.

EC105.131 to 132 19
• The doping concentration of Emitter is more than both
Base and Collector.

• Physical size of Emitter is less than Collector but


more than the Base.

EC105.131 to 132 20
Base :

• It is the middle region of the transistor.

• It is very thin and lightly doped as compared to either the


Emitter or Collector.

EC105.131 to 132 21
Collector :

It is that region of the transistor which


Collects the majority charge carriers emitted by the
Emitter Passing through the Base region.

EC105.131 to 132 22
• Collector region is made physically larger than
Emitter and Base to dessipate the heat generated
by high velocity charge carriers.

• It's doping concentration is greater than Base region


and less than that of Emitter region.

EC105.131 to 132 23
• The PN junction between Emitter and Base is called
Emitter junction and the junction between Base and
Collector is called Collector junction.

• The horizontal line represents Base (B) while the two


inclined lines represents the Emitter (E) and Collector
(C).

EC105.131 to 132 24
• Emitter is distinguished from the collector by an arrow
head. Arrow head on the Emitter represents the
direction of conventional current.

• In PNP transistor arrow points towards the Base meaning


that Emitter is at positive potential with respect to Base.

EC105.131 to 132 25
• In NPN transistor arrow points from Base to Emitter
meaning that the Base (and Collector as well) is at
positive potential with respect to Emitter.

EC105.131 to 132 26
Summary

• Transistor is a semiconductor active device.


• Transistors are made of Germanium (Ge) or
silicon (Si).
• Transistor is a 3 layer,2 junction, 3 terminal device.
• Transistors are of either PNP or NPN.
• PNP is complement of NPN.

EC105.131 to 132 27
Quiz

Transistor is an ___________ device.

active

EC105.131 to 132 28
heavily
Emiter is ___________ doped and
has________
moderate area.

EC105.131 to 132 29
thin
Base is ____________ and _________
lightly doped.

EC105.131 to 132 30
Collector is ________
larger in area and
________
moderately doped.

EC105.131 to 132 31
Arrow head on Emiter points the direction of

Conventional current
______________

EC105.131 to 132 32
Frequently Asked Questions

4. What is a transistor ?

6. Explain how the transistor is formed ?

3. Draw the symbols of transistor ?

EC105.131 to 132 33
EC105.131 to 132 34