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Motivation and Personality

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1. Learning acquired by accident or without much effort is known as intrinsic learning


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2. According to B.F. Skinner, the kind of learning most characteristic of human beings is problem solving, which enables individuals to gain some control over their environment False

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3. The role of experience in learning indicates that all learning is deliberately sought False

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4. Instrumental learning theorists believe that learning occurs through a trial-and-error process, with habits formed as a result of rewards received for certain responses or behaviors True

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5. Lotteries, sweepstakes, door prizes, and contests that require certain consumer behaviors for eligibility are examples of variable ratio reward schedules True

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6. A distributed ad campaign, with ads repeated on a regular basis, results in more long-term learning and is relatively immune to extinction. True

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7. Product information stored in memory tends to be brand based False

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8. Ads can act as retrieval cues for a competitive brand True

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9. Celebrity endorsements can be explained by Classical conditioning theory of pairing leading to associative learning True

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10. Classical conditioning works with lower order animals like mice or dogs and human being generally learn cognitively False

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11. Variable time reinforcements are more effective and this is the reason why performance based incentives are popular in sales. False

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12. Films create new fashion trends which is an example of vicarious learning True

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13. Many of you like tea or coffee. This is learned at childhood mostly by operant conditioning False

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14. Many athletes are superstitious in following routine repetitive behaviors like some cricketers always carrying a red hand kerchief. These behaviors are learnt as a result of vicarious modeling. False

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15. Most brands are stored in the memory chronologically. This is why brands evoke nostalgia as child hood memories. False

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16. Schemas are associative networks of knowledge beliefs and associations and are recalled in response to cues True

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17. We tend not to forget cycling or swimming because of episodic memory False

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18. Brands like Nike, Rayban etc. are examples of symbolic consumption and semantic memory structures offers a better explanation of symbolic consumption than operant conditioning True

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19. Three hit theory is supported by operant conditioning False

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20. For low involvement products, classical conditioning is a better method of creating the learning in the consumer than operant conditioning True

Learning Theories
Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning
Cognition or Connection? Shaping and Insight Learning

Observational Learning (Vicarious Learning)

memory Procedural, Episodic, Semantic Knowledge Networks

Recap: Model of the Motivation Process

Needs and Goals

New needs emerge as old needs are satisfied Many needs might lead to the same goal The same need might lead to different goal
Approach and Avoidance Rational and emotional selection

Herzberg and Two factor theory

Hygiene factors and motivators

Inability to reach goals can cause frustration

Defense mechanisms

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs

Murray (1898-1988)
Abasement : To surrender and submit to others, accept blame and punishment. To enjoy pain and misfortune. Achievement : To accomplish difficult tasks, overcoming obstacles and becoming expert. Affiliation : To be close and loyal to another person, pleasing them and winning their friendship and attention. Aggression :To forcefully overcome an opponent, controlling, taking revenge or punishing them. Autonomy : To break free from constraints, resisting coercion and dominating authority. To be irresponsible and independent. Counteraction : To make up for failure by trying again, seeking pride-fully to overcome obstacles.

Murray (1898-1988)
Defendance : To defend oneself against attack or blame, hiding any failure of the self. Deference : To admire a superior person, praising them and yielding to them and following their rules. Dominance : To control one's environment, controlling other people through command or subtle persuasion. Exhibition : To impress others through one's actions and words, even if these are shocking. Harm avoidance : To escape or avoid pain, injury and death. Infavoidance : To avoid being humiliated or embarrassed. Nurturance :To help the helpless, feeding them and keeping them from danger.

Murray (1898-1988)
Order : To make things clean, neat and tidy. Play : To have fun, laugh and relax, enjoying oneself. Rejection : To separate oneself from a negatively viewed object or person, excluding or abandoning it. Sentience :To seek out and enjoy sensual experiences. Sex : To form relationships that lead to sexual intercourse. Succourance :To have one's needs satisfied by someone or something. Includes being loved, nursed, helped, forgiven and consoled. Understanding :To be curious, ask questions and find answers.

