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Anatomy

and Physiology
by: MARNIE G. SARONO
(a)

OBJECTIVES:
General Objective: Within 3 successive periods, the second year students will be able to gain knowledge about human anatomy and physiology as well as identify the body parts and its functions at 70% level of accuracy.

Specific Objectives:

Cognitive: The second year students will be able to: Differentiate anatomy and physiology of the human body List the different systems in the human body Describe the functions of the different systems of the body Illustrate the anatomy of each body system

a. b. c. d.

Affective:

The second year students will be able to: Share the importance of human anatomy and physiology Synthesize the connection of one body system to another

a. b.

Psychomotor:
a. b. c.

The second year students will be able to: Identify the specific body parts and its functions Make a diagram of each body system Locate the different organ systems using a model

HUMAN ANATOMY

study of structure of body: the branch of science that studies the physical structure of a human body

PHYSIOLOGY

study of functioning of living things: the branch of biology that deals with the internal workings of living things, including functions such as metabolism, respiration, and reproduction.

A. Integumentary System

Structures
Skin Epidermis Dermis Apocrine gland Subcutaneous tissue Arrector pili muscle Eccrine sweat gland Melanocytes Hair Nails
(Continued)

Functions
What are the major functions of the integumentary system?

Protect Fluid balance Absorption Synthesis of Vitamin D Sensation/communication with external environment

Thermoregulation Immunity Excretion

B. Respiratory System

Functions

Nasal cavity: warms, humidifies, and filters air Pharynx: passageway between nose and larynx, and mouth and esophagus Larynx: passageway; contains voice box

(Continued)

Functions

Trachea: airway between larynx and bronchi Bronchi: airways with primary, secondary, and tertiary branches Bronchioles: transitional airways; some gas exchange occurs here

(Continued)

Functions
Alveolar ducts and sacs: functional units for gas exchange Pleura: serous protective lining of the lungs; reduces friction and helps maintain negative pressure

C. Cardiovascular System

Functions

Heart: four chambers (right and left atria and ventricles), double pump Atria (right and left): pump blood to the ventricles

(Continued)

Functions

Arteries: carry blood away from the heart Veins: carry blood toward the heart Ventricles: right pumps blood to pulmonary circulation; left pumps blood to systemic circulation Valves: AV valves (the tricuspid and mitral), Semilunar valves (the pulmonic and aortic)
(Continued)

D. Gastrointestinal System

Function
What are the functions of Stomach: churns food, intrinsic factor for B12, hydrochloric acid begins digestion Small intestines: primary site for digestion Large intestines: absorbs sodium and water

(Continued)

Function
What are the functions of Liver: metabolism; produces bile, clotting factors; detoxifies drugs & alcohol; converts glucose to glycogen; stores vitamins Pancreas: produces insulin and glucagon, pancreatic enzymes
(Continued)

Function
What are the functions of Gall bladder: stores and concentrates bile Spleen: stores RBCs, produces RBCs and macrophages

(Continued)

Function
What are the functions of Bladder: stores urine Kidneys: remove wastes, help control B/P, produces erythropoietin

E. FEMALE GENITOURINARY SYSTEM

Functions
What are the functions of Mons pubis: subcutaneous pad over symphysis pubis for protection Labia majora/minora: folds of adipose and connective tissue that protect and lubricate external genitalia
(Continued)

Functions
What are the functions of Clitoris: erectile tissue for sexual stimulation Urinary meatus: opening to urethra Skenes glands: lubricate and protect

(Continued)

Functions
What are the functions of Vaginal introitus: opening of the vagina Vagina: muscular tube for copulation, birth canal, and menses Bartholins glands: secretes alkaline mucus that improves viability & motility of sperm

Functions
What are the functions of Cervix: end of the uterus into vagina Uterus: hollow, muscular organ; site for fertilized egg implantation; protects fetus

(Continued)

Functions
What are the functions of Tubes: passage for ovum to uterus, site of fertilization Ovaries: produce ova, estrogen, and progesterone Kidneys: filter and excrete wastes
(Continued)

Functions
What are the functions of Ureter: connects kidneys to bladder Bladder: hollow muscular structure; holds urine Urethra: connects bladder to urinary meatus opening

F. MALE GENITOURINARY SYSTEM

Functions
What are the functions of Scrotum: sac that contains testes Testes: produces sperm and testosterone Vas deferens: duct from epididymis to ejaculatory duct

(Continued)

Functions
What are the functions of Spermatic cord: protective sheath around the vas deferens Seminal vesicles: produce 70% of semen Bulbourethral gland: secretes alkaline substance to neutralize vaginal secretions
(Continued)

Functions
What are the functions of Prostate: produces 20% of semen Epididymis: stores sperm until it is mature Kidney: filters blood and removes wastes

(Continued)

Functions
What are the functions of Ureter: tube connecting kidney to bladder Bladder: hollow, muscular structure, holds urine Urethra: passageway for urine

(Continued)

Functions
What are the functions of Penis: male sex organ and urine elimination Glans penis: important for sexual arousal

(Continued)

Functions
What are the functions of Inguinal area: canal for vas deferens from scrotum through the abdominal muscles, inguinal lymph nodes

REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

URINARY SYSTEM

G. MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Functions
What are the functions of Bones (206): structure; protection; act as levers; produce blood cells; store calcium Muscles (650): allow for movement and position; produce heat

(Continued)

Functions
What are the functions of Joints: point of articulation of two bones; provide ROM Tendons: connect muscle to bone Ligament: connects bone to bone

(Continued)

Functions
What are the functions of Cartilage: supports and shapes; acts as a shock absorber Bursae: sacs filled with synovial fluid; cushion and reduce friction between joints

Types of Joints

Pivot Condyloid Ball and socket

Hinge Plane/gliding Saddle

G. NERVOUS SYSTEM

Structures

Cerebrum Frontal lobe Limbic system Occipital lobe Thalamus Cerebellum Midbrain Meninges

Cortex Temporal lobe Parietal lobe RAS Hypothalamus Brainstem Medulla Ventricles

Functions
What are the functions of Cerebrum: largest part of brain Cortex: outer layer of cerebrum; controls most conscious processes Frontal lobe: emotional expression, Brocas area (expressive language)
(Continued)

Functions
What are the functions of Temporal lobe: hearing, taste, smell, memory, Wernickes (language comprehension) Limbic system: emotions, sexual arousal, behavioral expression, recent memory

(Continued)

Functions
What are the functions of Parietal: sensory input Occipital lobe: vision and spatial relationships RAS: wakefulness

(Continued)

Functions
What are the functions of Thalamus: clusters multiple sensory stimuli Hypothalamus: controls autonomic nervous system and pituitary gland Cerebellum: coordination, equilibrium

(Continued)

Functions
What are the functions of Brainstem: involuntary survival behaviors; includes midbrain, medulla and pons Midbrain: visual, auditory, pupils, and eye movements

(Continued)

Functions
What are the functions of Medulla: regulates heart, respiratory rates, B/P, and protective reflexes Pons: helps with respiratory function, facial sensation and movement

(Continued)

Functions
What are the functions of Meninges: three layers (pia, arachnoid, dura); protect brain and spinal cord Ventricles: four cavities; capillaries produce and reabsorb CSF

(Continued)

END.