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Suryakant kumar 11013341 B-83

NUCLEAR REACTOR

A nuclear reactor is a device to initiate and

Nuclear Reactor

control a sustained nuclear chain reaction.

The most common use of nuclear reactors is

for the generation of electric energy and for the propulsion of ships.
Heat from nuclear fission is used to raise

steam, which runs through turbines, which in turn powers either ship's propellors or electrical generators

How Reactor Works

Just as conventional power stations generate electricity by harnessing the thermal energy released from burning fossil fuels, nuclear reactors convert the thermal energy released from nuclear fission.

Fission When a large fissile atomic nucleus such as uranium-235 or plutonium-239 absorbs a neutron, it may undergo nuclear fission. The heavy nucleus splits into two or more lighter nuclei, releasing kinetic energy, gamma radiation and free neutrons; collectively known as fission products. A portion of these neutrons may later be absorbed by other fissile atoms and trigger further fission events, which release more neutrons, and so on. This is known as a nuclear chain reaction. The reaction can be controlled by using neutron poisons, which absorb excess neutrons, and neutron moderators, which reduce the velocity of fast neutrons, thereby turning them into thermal neutrons, which are more likely to be absorbed by other nuclei. Increasing or decreasing the rate of fission has a corresponding effect on the energy output of the reactor.

Nuclaer Fission

Breaking of Uranium ion

Piecing Together a Reactor


1. Fuel 2. Moderator 3. Control Rods 4. Coolant 5. Steam Generator 6. Turbine/Generator 7. Pumps 8. Heat Exchanger

Nuclear fuel
Nuclear fuel :The nuclear fuel used in a nuclear

reactor is the enriched 92 U235 .T he nuclear fuel is sealed in along ,narrow metal tubes called fuel rods . The enriched 92 U235 ensures that at least one of the neutrons produced by a fission reaction has a good chance of causing fission in another 92 U235 nucleus.

Control rods
These are made of steel containing a high percentage of material which can absorb neutrons, e.g. boron. Control rods are pushed into the core of the reactor. They control the amount of reaction and hence the amount of heat energy being produced. In emergency they can be used to shut down the reactor completely.

Coolant The nuclear reaction produces heat (parallel to the

burning of coal or oil in a conventional power station). The coolant carries this heat away. The coolant is taken by a pipe to the steam generator where water is boiled. This is a heatexchange process and it thereby lowers the temperature of the coolant which is then returned to the core to collect more heat. Typical coolants are water, carbon dioxide gas, liquid sodium.

Moderator
Only neutrons of a fairly low speed can

produce fission of the uranium nuclei. Fast moving neutrons have their speed moderated (slowed) by passing through a moderator e.g. water, graphite or heavy water (D2O).

2. Moderator
1. Fuel 3. Control rod

4. Coolant Basic Reactor Model

7.

5. Steam generator

6.

8.

Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR)


Pressure Vessel Light Water 3.2% U-235 Fuel 2-4 Loops => Steam UO2 Pellets in Zircaloy 17 x 17 array 12 foot long bundle ~32% Efficiency External Pipe Corrosion Lower Capital Cost AP600 Westinghouse 600 MWe Passive Safety Cooling

Systems Prefabricated and Assembled On-Site Simple Plant Design = Reduced Volume and Cost 3-year Construction

Basic Diagram of a PWR

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Boiling Water Reactor (BWR)


Direct Boiling GE ABWR 10% Coolant = Steam 1350 MWe (3926 MWt) Similar Fuel to PWR Lower Power Density UO2 Fuel than PWR 60 yr Service Life Corrosion Product Internalized Safety

Activated in Core Higher Radiation Field

and Recirculation Systems

Basic Diagram of a BWR

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ABWR-II

Early 1990s - TEPCO, 5 other utilities, GE, Hitachi and Toshiba began development 1700 MWe Goals
30% capital cost

PRCS

PHRS

PCCS

reduction reduced construction time 20% power generation cost reduction increased safety increased flexibility for future fuel cycles

D/W

S/P

Commercialize latter

2010s

ABWR (Advanced Boiling Water Reactor)


1350 MWe 77% more compact

than BWR design 39 month construction period

GE T O S H I A , K a sh i a za ki K a ri a U n i 6 , B w w t

GE ESBWR (Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor)


1550 MWe (4500 MWt) Passive Condenser

Systems for Heat Transfer Standard Seismic Design Improved Economics Shorter Construction Time Reduced Plant Staff and Operator Requirements

Decay Heat Heat Exchangers Above Drywell

High Elevation Gravity Drain Pools

All Pipes/ Valves Inside Containment

Raised Suppression Pool

ESBWR

Future Scope
Nuclear plants in place of coal plants for electricity and battery-driven automobiles (such as General Motors expects to sell in five years) charged by nuclear electricity.

Or fuel-cell automobiles with hydrogen separated by nuclear electricity (unless a better means evolves).

Thank you!

Any Question?????