A Trio of Needs
individuals desire to control environment

need for friendship, acceptance, and belonging

need for personal accomplishment closely related to egoistic and self-actualization needs

Specific Needs and Buying Behavior

Value personal accomplishment Place a premium on products that signify success (luxury brands, technology products)


Want to be with other people Focus on products that are used in groups (alcoholic beverages, sports bars)


Control ones environment Focus on products that allow them to have mastery over surroundings (muscle cars, loud boom-boxes)


Assert ones individual identity Enjoy products that focus on their unique character (perfumes, clothing)

Brand is a Person
Person-like traits associated with brands Examples
Peter England Louis Philippe Allan Solly Woodland Rayban

Brand personality which is strong and favorable will strengthen a brand but not necessarily demand a price premium

A Brand as a person

What Is Personality
The inner psychological characteristics that both determine and reflect how a person responds to his or her environment Enduring Consistent But can Change Are you Extraverted or Introverted

What is your personality

How would you describe your personality? How does it influence products that you purchase?

Theories of Personality
Freudian theory
Unconscious needs or drives are at the heart of human motivation

Neo-Freudian personality theory

Social relationships are fundamental to the formation and development of personality

Trait theory
Quantitative approach to personality as a set of psychological traits

Freudian Theory
Warehouse of primitive or instinctual needs for which individual seeks immediate satisfaction

Individuals internal expression of societys moral and ethical codes of conduct

Individuals conscious control that balances the demands of the id and superego

Freudian Systems
Marketing Implications Unconscious motives underlying purchases Symbolism in products to compromise id and superego
Sports car as sexual gratification for men Phallic symbols, such as cigars


Freudian Theory and Product Personality

Consumer researchers using Freuds personality theory see consumer purchases as a reflection and extension of the consumers own personality

Neo-Freudian Personality Theory

We seek goals to overcome feelings of inferiority We continually attempt to establish relationships with others to reduce tensions Karen Horney was interested in child-parent relationships and desires to conquer feelings of anxiety. Proposed three personality groups
Compliant move toward others, they desire to be loved, wanted, and appreciated Aggressive move against others Detached move away from others

Neo-Freudian Theories
Karen Horney
Compliant versus detached versus aggressive

Alfred Adler
Motivation to overcome inferiority

Harry Stack Sullivan

Personality evolves to reduce anxiety

Neo-Freudian Theories: Jung

Carl Jung: analytical psychology
Collective unconscious Archetypes in advertising (old wise man, earth mother, etc.)

Trait Theory
Personality theory with a focus on psychological characteristics Trait - any distinguishing, relatively enduring way in which one individual differs from another Personality is linked to how consumers make their choices or to consumption of a broad product category - not a specific brand

Trait Theory

Innovativeness The degree to which consumers are Dogmatism receptive to new Social character products, new services, Need for uniqueness or new practices Optimum stimulation level Variety-novelty seeking

Trait Theory

Innovativeness Dogmatism Social character Need for uniqueness Optimum stimulation level Variety-novelty seeking

Ranges on a continuum for inner-directedness to otherdirectedness Inner-directedness

rely on own values when evaluating products Innovators

look to others less likely to be innovators

Are You an Innie or an Outie?

(individualist orientation) Contentment

(group orientation)

More satisfied with current life Less satisfied with current life Less likely to avoid unhealthy foods Spend less time preparing food More likely to avoid unhealthy foods Love kitchen; spend more time preparing food

Health Consciousness Food Preparation


More likely to work hard and stay late at work

More interested in traveling to other cultures

Less likely to work hard

Travel and Entertainment

Visit library and read more

Lifestyle: patterns of consumption reflecting a persons choices of how one spends time and money Lifestyle marketing perspective: people sort themselves into groups on the basis of:
What they like to do How they spend leisure time How they spend disposable income

