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Solubility in water Soluble salt NO3 - , Na+ , K+ , NH4+ NO ANAK

Hg ,
+

Solubility in water insolube salt except

except

CO32NO3- - NO Na+ - NA K+ , Pb2+ -K

NH4+ ,Na +, K ANAK

Cl

Ag+

Pb2 +

Hg + - M Ag+ - A Pb2 + - P Ba 2+ - B

MAP Ba2+ , Ca2+

NH4+ - A Ca2 + - C

SO4 2-

PCB

State whether each salt is soluble or insoluble in water

Salt/compound Cu(NO3)2 MgCl2 ZnSO4 (NH4)2CO3 ZnCO3 PbCl2 NH4Cl

Solubility in water
soluble
soluble soluble soluble insoluble insoluble soluble

Name a salt which have the same solubility in water as powdered copper(II) sulphate.

SO4 2-

Ba2+ , Ca2+ , Pb2+ PCB

[ 1 mark ]

GO TO

Q13

+1

Na+

H+

K+

Ag+

Li+

Nak Hafal Kimia Agak Liat +2 Cu2+ Ba2+ Ca2+ Pb2+ Mg2+ Zn2+ Fe2+

CuBa CakaPb Mgapa ZnFe


+3 Fe3+ Al3+

Fetrah Alam

-1

OH -

NO3 -

Br -

Cl -

F-

I-

OH NO Baru Clear Fikiran I

-2

SO42-

S2-

CO32-

O2-

SOS Contact Osama

Table shows the positive and negative ions in three solution Name of solution Copper(II) sulphate Sodium chloride Lead(II) nitrate Positive ion Cu2+ Na+ Pb2+ Negative ion SO42Cl NO3 -

(a)

Write the formula for copper(II) sulphate, sodium chloride and lead(II) nitrate.
Copper(II) sulphate
Lead(II) bromide Cu 2+ + Pb 2+ + SO4 2BrBrCuSO4 PbBr2

Q4

CARBON COMPOUNDS Alkane : - ane CnH2n+1 n=1 n=2 n=3 n=4 n=5 n=6 n =7 Alkene : - ene CnH2n MethEthPropButPentHexHeptMengapa Engkau Pergi Buat Pedih Hati Hamba Alkohol : - ol CnH2n+1OH

CH3 2 5 3 CH3 CH CH CH2 CH CH3


CH3

CH3

What is the IUPAC name for this alkane ? 1. 2,3,5 trimethylhexane 2. 2,4,5 - trimethylhexane

[ 1 mark ] Q17

H H 2 C C = H

H C

H C H

CH
H

i.

Name the homologous series for the hydrocarbon given above. ii. Give the IUPAC name for the above compound. i. alkene

ii.

Pent - 2 - ene

[ 2 marks ]

Q18

H H 2 C C H

H H 4 C C HCH

CH

HCH

H i. Name the homologous series for the hydrocarbon given above. ii. Give the IUPAC name for the above compound.
i. ii. alkene 4-

[ 2 marks ]

methyl hex- 2 - ene

Q19

20

1H
Hydrogen
Hajat

2He
Helium
Hendak

3Li
Lithium
Lihat

4Be
Berilium
Bedah

5B
Boron
Balas

6C
Carbon
Cinta

7N
Nitrogen Nanti

8O
Oxygen Orang

9F
Flourin Fikir

10Ne
Neon Neat

11Na
Natrium / Sodium Nak

12Mg
Mgnesium Mgorat

13Al
Aluminium
Alamak

14Si
Silicon
Si

15P
Phosphorus
Pendi

16S
Sulphur Siap

17Cl
Chlorine Clewang

18Ar
Argon Arku

19K
Kalium /Pottasium Kena

20Ca
Calsium
Cabut

QUESTION 1

Elements

Electrons arrangement

W
X Y

Na Mg Cl

2.8.1
2.8.2 2.8.7

The above table shows the electrons arrangement for the elements W, X and Y Explain, based on the electrons arrangement, how the bonds are formed between i. W and Y, and ii. X and Y [ 5 marks ] [ 7 marks ]
Go to

