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# Chapter 4:

## Image Enhancement in the

Frequency Domain

N.SREEKANTH
Assistant Professor
ECE Department
Basic steps for filtering in the
frequency domain

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Basics of filtering in the
frequency domain
 multiply the input image by (-1)x+y to center the
transform to u = M/2 and v = N/2 (if M and N are
even numbers, then the shifted coordinates will be
integers)
 computer F(u,v), the DFT of the image from (1)
 multiply F(u,v) by a filter function H(u,v)
 compute the inverse DFT of the result in (3)
 obtain the real part of the result in (4)
 multiply the result in (5) by (-1)x+y to cancel the
multiplication of the input image.

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Notch filter
• this filter is to force the F(0,0)
which is the average value of an
image (dc component of the
spectrum)
• the output has prominent edges
• in reality the average of the
displayed image can’t be zero as
it needs to have negative gray
levels. the output image needs to
scale the gray level
0 if (u, v) = (M/2, N/2 )
H (u , v) = 
1 otherwise 4
Low pass filter

## high pass filter

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Add the ½ of filter height to
F(0,0) of the high pass filter

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Correspondence between filter
in spatial and frequency domains

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Smoothing Frequency-domain
filters: Ideal Lowpass filter

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image power circles

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Result of ILPF

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Example

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Butterworth Lowpass Filter:
BLPF

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Example

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Spatial representation of BLPFs

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Gaussian Lowpass Filter: GLPF

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Example

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Example

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Example

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Example

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Sharpening Frequency Domain
Filter:
Ideal highpass filter

0 if D(u, v) ≤ D 0
H (u , v) = 
1 if D(u, v) > D 0
Butterworth highpass filter
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H (u , v) =
1 + [ D 0 D(u , v)]
2n

## Gaussian highpass filter

− D 2 ( u ,v ) / 2 D02
H (u , v) = 1 − e

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Spatial representation of Ideal,
Butterworth and Gaussian highpass
filters

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Example: result of IHPF

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Example: result of BHPF

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Example: result of GHPF

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Laplacian in the Frequency
domain

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Example: Laplacian filtered
image

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Example: high-boost filter

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Examples

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Homomorphic Filter

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Result of Homomorphic filter

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