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What are Relays?

Relays are electrical switches that open or close another circuit under certain conditions.

Relay Purpose  Isolate controlling circuit from controlled circuit.  Control high voltage system with low voltage.  Control high current system with low current.  Logic Functions

How a Relay Works

Relay Types
Electromagnetic Relays (EMRs)
EMRs consist of an input coil that's wound to accept a particular voltage signal, plus a set of one or more contacts that rely on an armature (or lever) activated by the energized coil to open or close an electrical circuit.

Solid-state Relays (SSRs)

SSRs use semiconductor output instead of mechanical contacts to switch the circuit. The output device is optically-coupled to an LED light source inside the relay. The relay is turned on by energizing this LED, usually with low-voltage DC power.

Microprocessor Based Relays

Use microprocessor for switching mechanism. Commonly used in power system monitoring and protection.

Electromagnetic Relays (EMRs) Simplicity Not expensive Mechanical Wear Solid-state Relays (SSRs) No Mechanical movements Faster than EMR No sparking between contacts Microprocessor-based Relay Much higher precision and more reliable and durable. Improve the reliability and power quality of electrical power systems before, during and after faults occur. Capable of both digital and analog I/O. Higher cost

Protective Devices Comparison

Circuit Breakers V.S. Relays
 Relays are like human brain; circuit breakers are like human

 Relays make decisions based on settings.  Relays send signals to circuit breakers. Based the sending

signals circuit breakers will open/close.

Protective Devices Comparison

Fuses V.S. Relays
 Relays have different settings and can be set based on

protection requirements.
 Relays can be reset.  Fuses only have one specific characteristic for a individual

 Fuses cannot be reset but replaced if they blow.

Requirements of relays
Selectivity and discrimination Speed Sensitivity Reliability Simplicity Economy

Important Terms:
 Pick-up current  Current setting  Plug-setting multiplier  Time-setting multiplier

Pick-up current - It is the minimum current in the relay coil at which the relay starts to operate Current setting It is often desirable to adjust the pickup current to any value. This is know as current setting and is usually achieved by the use of tapping on the relay coil. The taps are brought out to a plug bridge, which permits to alter the number of turns on the relay coil, this changes the torque on the disc and the hence the time of operation of the relay. Pickup current = Rated secondary current of CT x Current setting

Plug setting multiplayer (P.S.M) It is the ratio of fault current in the relay coil to the pick up current. P.S.M = Fault current in relay coil pick up current
= fault current in relay coil rated secondary current of CT x current setting

Time-setting multiplier A relay is generally provided with control to adjust the time of operation. This adjustment is known as time setting multiplier the time setting dial is calibrated from 0 to 1 in steps 0.05. These figures are multipliers to be used to convert the time derived from time/p.s.m curve into the actual operating time.

Time/ P.S.M its the curve between time of operation and plug setting multiplier

The actual time of operation is calculated by multiplying the time setting multiplier with the time obtained from time/ p.s.m curve of the relay.

Universal torque equation

Induction type over current relay (non-directional)

Induction type over current relay (directional

Reactance relay

Admittance or MHO relay

Definite distance impedance relay

Definite time relay

Differential relay

Frequency relay

Negative sequence relay

Pilot relay(translay) scheme

Pilot relaying is the best type for line protection. It is used whenever highspeed protection is required for all types of short circuits and for any fault location. The term pilot means that between the ends of the transmission line there is an interconnecting channel of some sort over which information can be conveyed. Types  Wire pilot- is used on low-voltage circuits, <30Km  Carrier-current pilot- the best and most commonly used kind of relaying for high-voltage lines. high-frequency (30 khz to 200 khz) currents are transmitted along a conductor of a power line to a receiver at the other end, the earth and ground wire generally acting as the return conductor. preferred to wire-pilot relaying because it is somewhat more reliable and is more widely applicable. <33KV  Microwave pilot-A microwave pilot is used for relaying only when the relaying equipment can share the channel with enough other services; it is not economically justifiable for relaying alone if carrier current or wire pilot is applicable

Wire pilot


Carrier current protection

Coupling capacitor Line trap unit Protection and earthing of coupling equipment Electronics equipments transmitter unit receiver unit Relay unit

Static relay
A static relay refers to a relay in which there is no armature or other moving element and response is developed by electronic, magnetic and other components without mechanical motion. The solid-state components used are transistors, diodes, resistors, capacitors and so on. Static circuits accomplish the function of comparison and measurement. A relay using combination of both static and electro-magnetic units is also called a static relay provided that static units accomplish the response.