CATION

Fe2+

Fe3+

Cu2+

NH4+

Pb2+

Zn2+

Al3+

PZAL

Mg2+

Ca2+

MgC

Add / put in NaOH SOLUTION

CATION SOLUTION
Percipitates
Coloured

Colourless / unchanges NH4+ White

Green

Fe2+ Pb2+ Zn2+ Ca2+ Al3+

Brown

Fe3+

Mg2+

Blue

Cu2+

PZAL MgC

To add / put in NH3 SOLUTION


Cation Solution Percipitates Colourless /unchanged NH4+ White Ca2+

Coloured

Green

Fe2+ Zn2+

Brown

Fe3+

Mg2+

Al3+

Pb2+

Blue

Cu2+

Zn MAP

To add/ put in EXCESS NaOH solution White

Pb2+

Zn2+

Al3+

Mg2+

Ca2+ Undissolved / not soluble In excess NaOH solution


Mg2+ Ca2+

Dissolved/soluble in excess NaOH solution Pb2+ Zn2+ Al3+

PZAL

MgC

Reagent:

NaOH (aq)

Reagent:

Excess NaOH (aq)

Precipitate: White

PZAL MgC

Precipitate: MgC White

Colourless / soluble: PZAL

To add / put in EXCESS NH3 SOLUTION White

Zn2+

Mg2+

Al3+

Pb2+

DISSOLVED/ SOLUBLE in excess NH3 solution Zn2+

UNDISSOLVED / IN SOLUBLE in excess NH3 solution Mg2+ Al3+ Pb2+

Zn

MAP

Reagent:

NH3 (aq)

Reagent:

Excess NH3 (aq)

Precipitate: White

Zn MAP

Precipitate: MAP White

Colourless / solube : Zn

Q14
Compound J
Heat

Dissolved in water

Gas K [Brown colour and acidified] + Gas L [Colourless] + Solid M

White precipitate Q Dissolved in excess sodium hydroxide solution

Reaction I + NaOH (aq)

Colourless J Reaction II solution


+ Na2SO4 (aq)

White precipitate R

Pb 2+

Zn 2+

Al

3+

Pb 2+

Figure 3

Test Sodium hydroxide solution is slowly added until excess.

Observation White precipitate formed. Pb 2+ The white precipitate dissolve in 2+ excess sodium hydroxide Zn Al 3+ solution. White precipitate formed.
PbSO4

A few drops of sulphuric acid is added.

The table above shows the observations made for a test conducted on a colorless solution. Among the ions below, which ion will probably exist in the solution? A Al3+ B Mg2+ C Pb2+ D Zn2+

Q12

ANIONS

CO32-

Cl -

SO42-

NO3 -

MNEUMONIC

No NO3 -

Clue Cl -

So SO42-

Nothing NO3 -

White precipitate

Brown ring

Anion test Clue Cl -

Anion test So SO42-

Anion test Nothing NO3 -

Reagent No NO3 H+ Hati

Reagent Clue Cl Ba2+ Balik H+ Haji

Reagent So SO42H+ Hendak

Ag+ Agong

Fe2+ Fetrah H+ Harta

Reagent:
NO NO3 1. HNO3 2. AgNO3

H + NO3 -

NO3 -

H+

Hati
+

Ag

Agong
Anion: Cl-

Clue

Observation:

White precipitate

Reagent:
Clue Ba 2+ H+ Cl Cl1. BaCl2 2. HCl

Cl -

Ba2+

Balik

H+

Haji
Anion: SO

SO4 2-

Observation:

White precipitate

Reagent:
SO SO4 21. Dilute H2SO4 2. FeSO4 3. Concentrated H2SO4

H + SO4 2Fe2+ SO 24 H + SO4 2H+ Fe2+ H+ Hendak Fetrah Harta

Anion: NO3Nothing Observation: Brown ring

Q11
Added with dilute Nitric acid

Solution Y

Colourless solution and gas bubbles released

Added with Silver nitrate solution

White Precipitate

Added with Barium chloride solution

White Precipitate

State the ions present in solution Y: [Nyatakan ion yang hadir dalam larutan Y:

(e)

You were given with copper(II) nitrate solution. (i) Describe briefly how you would test for the presence of nitrate ion in the solution.

uji

NO 3 -

guna

SO4 2Hendak Fetrah Harta H+ Fe2+ H+ H2SO4 FeSO4 H2SO4

[ 3 points ]
Q10e
GO TO GO TO

CHEMISTRY CONCEPTS

OBSERVATION
TYPE OF PRODUCT Chlorine gas, Cl 2 Bromine gas, Br 2 OBSERVATION Greenish-yellow/ yellow gas bubbles released Brown gas bubbles released Colourless gas bubbles released Colourless gas bubbles released Grey solids formed Brown solid formed

Oxygen gas, O 2
Hydrogen gas, H 2 Almost all metals (except copper metal) Copper metal

CONFIRMATION TESTS OF GASES


Type of gases H2 Confirmation test

O2 Cl2

When a lighten wooden splinter is placed near the mouth of the test tube, a POP sound is hear When a glowing wooden splinter is placed near the mouth of the test tube, the glowing splinter lights up Changes moist blue litmus paper to red and then bleach it.

CHEMICAL CELL

Porous pot Copper rod Magnesium rod copper(II) sulphate solution 1.0 mol dm -3 magnesium sulphate solution 1.0 mol dm -3

VOLTAIC CELL Change of energy: Chemical energy Electrical energy Apparatus setup : voltmeter or ammeter/galvanometer Negative electrode/terminal: Type of reaction : Oxidation Half equation : Metal atom metal ion Positive electrode/terminal: Type of reaction : Reduction Half equation : Metal ion metal atom.

Half equation (-) Terminal: Mg Mg 2+ + 2e (Oxidation) Electrons flow through the external circuit from (-) to (+) terminal. (+) Terminal: Cu2+ + 2e Cu (Reduction) * Magnesium electrode/ terminal is the negatif terminal because it is higher than copper inthe electrochemical series.

OH OH

Appendix 1
H
Decolourise acidified potassium manganate(VII) K Cr O 2 2 7

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBON COMPOUNDS

sodium ethanoate H
H

O C ONa

C
H

C
H

C
H

GLUCOSE
CO2 + H2O H+ BURNING (+ O2) H H C H HIDROGENATION C H H 2 H H Ethane Substitution reactions Ni, 180 oC H Ethene H DEHYDRATION (-H20) POLYMERIZATION 300 o C, 1200 atm H C C H3PO4 , 300 oC, 60 atm H HYDRATION (+H2O) H C C H H H

ESTERIFICATION + H2SO4 con., heated


H C O C O H C H C

salt + H 20
Neutralization + NaOH

H H O C

OXIDATION KMn04 H+

C H

Ethanoic acid

H OH Ethanol

K Cr O 2 2 7

OH

Carbonated metal
H H C H

CI2 , U.V

salt + H2
H H C H n H C H H C CI H H H C H O C

H H C CI

H C CI H H

H C Br

H C Br H

H C H

salt + CO2 + H2
OMg O C OCu

chloroethane polythene Decolourisation of bromine water

Magnesium Ethanoate

Cuprum(II) Ethanoate

eg: CuCO3

REDOX CELL

Carbon electrode

Carbon electrode

Potassium iodide solution 1.0 mol dm -3

Bromine water

Sulphuric acid / Potassium chloride solution/ Potassium nitrate solution

Observation : Galvanometer indicator deflects. The function of dilute sulphuric acid : Salt bridge / allows the ions to flow through it.

Negative electrode/anode : Half equation :2I I2 + 2e (Oxidation) Observation: Coulorless solution turns yellow . Iodine gas evolved Positive electrode/cathode: Half equation:Br2 + 2e

2Br- (Reduction)

Observation: Brown colour of bromine water decolourised.