Building Blocks of Lifestyles

Product usage in desirable social settings Consumption style Patterns of behavior
Co-branding strategies: brands team up with other companies to promote their products understand this Product complementarity: symbolic meanings of different products relate to one another Consumption constellations: define, communicate, and perform social roles

Lifestyle/Personality Variables for Soup

Active Lifestyle (Vegetable): I am: outdoorsy, physically fit, workaholic, socially active
Family Spirited (Chicken Noodle): I am: family-oriented, churchgoer, traditional Homebody (Tomato): I am: a homebody, good cook, pet lover; I enjoy spending time alone Intellectually Stimulated Pastimes (French Onion): I am: a technology whiz, world traveler, book lover

Mentally Alert (Clam Chowder): I am: intellectual, sophisticated, creative, detail-oriented, witty, nutrition conscious
Social (Chili): I am: fun at parties, outgoing, spontaneous, trendsetter Athletic (Cream Soups): I am: athletic, competitive, adventurous Carefree (Minestrone): I am: down-to-earth, affectionate, fun loving, optimistic

Motivational Research
Qualitative research designed to uncover consumers subconscious or hidden motivations Attempts to discover underlying feelings, attitudes, and emotions

Third-person Role Playing

Motivational Research
Metaphor analysis Storytelling Word association and sentence completion Thematic apperception test Drawing pictures and photo-sorts

Dichters Consumption Motives

Motive Power-masculinity-virility Security Eroticism Moral purity-cleanliness Social acceptance Individuality Status Associated Products Power tools, hot rods, coffee, red meat, razors Ice cream, home baking, hospital care Sweets, gloves White bread, cotton fabrics, bathing, oatmeal Toys, sugar, honey, soap, beauty products Gourmet foods, foreign cars, vodka, perfume Scotch, carpets

Reward Mastery over environment Disalienation Magic-mystery

Cakes, dolls, silk, tea, household curios

Cigarettes, candy, alcohol, ice cream, cookies Kitchen appliances, boats, sporting goods Home decorating, skiing, morning radio broadcasts Soups, paints, carbonated drinks, vodka

Would you think Ms. A or Ms. B would drink more milk, or possibly the same amount? (Give reason)


Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique (ZMET)
Think about product or brand and find 8-10 pictures (from magazines, catalogues, photoalbums) to represent thoughts and feelings about it (1 week) Probing interview in lab about pictures (2 hours) Digital collage of most meaningful 5-7 pictures

Conventional research told Dupont that most women hate to wear panty hose. Zaltman selected 20 panty-hose-wearing women and asked: "What are your thoughts and feelings about buying and wearing panty hose?" They collected a dozen pictures from magazines, catalogs, and family photo albums that captured their thoughts and feelings about the product.

The women found images of steel bands strangling trees, twisted telephone cords, and of fence posts encased in a tight plastic wrap. also chose pictures of two African masks hanging on a bare wall, of an ice-cream sundae spilled on the ground, of a luxury car, and of flowers resting peacefully in a vase. the women discussed each picture during an intense two-hour session women have a love-hate relationship with nylons.

Wearing the product made her feel thin and tall. The ice-cream sundae represented the embarrassment caused by stocking runs; the expensive car, the feeling of luxury. The images also brought out subtleties related to sexual issues,Women would say, 'They make my legs feel longer.' Why is it important to have long legs? 'Men like long legs.' Why do men like long legs? 'They're sexy.' And eventually women would say they wanted to feel sexy to men. These findings led hosiery manufacturers and retailers to alter their advertising to include not only images of supercompetent career women but also images of sexiness and allure


Nestles Crunch
Subjects revealed that they saw the candy bar as a small indulgence in a busy world, a source of quick energy, and something that just tasted good

Subjects brought in pictures of old pickup trucks, of children playing on picket-fenced suburban lawns, of grandfather clocks, of snowmen, and of American flags.

The candy bar evoked powerful memories of childhood, of simpler times.

It was less a workday pick-me-up than a time machine back to childhood.

Money runs through his fingers I am drowning in debt Dont pour your money down the drain The bank froze his assets