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- Engr. Paul I.

Audu (PAUMA ENGINEERING CONSULTANTS)

IN THIS PRESENTATION WE SHALL EXAMINE:

- SCADA System & Application - Introduction to Hydraulic Signal Detectors - Components of System Measurements - Digital Transducers - Typical Site Infrastructures - Application Details

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- In Commercial Water supply system, the primary role of the operators is to provide continuous service to all consumers with optimum supply security, quality, and cost. - There is the need for use of Real-time Control and Supervisory Systems.

- State-of-the-art control and manipulation of physical system parameters as well as real-time system integration are now possib using the SCADA systems

- SCADA means Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition systems

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SYSTEM MONITORING AND CONTROL - It a system of engineering that is involved in real-time measurement of physical data (Data Acquisition) and translating the electrical replica of the physical measurement through realtime communication link to a remote control centre (Supervisory Control) for effective monitoring and control - This is achieved via a localised Remote Terminal Unit. - The hierarchy of such a control system is illustrated in the figure below

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This hierarchy is categorised as follows: Level 0 - System Hardware Level 1 - Local Controls (electrical Transducers and RTUs) Level 2 - Area Controls (man-machine interface) Level 3 - Supervisory Control

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FROM THE PREVIOUS SLIDE IT IS OBVIOUS THAT:


Data acquisition is obtained through hardwiring with site equipment Logging, Supervisory Control and Monitoring is done through Communication Channels e.g. Microwave Radio Channels, within an RTU (or Remote Terminal Unit).

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When using a SCADA RTU station automation system, the object is that all the information provided on the two-way channel can be completely accessed so that the following centralised remote functions can be implemented:
Remote Monitoring Remote Control Remote setting of Protection parameters Remote Measurement Event Recording Monitoring of all Switching devices Analysis of Fault Recorder data
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RESERVOIR

-Flow Cont. -Level Cont. RTU -Pressure -Leak det. RTU

-Flow Control -Vol. Control -Vel. Control -Pressure Control -Quality Control

MALALI PLANT
RTU -Flow Cont. -Level Cont. -Pressure -Leak det. RTU Lift Station -Flow Control -Vol. Control -Vel. Control -Pressure Control -Quality Control

RTU

-Flow Cont. -Level Cont. -Pressure -Leak det.

-Flow Cont. -Level Cont. -Pressure -Leak det.

RTU RTU
Booster Station

RESERVOIR

-Flow Mon. -Pressure Mon. -Leak det.

RTU RTU

RTU

RTU

RTU

-Flow Cont. -Level Cont. -Pressure -Leak det.

Line Filter

-Vol. Cont. -Level Det. -Level Cont. -Leak det.

Lift Station

RTU
Master Control Center

KADUNA SOUTH PLANT

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The City Water Supply example is a large system with components of Inputs and Outputs
The Inputs and Outputs consist of quantity of water of varying quality and flow into and out of the system at given pressures. There are secondary inputs and outputs, consisting information on the quality and quantity of water in each system components with command signals for water to be pumped from one component to another for treatment and fiteration

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A typical application is the versatile MOSCAD SCADA System from MOTOROLA, shown below:

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A Typical SCADA system contains the following elements: - Primary Sensors and Control Devices - Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) - Communication Subsystem - In-plant Control Station - Central Computer The Primary Sensors and Control Elements will be determined by the specific installation requirements e.g. Wet well (dry well) High/Low Alarms Level/Flow High/Low Level, Flow, Pressure measurements Pump Status Run, Fail, Temperature, Run-time, Vibration Power Monitoring
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- For effective monitoring and control, there is the need

for converting data variable of the Physical System into a signal whose magnitude and sense are representative of the data variable.
- Sensing Devices that convert physical phenomenon

and chemical composition into electric, pneumatic, or hydraulic output signals known as Transducers are very useful for this purpose.
Two basic categories of transducers are available as follows; those based on electric effects those based on mechanical effects
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Fluid Monitoring & Control


- Monitoring and control are mostly implemented at the various points where actuators are applied in the system. - Modern monitoring is achieved using intelligent instrumentation, and a wide range of measurements are made in measuring instruments and control systems. The most common are: - Pressure - Temperature - Flow - These three forms of measurements account for 90% of all measurements made on physical systems.

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Other less common measurements that shall be utilised include


Position Velocity Acceleration Density Force Weight Level These are effectively utilised in modern transducers that form the primary data acquisition components in primary systems.