ELECTROLYSIS

Anode

Cathode

Electrolyte

Electrolytes Conc.hydrochloric acid Dilute sulphuric acid Copper(II) sulphate solution Sodium chloride solution 0.01 mol dm -3 / conc.

Ions presence
H+, OH-, Cl H+, OH-, SO42Cu 2+ , H+, OH-, SO42Na+ , Cl H+, OH-,

Products Anode(+) Chlorine gas Oxygen gas Oxygen gas Chlorine gas Cathode (-) Hydrogen gas Hydrogen gas Copper deposited Hydrogen gas

Cation K+ Na + Ca 2+ Mg 2+ Al 3+ Zn 2+ Fe 2+ Sn 2+ Pb 2+ H+ Cu 2+ Hg 2+ Au +

Anion FSO42NO3 Cl Br IOH -

Copper chloride solution 0.1 mol dm -3 / conc.


Hydrochloric acid 0.001 mol dm-3 / dilute

Cu2+ , Cl - , H+, OHH+, OH-, Cl -

Chlorine gas
Oxygen gas

Copper deposited
Hydrogen gas

ELECTROLYTE Substances that can conduct electricity when they are in molten state or aqueous solution and undergo chemical changes.

Process - chemical compounds in molten or aqueous state that can be broken down into its constituent elements by passing through electricity through it Electrical energy (EE) Chemical energy (CE) Apparatus setup : Power source presence Anode (+) Type of reaction : Oxidation Negative ions are selectively discharged by releasing/donating electrons thus forming gas molecules. 2Cl - Cl 2 + 2e Observation: Yellow gas released Cathode (-) Types of reaction : Reduction Positive ions( Copper/hydrogen ions ) accept electrons to form copper/ hydrogen gas. 2H+ + 2 e H2 Pemerhatian : Colourless gas released/gas bubbles released Loss of electrons and gain of electrons occur Redox reaction

IONIC BOND

Physical properties of ionic compounds


1. 2. Can be electrolysed when in molten or aqueous state. Contain free moving ions.

Na+ 2.8

Cl2.8

Metal atom ( Group 1, 2 dan 3 ) combines with non-metal atom (Group15,16 dan 17) Proton no. of metal atoms 11 ( 2.8.1) 19 ( 2.8.8.1 ) 12 ( 2.8.2) 20 (2.8. 8.2) Proton no. of non-metal atoms 17 ( 2.8.7 ) Formulae of the compound formed NaCl KCl MgCl2 CaCl2

17 ( 2.8.7 )

1. Electrons arrangement of X atom is 2.8.1 and Y atom is 2.8.7 respectively. 2. X atom donates one electron to achieve the octet electron arrangement // stable electron arrangement forming a positive ion X+. 3. Y atom accept one electron to achieve the stable octet electron arrangement forming a negative ion Y- . 4. Both ions are attracted to each other due to the existence of a strong electrostatic between the oppositely-charged ion.

COVALENT BOND

Non-metal atom combines with non-metal atom. ( Group14,15 ,16 and 17 ) which have a valence electron of 4,5,6 and 7. Group 14 Group 16 Group 17 Formula 6 ( 2.4 ) 6 ( 2.4 ) 17 (2.8.7 ) CCl4 CO2 Carbon tetrachloride molecule,CCl4

8 (2.6. )

1. Electron arrangement of X atom is 2.4 and the electron arrangement of Y atom is 2.8.7. 2. Each X atom contributes four electrons for sharing to achieve the stable electron arrangement. 3. Each Y atom contributes one electron for sharing to achieve the stable electron arrangement. 4. Four Y atoms will share electrons with one X atom to form a covalent bond.

RATE OF REACTION The rate of change in concentration against time. Graph : Volume of gas evolved (cm 3) against time (s)
Total volume of gas (cm 3)

L- T- S- Guide lines for graph plotting. The rate of change in concentration against time. Graph : Volume of gas evolved (cm 3) against time (s) P- Labeled axes with their units. S- Consistence scales T All coordinates transferred correctly. L Smooth curve/line.

