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Unit 3

Analysis of Sewage : Physical, Chemical and biological characteristics , Concepts of aerobic and anaerobic activity , CNS Cycles, BOD and COD sampling significance, techniques and frequency Disposal of Effluents : Disposal of Effluents by dilution, self purification phenomenon, Oxygen Sag Curve, Zones of Purification, Sewage farming, sewage sickness, effluent disposal standards for land, surface water & ocean

Constituents of Sewage
Sewage or Wastewater is a dilute mixture of various wastes from residential, commercial, industrial and other public places. Before we can decide about the line of its treatment and disposal, it is essential to know its composition, quality and characteristics Sewage in general contains : 1. Organic Matter - Nitrogenous (Urea and Protein) - Nitrogen Free ( Carbohydrates, fats and soaps) 2. Inorganic Matter Ash, Cinder, Sand, Grit, Mud etc 3. Living Organisms Plant life (Algae and Fungi) - Animal life (MO : Bacteria, Protozoa and Virus)

Characteristics of Wastewater
Physical : 1. Total Solids 2. Smell or Odour 3. Colour 4. Temperature Chemical : 1. pH 2. Chloride Content 3. Nitrogen Content 4. Fat, Grease and oil content 5. Sulphides, Sulphates and H2S gas 6. Dissolved Oxygen 7. COD 8. BOD Biological : Micro-organism Characteristics

Introduction
The organic matter in sewage consists of urea from urine, proteins, carbohydrates, fats and soaps. These undergo decomposition and in that process, pass through several stages, resolving into simpler elements such as nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon and oxygen with small quantities of sulphur and phosphorous. Thus, These elements ultimately combine by means of chemical and bilogical actions to form inogranic substances. The decomposition of such organic matter takes place through the agency of different types of bacteria 1. Aerobic 2. Anaerobic bacteria or facultative bacteria These bacteria feed upon the nitrogenous and carbonaceous materials in the sewage.

Biological Decomposition
Aerobic Decomposition Anaerobic Decomposition

Aerobic Decomposition
It is caused by aerobic bacteria as well as facultative bacteria operating aerobically in the Presence of Oxygen which is available in the wastewater in the dissolved form. During this process, organic matter is broken up and oxidized to form stable and non objectionable end products like carbon dioxide, nitrates, sulphates etc. Treatment units which work on this process are 1. Aeration tanks 2. Trickling Filters 3. Contact Beds 4. Oxidation Ponds

Anaerobic Decomposition
It is also called Putrefaction It is caused by anaerobic bacteria, as well as facultative bacteria operating anaerobically The end products of Putrefaction include black residue, nitrogen, hydrogen etc. The anaerobic bacteria survives by extracting and consuming the Bound Molecular Oxygen present in the compounds like Nitrates (NO3) and Sulphates (SO4). Treatment units which work on Putrefaction alone are 1. Septic Tanks 2. Imhoff tanks 3. Sludge Digestion Tanks

Cycles of Decomposition
The Decomposition process through which organic matter undergoes to form inorganic matter is called Cycle of Decomposition. The complex organic compounds of biodegradable nature are broken up by biochemical reactions into simple compunds which are in turn consumed by plants and animals for their growth. This process is cyclic in nature. As far as Sewage Treatment is concerned, we are interested in following Cycles of Decomposition 1. Carbon Cycle 2. Nitrogen Cycle As per syllabus 3. Sulphur Cycle 4. Calcium Cycle 5. Phosphorous Cycle

Carbon Cycle
The Carbon cycle corresponding to biochemical Degradation or Decomposition of carbonaceous Organic matter is an endless chain connecting the processes of life and decay of both animal and plant worlds.