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In the design of our measuring instruments, these three criteria shall, of necessity, be established; - What is to be measured? - Why is it to be measured? - What accuracy is required?
These questions are important in establishing an instrument specification, especially for computer control schemes in SCADA systems. Figure below illustrates a general instrumentation system and the interface with intelligent instrumentation schemes as obtainable in SCADA systems.
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Neither instruments nor control systems can have an existence unless measurements can be made.
There is a wide range of measurands, which are detected by a wide variety of sensors and are processed by a lesser number of transducers. Measurement of fluid flow involve a long chain of operations that may involve the process below. These form the basic principles of techniques that shall be utilised in sensing the measurand (water) characteristics for SCADA implementation.
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Flow-rate is sensed by detecting a pressure difference across an orifice plate

Pressure is converted to a displacement in a differential pressure cell

Establishment of Pneumatic output

Pneumatic output converted to electrical Signal

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Inductive Pressure (displacement) Transducer

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PRESSURE Pressure is a measurand that cannot be measured directly. It is usually measured as follows:
A mechanical device provides displacement In response to a pressure change

This displacement is is translated into electrical signal by means of displacement transducer

Electrical signal communicated to computer terminal for modern computer control


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Elastic Element Pressure Transducer

Mechanical Energy Output (displacement)

Mechanical to Electrical Transducer

Electrical Energy Output (Voltage or current)

Auxiliary energy input

Basic Principle for a Pressure Transducer

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WATER LEVEL There are many different techniques, some direct (actual measurements) and others indirect (using another measurand). The variety of methods that provide continuous, automatic signal include:

Float method Differential Pressure method Diaphragm Switch method Direct Pressure method Load Cell method Capacitive method Ultrasonic method

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We have looked at measurement of natural phenomena such as flow, pressure, force, level, pH, etc., using analogue variables.
Some of these signals are converted into electrical signals while some are transmitted as pulses or coded signals.

For these signals to be useful in digital computation, manipulation of data associated with natural phenomena is carried out using digital processing.
There is a great effort involved in the translation of analogue signals to a digital format, and there are variety of devices which easily give a digital output in response to natural phenomena.

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The following applications are in use: A digital transducer should measure the natural phenomenon and produce a parallel binary or binary-coded-decimal (BCD) output as shown in figure 7.1(a). This type is known as Direct Digital Encoding and it measures displacement The following applications are in use: 1 The digital transducer shown in figure 7.1(b) operates as Pulse, Frequency and Time Encoder, where a digital pulse train is produced in response to physical phenomena. Pulse, frequency and time are dependent variables related by: Time = 1/frequency

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1 The third type shown in figure 7.1(c) is an Analogue to Digital Encoder, where an analogue effect such as the change in resistance value or the change in tension on a wire can be operated on by hybrid electronic circuitry to produce a frequency or pulse train. 2 The last but not the least is the Analogue to Digital Converter, where an analogue signal from a transducer such as strain gauge or thermocouple can be presented to a digital computer by analogue to digital conversion. This is illustrated in figure 7.1(d).

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DIGITAL FLOW TRANSDUCERS There are a number of interesting digital techniques in the measurement of fluid flows. These include: (a) Transit Time Flowmeters which measure the time difference between transmitting an ultrasonic beam upstream, and downstream across a homogeneous fluid flow contained in a pipe. This is illustrated below.

Transit Time Flowmeter

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(b) Doppler Flowmeter uses the Doppler effect technique to measure velocity and obtain a corresponding frequency output. The configuration is shown below:

Doppler Flowmeter

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(c) The Vortex Shedding Flow Transducer uses the principle of flow diversion or obstruction. If a bluff body is placed in a fluid flow the moving fluid cannot follow the contours and sheds eddies or vortices. The vortex pattern depends on the bluff bodys shape and the fluids properties, but the frequency of the vortices depends on the flow rate of the fluids.

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The photographs of various critical locations requiring measurement for SCADA application are given below;

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FLOW CONTROL The installation may be a typical insertion type McCrometer (model 282, two inch full pipe Sensor) for flow measurement shown below:
Sensor for Flow Detection

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TYPICAL DETECTOR INSTALLATION

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LEVEL DETECTORS For Level detection we are going to utilise the Conductivity Sensing Technology, and in doing this we shall make use of HiTECHs ConductiProbe, model CP-1 shown below. The detection level is ideal for - Pump Control - Run Dry Protection - Overfill Alarm Spill/Leak Detection

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Arrangement of a two-level Floatless Controller

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Arrangement of a three-level Floatless Controller

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Equipment Connection for Water Supply

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Various configurations that shall be used for site installations include: G G1 - Automatic water supply and drainage control - (a) Automatic water supply and drainage control (b) Automatic water supply (idling prevention) Automatic water supply (abnormal shortage alarm) G2 G3 G4 - Automatic water supply and drainage control (abnormal water increase alarm) - Automatic water supply and drainage control (abnormal filling/shortage alarm) - Water source level indication, prevention of pump idling due to water shortage, automatic water supply control, and indication of water level in tank
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