P-
Time (s)

Calculation of the rate of reaction:

1.Figure of a functioning apparatus setup 2.Label :acid, water and zinc/calsium carbonate.

a.

b.

Average rate of reaction = total volume of gas liberated time taken Average rate of reaction for the third minute = V t3 - V t 2 t3 - t2

c.

The instantaneous rate of reaction i. Within the range of 0.01 / 0.0001 cm3 s-1 ii. Calculation is shown iii. Tangent in the graph is shown. iv. Correct unit is used. Tangen = y2 - y1 X2 - x1

Collision theory : 1.Effect of surface area.

The smaller the size of a fixed mass of solid reactant, the bigger the total surface area exposed to collision. The frequency of collision increases The frequency of effective collision increases Rate of reaction increases.
2.Effect of temperature The higher the temperature, The higher the kinetic energy of the reacting particles. The particles move faster The frequency of collision increases The frequency of effective collision increases Rate of reaction increases.

3. Effect of concentration The higher the concentration of a reactant, The higher the number of particles per unit volume, The frequency of collision increases The frequency of effective collision increases Rate of reaction increases. 4. Effect of catalyst Catalyst lowers the activation energy. More particles are able to achieve the lower activation energy The frequency of collision increases The frequency of effective collision increases Rate of reaction increases.

Different between chemical and ionic equation Chemical equation:


CaCO3 + 2 HCl Ionic equation: Ca 2+/CO32- + 2 H+/Cl - CO3 2+ 2H+ Ca2+/2Cl- + 2H2O+ CO2 CaCl2 + H2O + CO2

H2O + CO2

PROCESS

CONTACT PROCESS Sulphur dioxide and oxygen (dry air )

HABER PROCESS Nitrogen and hydrogen Ammonia For manufacturing ammonium fertilisers Temperature: 400 550 0C Pressure: 200 atm iron N2 + 3H2 2NH3 H = -180 kJ mol-1

OTSWALD PROCESS

Reactants

Ammonia and oxygen

Products

Sulphuric acid

Nitric acid

Condition

Temperature: 450-600 0 C

Temperature: 800-900 0 C

Catalyst Chemical equation

Vanadium(V) oxide 2SO2 + O2 2SO3 SO3 + H2SO4 H2S2O7 H2S2O7 + H2SO4 2H2SO4

Platinum 4NH3 + 5O2 4N0 + 6H2O 2NO + O2 2NO2 4NO2 + O2 + 2H20 4HNO3

SAPONIFICATION ( Preparation of soap )


Hydrolyzing fats or oils (esters) under alkaline conditions.

Beaker

Sodium hydroxide solution + Palm oil

Tripod stand Bunsen burner

When palm oil reacts with concentrated sodium hydroxide solution, sodium palmitate is formed (soap). 1. 10 cm3 of palm oil is poured into a beaker. 2. 50 cm3 sodium hydroxide solution is added. 3. The mixture is heated and stirred. 4. Mixture is lead to boil. 5. Solid sodium chloride is added. 6. Then, the mixture is cooled. 7. Products is filtered. 8. The precipitate is washed with little water.

CLEANSING ACTION OF SOAP

water

Grease clothes

Ionization of sodium palmitate soap in water: CH3(CH2)14COONa(p)

CH3(CH2)14COO- (ak) Palmitate ion(soap) + Na+(ak)

NATURAL RUBBER Coagulation process of latex Natural rubber is a natural polymer which is produced through the addition polymerization process undergone by its monomer, isoprene molecules ( 2-methylbuta-1,3 diene )

2-methylbut-1,3-diene

polymerization

Isoprene molecule

Latex polymer

rubber particles Negative charges

Coagulation of latex Protein membrane

Protein membrane

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Rubber particle is made up of long-chain rubber molecules enclosed by a Protein membrane which is Negatively charged. The rubber particles repulse each other . When acid is added, the hydrogen ions neutralize the negative charges. This enables the particles to collide with one another resulting in the breakage of the protein membrane. 7. The rubber molecules entangle with one another and thus causing coagulation.

