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Virtual reality is a technology which allows user to interact with computer-simulated environment. It is an artificial environment created with the help of software and user accepts it as a real like personal computer Simplest form of virtual reality is 3-D image. Virtual reality divided into two :The simulation of a real environment for training and education. The development of an imagined environment for a game or interactive story.



The term "artificial reality", coined by Myron Krueger, has been in use since the 1970s, but the origin of the term "virtual reality" can be traced back to the French playwright, poet, actor and director Antonin Artaud. In his seminal book The Theatre and Its Double (1938), Artaud described theatre as "la ralite virtuelle", a virtual reality "in which characters, objects, and images take on in the drama The concept of virtual reality was popularized in mass media by movies such as Brainstorm (filmed mostly in 1981) and The Lawnmower Man.


Morton Heilig wrote in the 1950s of an "Experience Theatre" that could encompass all the senses in an effective manner. He built a prototype of his vision dubbed the Sensorama in 1962, along with five short films to be displayed in it while engaging multiple senses (sight, sound, smell, and touch). Predating digital computing, the Sensorama was a mechanical device, which reportedly still functions today.

The formidable appearance of the device inspired its name, The Sword of Damocles.
In the late 1980s the term "virtual reality" was popularized by Jaron Lanier, one of the modern pioneers of the field. Lanier had founded the company VPL Research (from "Visual Programming Languages") in 1985, which developed and built some of the seminal "goggles n' gloves" systems of that decade.



The purpose of current research is linked to a project aimed at treating Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in veterans by exposing them to combat simulations, complete with smells. A full sensory immersion beyond basic tactile feedback, sight, sound, and smell is unlikely to be a goal in the industry. On April 7, 2005, Sony went public with the information that they had filed for and received a patent for the idea of the non-invasive beaming of different frequencies and patterns of ultrasonic waves directly into the brain to recreate all five senses. Virtual Reality will be the last invention of humans, as once simulations become cheaper and more widespread, no one will ever want to leave their "perfect" fantasies.


Virtual reality will be integrated into daily life and activity and will be used in various human ways. Techniques will be developed to influence human behavior, interpersonal communication, and cognition (i.e., virtual genetics). As we spend more and more time in virtual space, there will be a gradual migration to virtual space, resulting in important changes in economics, worldview, and culture. The design of virtual environments may be used to extend basic human rights into virtual space, to promote human freedom and well-being, and to promote social stability as we move from one stage in socio-political development to the next


The first use of a VR presentation in a Heritage application was in 1994 when a museum visitor interpretation provided an interactive 'walk-through' of a 3D reconstruction of Dudley Castle in England as it was in 1550.


This technology can be used to develop virtual replicas of caves, natural environment, old towns, monuments, sculptures and archaeological elements.


Data collection in the area through 3D laser Scanning. Data processing in cabinet. Virtual model generation. Application development.

Design and an installation and setting up of VR system.


Entertainment media reinforced these concepts with futuristic imagery many generations beyond contemporary capabilities.


Many science fiction books and movies have imagined characters being "trapped in virtual reality". One of the first modern works to use this idea was Daniel F. Galouye's novel Simulacron-3. The Piers Anthony novel Killobyte follows the story of a paralyzed cop trapped in a virtual reality game by a hacker, whom he must stop to save a fellow trapped player with diabetes slowly succumbing to insulin shock. William Gibson's Neuromancer which defined the concept of cyberspace, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash, in which he made extensive reference to the term "avatar" to describe one's representation in a virtual world, and Rudy Rucker's The Hacker and the Ants, in which programmer Jerzy Rugby uses VR for robot design and testing.


The first major American television series to showcase virtual reality was Star Trek: The Next Generation. In Japan and Hong Kong, the first anime series to use the idea of virtual reality was Video Warrior Laserion (1984). In 2005, Brazilian's Globo TV features a show where VR helmets are used by the attending audience in a space simulation called Conquista de Tit, broadcasted for more than 20 million viewers weekly.



Steven Lisberger's 1982 movie TRON was the first mainstream Hollywood picture to explore the idea.

The most famous film to popularize the subject was more recently done by the Wachowski brothers in 1999's The Matrix.
Total Recall and David Cronenberg's film EXistenZ dealt with the danger of confusion between reality and virtual reality in computer games. This idea was also used in Spy Kids 3-D: Game Over. There is also a film from 1995 called "Virtuosity" with Denzel Washington and Russell Crowe


Virtuality licensed the Amiga 3000 for use in their VR machines and released a VR gaming system called the 1000CS. Bob Ladrach brought Virtual Knight into the major theme park arcades in 1994. In the Mage: The Ascension role-playing game, the mage tradition of the Virtual Adepts is presented as the real creators of VR. Metal Gear Solid bases heavily on VR usage, either as a part of the plot, or simply to guide the players through training sessions. Black and White users could download a patch to use the P5 glove to control the game.



The Walt Disney 'Disney Quest' venue is the major conceptual application still operational in 2007. Making Virtual Reality attractions mobile has also been on the forefront of their consumer appeal


David Em was the first fine artist to create navigable virtual worlds in the 1970s. His early work was done on mainframes at III, JPL and Caltech. Other pioneering artists working in VR have include Luc Courchesne, Rita Addison, Knowbotic Research, Rebecca Allen, Perry Hoberman, Jacki Morie, and Brenda Laurel.


The NES Power Glove by Mattel from the 1980s was an early example as well as the U-Force and later, the Sega Activator. Nike's "Virtual Andre" in 1997, featuring a teenager playing tennis using a goggle and gloves system against a computer generated Andre Agassi.


Virtual Reality is finding its way into the training of health care professionals. Use ranges from anatomy instruction to surgery simulation.



The primary use of VR in a therapeutic role is its application to various forms of exposure therapy, ranging from phobia treatments, to newer approaches to treating PTSD. PTSD is a condition distinct from traumatic stress, which has less intensity and duration, and combat stress reaction, which is transitory. PTSD has also been recognized in the past as railway spine, shell shock, battle fatigue, traumatic war neurosis, or post-traumatic stress syndrome. Virtual Reality is being tested in upper and lower limb motor rehabilitation after stroke and spinal cord injuries, and also for cerebral palsy and other disabilities. Researchers use haptic devices (Curictus) and rehabilitation robots with virtual reality games in order to improve motivation during exercises.


To develop a real time virtual environment, a computer graphics library can be used as embedded resource coupled with a common programming language, such as C++, Perl, Java or Python. Some of the most popular computer graphics library/API/language are OpenGL, Direct3D, Java3D and VRML, and their use will be directly influenced by the system demands in terms of performance, program purpose, and hardware platform.


Virtual reality can serve to new product design, helping as an ancillary tool for engineering in manufacturing processes, new product prototype and simulation. Electronic Design Automation, CAD, Finite Element Analysis, and Computer Aided Manufacturing. The use of Stereo lithography and 3D printing shows how computer graphics modeling can be applied to create physical parts of real objects used in naval, aerospace and automotive industry.

Finite Element Analysis Electronic Design Automation,


Virtual reality has been heavily criticized for being an inefficient method for navigating non-geographical information. Repetitive strain injury can also result from repeated use of the handset gloves.