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Chapter 3

What is Project Management?
• Project management:
– Is the coordination of your work and that of others such
that organizational objectives can be achieved while
meeting time, budget, and quality standards or
– Is a systematic process through which almost all the
steps involved in starting and completing a project are
anticipated and outlined in advance.
– Involves tracking a project from its inception to

Why Project Management?
• Encourages employees to be efficient in plotting
their work flow, whether on independent or team-
based projects.
• Becomes essential as project managers attempt to
adapt to changing technology, coordinate with
multiple people and departments, meet financial
goals, and manage business strategy while
simultaneously monitoring multiple projects.
• Complex projects require planning and
coordination with other projects and activities, both
personal and professional. 3
Benefits of Project
• Resources such as time, money, and
personnel are appropriately allocated to the
organization’s numerous priorities and
• Long-term objectives can be kept in mind
while short-term objectives are being
• Contingencies can be anticipated.
• Project output is made more consistent. 4
Benefits of Project
Management for Individuals
• Collegiality is enhanced
• Morale is enhanced
• Job satisfaction is increased
• Learning is enhanced
• Creativity and synergy are enhanced

Steps to Managing Projects
1. Define project objectives and scope.
– Discuss the goals as a group.
– Relate the project goals to overall organizational goals
and strategy.
– Clarify the scope of the project.
– Clarify project objectives with the project manager or
instructor to ensure everyone’s on the same page
about the expected outcome.

Steps to Managing Projects
2. Determine project participants and stakeholders.
– Assemble vital employees and teammates and ensure
they are kept a part of the project.
– Keep stakeholders involved and informed.
– Create a master calendar on which members’
availability (or lack thereof) is noted.
– Discuss what the group members’ interests are – their
strengths and desired contributions to the project.
– Consider the team members’ planning and organizing

Steps to Managing Projects
3. Develop a time line or work plan.
– Begin brainstorming all the steps required to complete
the project.
– Determine and specify the dependencies that exist
between all the tasks, participants, and activities in the
project plan.
– As a group, clarify the objectives when specific tasks
are assigned.
– Build in time for the unexpected.
– Be very flexible.

Steps to Managing Projects
4. Establish checkpoints and control mechanisms.
– Evaluate your project for important steps or tasks to be
completed and insert interim deadlines or checkpoints
in the project plan.
– Review and update the plan regularly.

Steps to Managing Projects
5. Identify and obtain necessary resources.
– Review the tasks and objectives and discuss what will
be required to complete the assignment.
– Know when to let a project go or when to start over.

Steps to Managing Projects
6. Determine how project results will be measured.
– Understand how the project will be evaluated and who
will assess it.
– Ensure that steps are built into the process to obtain
the data needed to evaluate the success of the project.

Steps to Managing Projects
7. Set up an ongoing communication system.
– Communicate with team members and stakeholders.
– Start the project with face-to-face or telephone contact
if possible.
– Meet regularly (in person or virtually) to check on
project status and progress.
– Revisit initial decisions made by the group if they are
not working.
– Keep people informed by issuing progress reports.

Steps to Managing Projects
7. Set up an ongoing communication system.
– Encourage a positive, open atmosphere.
– Monitor performance and catch problems early on.
– Give less experienced team members more initial
attention and direction.
– Develop records that document the group’s progress on
the project.

Steps to Managing Projects
8. Debrief and evaluate the process and results at
project end.
– Discuss what worked well and what didn’t.
– Discuss what everyone learned from the group’s
mistakes and how similar mistakes can be prevented in
future team projects.

Project Management Tools: Gantt
1. Brainstorm all tasks necessary to complete the
final project.
2. Reorganize this list in order from beginning to
ending tasks.
3. Create a grid where columns represent time and
the rows represent specific tasks.
4. List each task in order and estimate the time
needed to complete each task.
5. Include two rows for each task (projected time
and actual time).
Project Management Tools: PERT
1. Define the project and all of its significant
activities and tasks.
2. Develop the relationship among the activities.
3. Draw the network connecting all the activities.
4. Assign time and/or cost estimates to each
5. Compute the longest time path through the
network (the critical path).
6. Use the network to help plan, schedule, monitor,
and control the project.
• Company and individual success comes more
readily to those who can do more with less while
working smarter, not harder.
• To make your projects a success, take time to:
– Clarify project expectations
– Determine contributors and stakeholders
– Establish specific objectives or milestones
– Create contingency plans
– Communicate regularly with stakeholders