Vulcanization of natural rubber

Rubber strip Retort stand clip

weight

1.Two equal size strips is cut from a rubber sheets. 2. One strip of the rubber sheet is dipped into the solution of disulphur dichloride, S2Cl2 in metyylbenzene for five minutes 3. Both the vulcanized and unvulcanized strips are hangged as shown above. 4. The initial length of both rubber strips are measured. 5. A 10 g weight is hangged to the end of each rubber strip. 6. The weights are removed. 7. The length of both rubber strips are measured. 8. Steps 4 to 7 are repeated with an increasing weights until one of the strips snapped// 9. Steps 4 to 7 are repeated with different weights.

COMPARING THE PROPERTIES OF VULCANIZED AND UNVULCANIZED RUBBER.

1. Vulcanized rubber is harder and stronger. 2. Vulcanized rubber is more elastic. 3. Vulcanized rubber can withstand higher temperature. due to; the presence of cross-linkages of sulphur atoms between the rubber molcules prevent the rubber molecules from slipping.

FERMENTATION ( Ethanol preparation)

Glucose

ethanol

Mixture solutions of fermentation

1.Dissolve some glucose in water and put it in a beaker. 2.Add some yeast into the glucose solution. 3.Stopper the beaker. 4.Leave it for 1 day or afew days. 5.Filter the mixture. 6.Distill the filtrate to a temperature of 75-80 0 C and collect the distillate.

DEHYDRATION OF ALCOHOL ( Preparation of alkenes)


porcelain Boiling tube

Glass wool + ethanol Strong heat

Ethanol ethanoic acid CH3CH2OH + 2[O] CH3COOH + H2O @ Acidified Potassium mangganate(VII) + etanol. Heat. Purple colour of acidified potassium mangganate(VII) decolourised. MnO4- Mn2+

1.Soak the glass wool with ethanol 2.Insert it into the boiling tube. 3.Insert some pieces of porcelain into the boiling tube. 4.Heat the porcelain strongly. 5.Then, slowly heat the glass wool. 6.Collect the gas evolve through water displacement method.

FOOD ADDITIVES

EXAMPLE

FUNCTION

Antioxidants

Ascorbic acid, citric acid, sorbic acid

Preventing oxidation that causes rancid fats and brown fruits.

Stabilizers

lecithin

Prevent an emulsion from separating out.

Thickeners

Jelly, starch Sunset yellow, tartrazine, indigo caramine

Thicken foods. Add or restore the colour in food in order to enhance its visual appeal.

Dyes

FOOD ADDITIVES

EXAMPLE

FUNCTION

Preservatives

sodium nitrite, acid benzoik, sulphur dioxide Monosodium glutamate, aspartame, pentyl ethanoate

Slow down or prevent the growth of microorganisms.

Flavourings

Improve the taste of food and restore taste loss.

OXIDATION AND REDUCTION

[REDOX]

DEFINITION
OXIDATION : Reactions involving the gain of oxygen or the loss of hydrogen. GAIN OF OXYGEN @ LOSS OF HYDROGEN OXIDIZING AGENT (OXIDANT): Substance that causes oxidation. REDUCTION: Reaction involving the loss of oxygen or the gain of hydrogen. LOSS OF OXYGENT @ GAIN OF OXYGEN REDUCING AGENT: Substance that causes reduction

FeSO4 solution [Fe2+ Fe3+ + e ] Observation : Change of colour of the solution: green yellow

Bromine water [Br2 + 2e 2Br - ]

Sulphuric acid
observation : Brown colour of solution colourless

Ionic equation:
2Fe2+ + Br2 2Fe3+ + 2Br Oxidizing agent : Bromin, Br2 Reducing agent : ferum (III) ion, Fe3+

hydrocarbon Organic compound that contain only carbon and hydrogen. [Sebatian yang mengandungi karbon dan hydrogen sahaja] Compounds with the same molecular formulae but different structural formulae [sebatian yang mempunyai formula molekul yang sama tetapi formula struktur yang berlainan] isomers

