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CURRENT TRANSFORMER

CURRENT TRANSFORMER

Definitions A device used to step down current from high value (primary current) to a low value (secondary current). Low value current is easy to measure, no need to develop high current measuring equipment. The current ratio (primary current/secondary current) is substantially constant for a given range of primary current. The phase angle error (secondary current compared to primary current) is within specified limit.

CURRENT TRANSFORMER

Function 1. Protection Current transformer connected to protection equipment (protection relay). The protection relay can be set to identify whether the input current (current transformers secondary current) indicate that fault occur in the system.

2.

Measurement Current transformer connected to measurement equipment (ammeter, energy meter). Measure the current flow in the circuit.

CURRENT TRANSFORMER

Construction Type 1. Ring or Window The popular type is ring shape, rectangular shape and oval shape.

CURRENT TRANSFORMER

Construction Type 2. Split Core The shape similar to ring or window construction, the core are split into two part.

CURRENT TRANSFORMER

Construction Type 3. Primary Wound (Block) For low current rating. both primary and secondary are Wound over the core.

CURRENT TRANSFORMER

Schematic Diagram 1. Single Ratio

CURRENT TRANSFORMER

Schematic Diagram 2. Double Ratio Transformer with an intermediate tapping on secondary winding. (terminal S1, S2 & S3) Ratio of tapping as per design requirement. During service, unused tapping remain open.

CURRENT TRANSFORMER

Schematic Diagram 3. Multi Ratio

CURRENT TRANSFORMER

Location In The Single Line Diagram

CURRENT TRANSFORMER

Connection to Measurement or Protection Devices Measurement or protective devices are load to the current transformer. The circuit connection shall be in series. Current transformer not connected to the load when installed to the switchgear shall be shorted to ground (secondary terminal connected to ground). Open circuit is a condition when the current transformer is not connected to its load. Open circuit during availability of primary current will result of high voltage appear at the secondary terminal (>1kV A.C).

CURRENT TRANSFORMER

Connection to Measurement or Protection Devices

CURRENT TRANSFORMER

Typical Current Transformer Description 3000/1A CL.: 0.2 15VA 3000/1A CL.: 5P20 30VA 3000/1A CL.: X Vkp: 300V Rct: 12 Current Ratio Accuracy Class Rated Burden Current Ratio Accuracy Class & Accuracy Limit Factor Rated Burden Current Ratio Accuracy Class Knee Point Voltage Burden (Resistance)

CURRENT TRANSFORMER

Term & Definitions Rated Primary Current The value of primary current which specified by manufacturer (shall be based on customer/purchaser requirements). E.g. 3000A, 1600A, 450A, etc. Secondary Current The value of secondary current which specified by manufacturer (has been standardized). E.g. 1A or 5a. Current Ratio The ratio of Rated Primary Current to Rated Secondary Current. E.g. 3000/1A, 1600/5A. etc.

CURRENT TRANSFORMER

Term & Definitions Rated Burden The burden assigned by manufacturer at which the current transformer performs with specified accuracy expressed in VA. Connected burden shall be less than specified rated burden. Burden Total load connected across the secondary of current transformer expressed in VA or at rated secondary current. Accuracy Class The class assigned to the current transformer with the specified limits of ratio error and phase angle error. Accuracy class specifies by BS & IEC standard. E.g. X, 5P, 10P, 0.2, 0.5, 1,etc. Class X, 5P, 10P for protection. Class 0.2, 0.5 for measurement.

CURRENT TRANSFORMER

Term & Definitions Accuracy Class

CURRENT TRANSFORMER

Term & Definitions Accuracy Limit Factor E.g. 10, 20. Knee Point Voltage The point at which C.T is saturate where 10% increase in voltage causes a 50% increase in magnetizing current.

CURRENT TRANSFORMER

Testing Polarity Test To prove that a group of C.Ts has been manufactured and installed with the correct polarity.

CURRENT TRANSFORMER

Testing Magnetization Curve To determine the secondary voltage and current at which the C.T magnetic core begin to saturate. The Result should be compared to manufacturers curve. The point at which saturation is deemed to become significant is known as Knee Point Voltage, where 10% increase in voltage causes a 50% increase in magnetizing current.

CURRENT TRANSFORMER

Testing Magnetization Curve

CURRENT TRANSFORMER

Testing Magnetization Curve

CURRENT TRANSFORMER

Testing

CURRENT TRANSFORMER

Testing Burden Check Measurement of secondary resistance at terminal SI-S2 with an ohmmeter. The value shall be as manufacturer specification. Insulation Resistance Test Carried out when the wiring between C.T and the connected equipment completed. To measure the C.T insulation resistance. The value shall be as manufacturer specification. Primary Injection Should be carried out when the wiring is completed. To enable measurements to be made of the secondary quantities as verification of the correct installation of the C.T, the connected wiring and equipment.

CURRENT TRANSFORMER

Typical Installation Inside The Gas Insulated Switchgear

CURRENT TRANSFORMER

Typical Installation Inside The Gas Insulated Switchgear

CURRENT TRANSFORMER

Typical C.T Construction

CURRENT TRANSFORMER

Typical C.T Construction

Typical complete assembly

C.T without outer protection

CURRENT TRANSFORMER

Typical C.T Construction

CURRENT TRANSFORMER

Typical C.T winding machine