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# C hc bay 2 Lateral Motion (Stick Fixed)

Ng Khnh Hiu
1
C hc bay 2 Lateral Motion (Stick Fixed)
Ng Khnh Hiu
2
Introduction
- The stick fixed lateral motion of an airplane disturbed from its equilibrium state is a complicated
combination of rolling, yawing, and sideslipping motions.
- Three potential lateral dynamic instabilities are of interest to the airplane designer: directional
divergence, spiral divergence, and so-called Dutch roll oscillation.
Directional divergence: occurs when the airplane lacks the directional or weather-cock stability
(directional static stability). If disturbed from its equilibrium state such an airplane will tend to
rotate to ever-increasing angles of sideslip, and it will fly a curved path at large sideslip
angles. Obviously, such a motion can be avoided by proper design of the vertical tail surface
to ensure directional stability.
Spiral divergence: is a non-oscillatory divergence motion that can occur when directional
stability is large and lateral stability is small. When disturbed from equilibrium, the airplane
enters a gradual spiraling motion. The spiral becomes tighter and steeper as time proceeds
and can result in a high-speed spiral dive if corrective action is not taken.
Dutch roll oscillation: is a coupled lateral-directional oscillation. This motion is characterized by
a combination of rolling and yawing oscillations that have the same frequency but are out of
phase with each other. The period can be on the order of 3 to 15 seconds.
C hc bay 2 Lateral Motion (Stick Fixed)
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Pure rolling motion (1/4)
- Consider a wind-tunnel model free to
roll about its x axis, the equation of
motion for this model of a pure rolling
motion is:
x
a x
a
Rolling moments = I
p = I
p
L L
|
|
c c
A + A A
c c

## where the contributions of the rolling

moment in the left hand side are due to
the deflection of the ailerons and the
roll-damping.
(1)
- Because the roll rate Ap is equal to , we can rewrite Eq. (1) as follows: | A
p
x
a
a
a p p
a
x
p
L
I
L 1
p p = where ,
L L
L
I
L
L
c c
=

A + A A =

c c

(2)
C hc bay 2 Lateral Motion (Stick Fixed)
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Pure rolling motion (2/4)
- The solution to Eq. (2) for a step change in
the aileron angle is:
( )
( )
t a
a
p
L
p t 1 e
L

A = A
(3)
- (4) for full aileron deflection can be used for sizing the aileron. The minimum requirement for
this ratio is a function of the class of airplane under consideration (ex., Cargo or transport
airplanes: 0.07; Fighter airplanes: 0.09).
( )
a
p
l x
a
ss a a
p l o x
C QSb/I
L
p =
L C b 2u QSb/I
A = A
- The steady-state roll rate can be obtained
from Eq. (3), by assuming that time t is large
enough that e
-t/ t
is essentially 0:
a
p
l
ss
a
o l
C
p b

2u C
= A
(4)
C hc bay 2 Lateral Motion (Stick Fixed)
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Pure rolling motion (3/4)
p a
l l
2 2
x
S 18 (m ) b 6.7 (m) I 4676 (kg.m )
= =
= = =
Example problem 1: (1/2)
Calculate the roll response of the F104A to a 5
o
step change in aileron deflection. Assume the
airplane is flying at sea level with a velocity of 87 m/s. the F104A has the following aerodynamic
and geometric characteristics:
Solution:
p
a
a a
o
2 2
o
p l x
o p

2
l x ss a
p
b
0.0385 (s)
2u
1
Q u 4636.0125 (N/m )
2
b 1
L C QSb/I 1.312 (/s) 0.7622 (s)
2u L
L
L C QSb/I 4.6632 (/s ) p 0.31 (rad/s) 17.76 (deg/s)
L
=
= =
= = = =
= = = A = =
C hc bay 2 Lateral Motion (Stick Fixed)
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Pure rolling motion (4/4)
Example problem 1: (2/2) p
(deg/sec)
Time (sec)
ss
o
p b
0.012
2u
=
If we fit the solution to the differential
equation of motion to the response we
can obtain values for L
oa
and L
p
, in turn,
C
loa
and C
lp
. The technique of extracting
aerodynamic data from the measured
response is often called the inverse
problem or parameter identification.
Example problem 2:
Calculate the roll response of the De Havilland Canada airplane to a 5
o
step change in aileron
deflection. Assume the airplane is flying at sea level with a velocity of 87 m/s.
p a
l l
2 2
x
S 945 (ft ) b 96 (ft) I 273000 (slug.ft )
= =
= = =
C hc bay 2 Lateral Motion (Stick Fixed)
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Roll control reversal
- The aileron control power per degree,
(pb/2u
o
)/o
a
, is essentially a constant when
the speed is low. But at high speeds, it
decreases until a point is reached where
roll control is lost. This point is called the
aileron reversal speed.
- The loss and ultimate reversal of aileron
control is due to the elasticity of the wing.