4. Waste Product /Death

Animal Fats and Protein

Carbaneous Organic Matter


1. Decomposition

3. Consumption

Plant Carbohydrates, Fats and Proteins


2. Photosynthesis

Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

Carbon Cycle

Steps in Carbon Cycle


Main Steps: 1. The decomposition of carbonaceous organic matter through oxidation by aerobic bacteria results in the release of carbon dioxide which is its final end product and is the stable form of carbon 2. Plants, in the presence of sunlight and by process of photosynthesis consume carbon from carbon dioxide produced in step 1 . This results in the formation of plant carbohydrates, fats and proteins (sugars) 3. The plants are consumed by animals, resulting in the formation of animal fats and proteins 4. Waste products or death of animals results in the formation of carbonaceous organic matter Carbon Cycle is thus completed. This cycle continues in nature. However, there may be some short circuits in the above cycle

Short Circuit Steps 5. (a) Plant life gives off carbon dioxide at night, through the process of respiration (b) Similarly , animal life gives off CO2, during respiration 6. Carbonaceous organic matter may also be formed directly by the death/decay of plant life

Nitrogen Cycle
The Nitrogen cycle, corresponding to the biochemical degradation or decomposition of nitrogenous organic matter, is in fact and endless chain connecting the process of life and decay of both animal and plant worlds.

5. Excreta/Death

Animal Protein

Nitrogenous Organic Matter

4. Consumption

1. Decomposition

Ammonia Plant Protein Nitrites (NO2) Nitrates (NO3) Nitrogen (NH3)

3. Consumption

2. Nitrification

Nitrogen Cycle

Steps in Nitrogen Cycle


Main Steps 1. The nitrogenous organic matter, in the form of animal waste and plant matter, consisting of urea, proteins and hydrocarbons, undergoes decomposition either by way of oxidation by aerobic bacteria or by way of putrefaction by anaerobic bacteria, resulting in the formation of ammonia (NH3) and other gases 2. By process of nitrification, ammonia is first converted into nitrites (NO2) by partial oxidation and then finally to nitrates (NO3) by the action of aerobic bacteria 3. The products formed in Step 2 are consumed by plant life as food, through photosynthesis. The plant life grows, due to which plant tissues, plant proteins(seeds) and free oxygen are produced. 4. The plant protein is consumed by animals, resulting in the production of animal proteins (meat, milk etc) 5. The animal wastes in the form of urine and other excretions as well as the dead bodies of the animals result in the formation of nitrogenous organic matter The Cycle thus continues. However, there may be some short circuits in the above Cycle.

Short circuit Steps 6. The death or decay of plant life (as it happens in forests where leaves, flowers etc or plants life in layers on ground surface to decay) may directly result in the formation of nitrogenous organic matter 7. Waste products such as urea and excretions of animals may sometimes decompose directly and form ammonia nitrogen 8. The nitrates formed after step 2 may be converted or reduced into free nitrogen (and sometimes to ammonia) by anaerobic bacteria by a process known as Denitrification 9. However, free nitrogen, produced in step 8, may directly be converted into plant proteins by certain type of bacteria present in the roots of plants, through process known as nitrogen fixation

Sulphur Cycle
The Sulphur cycle corresponds to biochemical degradation or decomposition of sulphurous organic matter, and is also an endless chain connecting the processes of life and decay of both animal and plant worlds.

5. Waste Products/Death

Animal Protein

Sulphurous Organic Matter

4. Consumption

1. Decomposition (Putrefaction)

Plant Protein Sulphates (SO4)

Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S)


2. Oxidation

3. Consumption (Photosynthesis)

Sulphur Cycle

Steps in Sulphur Cycle


Main Steps 1. The decomposition of sulphurous organic matter, through the action of anaerobic bacteria, in absence of oxygen, results in the formation of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) 2. By process of oxidation, H2S is first converted into sulphur and finally to sulphates 3. Sulphates, when consumed by plants through photosynthesis changes into plant proteins 4. Animals consume the plant proteins. This results in the formation of animal proteins. 5. Wastes produced by animals and their dead bodies results in the formation of sulphurous organic matter. The sulphur cycle is thus completed. However, there may be some short circuits in the above cycle.

Short Circuit steps 6. Sulphates, in the absence of oxygen are converted into H2S by the process of reduction 7. Organic Sulphurous matter may directly be produced by the death or decay of plants.