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A local-area network (LAN) protocol developed by Xerox Corporation in 1976.

Original designed as a 2.94 Mbps system to connect 100 computers on a 1 km cable. Later, Xerox, DEC and Intel drew up a standard support 10 Mbps. for the IEEEs 802.3 specification.



is the cheapest and most widely used LAN technology

Divided datalink layer into two


Link Control Layer (LLC) Medium Access Control Layer(MAC)

The MAC sublayer governs the operation of the random access method. Standard Ethernet uses CSMA/CD with 1-persistent. Ethernet dose not provide any mechanism for acknowledging received frames( unreliable medium). It also frames data received from the upper layer and passes them to the physical layer.

Ethernet frame contains seven fields.

- A sequences of 64 bits used for synchronization. - Begin reading the signal before the frame data arrives.

Start of Frame Delimiter

- Alternating zeros and ones ending with two consecutive 1 bits.

- 1 byte.

Destination & Source MAC Addresses

- The Destination MAC Address field identifies the station or stations that are to receive the frame The Source MAC Address identifies the station that originated the frame

Length or Type
-Defines either the number of bytes in the data field or defines the type of frame being sent or received.

Data field
- Minimum- 46 bytes -Maximum- 1500 bytes

- Error detection information.

Use Manchester Encoding. One voltage change per bit. For a 1, a voltage change from 1 to 0. For a 0, a voltage change from 0 to 1.

There are two Media Access Control(MAC) protocols defined for Ethernet. Half-Duplex and Full-Duplex Half-Duplex is the traditional form of Ethernet that uses the CSMA/CD protocol. Full-Duplex bypasses the CSMA/CD protocol Full-duplex mode allows two stations to simultaneously exchange data over a point to point link that provides independent transmit and receive paths

Refers to the transmission of data in just one direction at a time.

Half-Duplex Ethernet is the traditional form of Ethernet that uses the CSMA/CD.
Half duplex Ethernet assumes that all the normal rules of the Ethernet are in effect of local area network.

Address mismatch packet discarded

Address mismatch packet discarded

Send data to node D Transmitted packet seen by all stations on the LAN (broadcast medium)

Address match packet processed


A network station wishing to transmit will first check the cable to ensure that no other station is currently transmitting (CARRIER SENSE).
The communications medium is one cable, therefore, it does allow multiple stations access to it with all being able to transmit and receive on the same cable (MULTIPLE ACCESS). Error detection is implemented throughout the use of a station "listening" while it is transmitting its data. Two or more stations transmitting causes a collision(COLLISION DETECTION).

A jam signal is transmitted to network by the transmitting stations that detected the collision, to ensure that all stations know of the collision. All stations will backoff for a random time. Detection and Retransmission is accomplished in microseconds.

Based on the IEEE 802.3x standard, Full duplex Mac type bypasses CSMA/CD. Allows two stations to transmit simultaneously exchange data over a point to point link. The aggregate throughput of the link is doubled.


100 Mbps bandwidth. Uses the same CSMA/CD media access protocol as in Ethernet. 100BaseTx and 100BaseFx standards. Fill duplex or Half duplex operations.


1 Gbps bandwidth. Uses the same CSMA/CD media access protocol as in Ethernet. 100BaseTx,100BaseSx (Multimode fiber) and 100BaseLx (Multimode or singlemode)standards.


10 Gbps bandwidth. Uses the same CSMA/CD media access protocol as in Ethernet. 100BaseLR(Singlemode fiber) and 100BaseER(Singlemode fiber)