l
rev
2
l m
2kC
U
c C C
=
where k: the torsional stiffness of the wing,
C
lo
, C
lo
: the lift coefficients with respect to a
change in angle of attack and
aileron angle,
C
mo
: the moment coefficient with respect to
a change in angle of attack.
(5)
C hc bay 2 Lateral Motion (Stick Fixed)
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Pure yawing motion (1/4)
- Examine the motion of an airplane constrained
so that it can perform only a simple yawing
motion. The equation of motion can be written as
follows:
- Because the center of gravity is constrained, we
have:
x z
r
r
Yawing moments = I or N I
N N N N
where N r
r

A = A
c c c c
A = A + A + A + A
c c c
c

(6)
r A = A A = A A = A
r
r r

N N + N N
| |
A A A = A
|
\ .
(7)
r
r
r

z z z z
N N r N N
where N ; N ; N ; N
I I I I
c c c c c c c c
= = = =
n
r

## Undamped natural frequency: N

N
Damping ratio:
2 N

=
=
C hc bay 2 Lateral Motion (Stick Fixed)
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Pure yawing motion (2/4)
In the case of the pure yawing motion, the frequency of
oscillation is a function of the airplanes static stability
(weathercock or directional stability) and the damping
ratio is a function of the aerodynamic damping derivative.
r
r
n n
n o
2
w w
2
z
C 0.072 (/rad), u 176 (ft/s)
S 184 (ft ), b 33.4 (ft)
I 3530 (slug.ft )
= =
= =
= =
=
Example problem 3:
Suppose an airplane is constrained to a pure yawing
motion, using the data for the general aviation airplane in
Appendix B, determine the following:
a. The yawing moment equation rewritten in state-space form.
b. The characteristic equation and eigenvalues for the system.
c. The damping ratio, and undamped natural frequency.
d. The response of the airplane to a 5
o
rudder input. Assume
the initial conditions are A|(0) = 0, Ar(0) = 0.
C hc bay 2 Lateral Motion (Stick Fixed)
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Pure yawing motion (3/4)
Solution Ex. 3: (1/2)
a. The yawing moment equation rewritten in state-space form.

where N 0 =
r
r r
(7) N + N N A A A = A
r
r r
r
r = N r N + N

A = A

A A A A

## in the state-space form: x Ax B = +

r
r
r
0 0 1

+
N N N
r
r
(
( ( A A (
(
= A
( (
(
(

A

A (

b. The characteristic equation and eigenvalues for the system.
2
12
0.7602 4.5504 0
I A 0
0.38008 2.09904i

+ + =
=

=

r
r r
2
n
z
r n
o z
2
n
z
QSb
N =C 4.5504 (/s )
I
b QSb
N C 0.7602 (/s)
2u I
QSb
N C 4.6145 (/s )
I
=
= =
= =
C hc bay 2 Lateral Motion (Stick Fixed)
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Pure yawing motion (4/4)
Solution Ex. 3: (2/2)
c.
r

## The damping ratio:

N
0.1782
2 N
= =
d. The response of the airplane to a 5
o
rudder input.
n
The undamped natural frequency:
2
n
The damped natural frequency:
halve
n
The time for halving the amplitude:
0.693
t 1.82 (s)

= =
( )
halve
n
The number of cycles for halving the amplitude:

## N cycles 0.110 0.61 (cycle)

= =
A
r A
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

d
e
g
r
e
e
s

o
r

d
e
g
r
e
e
s
/
s
e
c
o
n
d

Time - seconds
C hc bay 2 Lateral Motion (Stick Fixed)
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Lateral-directional equation of motion (1/)