The formula that gives the simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element in the compound [Formula yang menunjukkan nisbah paling ringkas bilangan atom setiap jenis unsur dalam suatu sebatian.] A process whereby compounds in molten or aqueous state are broken down into their constituent elements by passing electricity through them [Proses dimana suatu sebatian diurai oleh arus elektrik dalam keadaan lebur atau larutan berai

Empirical formula

Electrolysis

It is reduced in the redox reduction [Bahan yang mengalami penurunan] It is oxidized in the redox reduction [Bahan yang mengalami pengoksidaan] A chemical reaction that released heat [Tindakbalas kimia yang mebebaskan haba]

Reducing agent

Oxidation agent

Exothermic reaction

A chemical reaction that absorbs heat [Tindak balas yang menyerap haba] The energy changes when 1 mole of water formed from the neutralization between 1 mole of hydrogen ions, H + from an acid and 1 mole of hydroxide ions, OH - from an alkali [Haba yang dibebaskan apabila 1 mol ion hydrogen meneutralkan 1 mol ion hidroksida .]

Endothermic reaction

Heat of neutralization

The temperature at which a solid changes into liquid at a particular pressure [Suhu dimana pepejal berubah menjadi cecair pada tekanan piawai] Chemical substance which Ionise completely in water and produce high concentration of hydroxide ions. [Bahan yang terurai lengkap menghasilkan kepeketan ion hidroksida yang tinggi dalam air.]

Melting point

Strong alkali

Chemical substance which Ionise completely in water and produce high concentration of hydrogen ions. [Bahan yang terurai lengkap menghasilkan kepekatan ion hidrogen yang tinggi dalam air]. Chemical substance which ionises partially in water and produce hydroxide ions [Bahan yang terurai separa untuk menghasilkan ion hidroksida dalam air]

Strong acid

Weak alkali

Chemical substance which ionises partially in water and produce hydrogen ions [Bahan yang terurai separa untuk menghasilkan ion hidrogen dalam air.] The changes in quantity of reactants and reaction products with time [Perubahan kuantiti bahan atau hasil terhadap masa]

Weak acid

rate of reaction

An ionic compound formed from replacing hydrogen ions in an acid with metal or ammonium ions. [Sebatian yang terhasil daripada menggantikan ion hydrogen dalam sesuatu asid oleh ion logam atai ion ammonium] The minimum energy the colliding reactant particles must have before collision between them can result in chemical reaction. [Tenaga minimum yang diperlukan bagi bahan tindak balas untuk bertindak balas.]

Salts

Activation energy

The hydrolysis of an ester when the catalyst is an alkali. [Proses membuat sabun daripada hidrolisis ester] Reaction that involves in transferring electron or involves in changing oxidation number [Tindak balas yang melibatkan pemindahan elektron atau tindak balas yang melibatkan perubahan nombor pengoksidaan.]

Saponification

Redox

Organic compound that contain only carbon and hydrogen and contain double or triple bonds between carbon atoms. [Sebatian yang mengandungi karbon dan hidrogen sahaja dan terdapat ikatan ganda dua antara atom karbon]

Unsaturated hydrocarbons

A reaction that involves the exchange of ions to produce insoluble salts. [Tindak balas yang melibatkan pertukaran ion untuk menghasilkan garam yang tidak larut.]

Double dissociation reactions / precipitation reactions

Natural rubber becomes more elastic and stronger after treat it with sulphur [Proses menukarkan getah kepada bahan yang kuat dengan menambahkan sulfur.]

vulcanization

The energy change when 1 mole of metal is displaced from salt solution by a more electropositive metal [Haba yang dibebaskan apabila 1 mol logam disesarkan garamnya oleh logam yang lebih elektropositif]

The Heat of displacement

A process of combining monomers to form a long chain of molecules [Proses penggabungan beberapa monomer menjadi molekul besa Long chains of molecules from combination of two or more small molecules known as monomers [Molekul berantai panjang yang terbentuk daripada penggabungan dua atau lebih molekul kecil dipanggil monomer]

Polymerisation

Polymers