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# DIGITAL TO ANALOG CONVERTOR

A quick presentation to introduce our peers on the techniques, specifications and applications of the DAC

03/16/2007

## Compiled by Rafael, Ravikanth and Hrishi

Introduction Types

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## Compiled by Rafael, Ravikanth and Hrish

INTRODUCTION
The

DAC fundamentally converts finiteprecision numbers (usually fixed-point binary numbers) into a physical quantity, usually an electrical voltage. Normally the output voltage is a linear function of the input number. Usually these numbers are updated at uniform sampling intervals and can be thought of as numbers obtained from a sampling process
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## Analog Output Signal

0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 Digital Input Signal
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## Compiled by Rafael, Ravikanth and Hrish

Output is a sequence of piecewise constant values or rectangular pulses, means that there is an inherent effect of the zero-order hold on the effective frequency response of the DAC resulting in a mild roll-off of gain at the higher frequencies

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## Compiled by Rafael, Ravikanth and Hrish

Types of DACs
Many

types of DACs available. Usually switches, resistors, and op-amps used to implement conversion Three Types:

Resistor String Binary Weighted Resistor R-2R Ladder PWM (Pulse Width Modulation)
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## Resistor String DAC

Components of a String DAC Resistor String supply discrete voltage levels Selection Switches connect the right voltage level to op-amp according to input bits Op-amp amplifies the discrete voltage levels to desired range, keeps the current low

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Resistor String

Example

VREF = 8V

3 V3 = 8V = 3V 8

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## Compiled by Rafael, Ravikanth and Hrish

SELECTION SWITCHES

1 0 0 4V

1 1 0 6V

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## Compiled by Rafael, Ravikanth and Hrish

0 0 0 0V 1 1 1 7V

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## Resistor String DAC

Advantages: simple fast for < 8 bits Disadvantages: high element count for higher resolutions, reason:

2n 2n 1

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## Binary Weighted Resistor DAC

Utilizes

a summing op-amp circuit Weighted resistors are used to distinguish each bit from the most significant to the least significant Transistors are used to switch between Vref and ground (bit high or low)

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## Compiled by Rafael, Ravikanth and Hrish

Summing OP-Amps
Inverting

summer circuit used in Binary Weighted Resistor DAC. V(out) is 180 out of phase from V(in)

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## Binary Weighted Resistor

Vref

Assume Ideal OpAmp No Current into OP-Amp Virtual ground at inverting input

R 2R 4R + 2nR

Rf

Vou t

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Calculation

## bn 1 bn 2 b0 VOUT = Vref R( + + ... + n 2R 4R 2 R

VOUT =

Vref 2
n

(2 n 1 bn 1 + 2 n 2 bn 2 + ... + 2 b1 + b0
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## Compiled by Rafael, Ravikanth and Hrish

Example:

n=4
Vout = Vref (2 n 1 bn 1 + 2 n 2 bn 2 + ... + 2b1 + b0 )

Contd

Vout =

Vref 16

Vout =
V fs

Vref

16 = ref RE V S

## (8(0) + 4(0) + 2(1) +1(1)) =

3 Vref 16

RE = / 2 n 1 S V fs = ref V 2 4 1 35 2 4 =0.9 7
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n = totalbits

Vref

## Compiled by Rafael, Ravikanth and Hrish

Easy principle/construction Fast conversion Requirement of several different precise input resistor values: Requires large range of resistors (2048:1 for 12-bit DAC) with necessary high precision for low resistors one unique value per binary input bit. (High bit DACs) Larger resistors ~ more error. Precise large resistors expensive.

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Vref V2 V1 V0

MSB

LSB

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## R-2R DAC Example (cont.)

V1 V0 V1 V0

=
1 Req = =R 1 1 ( 2R ) + ( 2R)

V1 V0 V0 = R R

V1 = 2 V0

## Nodal Analysis Likewise,

V1 = R 1 R 1 V2 = V2 V2 = V3 = V3 R+R 2 R+R 2

Voltage Divider

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## Compiled by Rafael, Ravikanth and Hrish

Conversion Equation

Vout

1 1 1 1 = Vref b3 + b2 + b1 + b0 4 8 16 2

## For general n-Bit R-2R Ladder Binary Weighted Resister DAC

1 Vout = Vref bn i i 2 i =1

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## R-2R DAC Summary

Only two resistor values Does not need as precision resistors as Binary weighted DACs Cheap and Easy to manufacture

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## Pulse Width Modulation

Approximate analog signal by switching on/off at high frequency Integral of output voltage from PWM ideally is the same as integral of desired output voltage Example: Desired output = 7V, supply voltage = 10V Operate 10V at 70% duty cycle to approximate 7V In practice: use counter, comparator, clock, integrator
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## Compiled by Rafael, Ravikanth and Hrish

SPECIFICATIONS
Resolution Speed Linearity Settling

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## Compiled by Rafael, Ravikanth and Hrish

RESOLUTION

Defined by the change in output voltage for a change of the LSB. Related to the size of the binary representation of the voltage. (8-bit) Higher resolution results in smaller steps between voltage values

Resolution=

Vref 2
n

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## Compiled by Rafael, Ravikanth and Hrish

SPEED
Defined

by the rate at which the register value is updated. Also called the conversion rate or sampling rate Speed is limited by the clock speed of the microcontroller and the settling time of the DAC
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LINEARITY

## Analog Output Voltage

Represents the relationship between digital values and analog outputs Should be related by a single proportionality constant. (constant slope)

Desired Output

Digital Input
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## Compiled by Rafael, Ravikanth and Hrish

SETTLING TIME

Time in which the DAC output settles at the desired value VLSB . Ideally, an instantaneous change in analog volatage would occur when a new binary word enters into the DAC

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## Compiled by Rafael, Ravikanth and Hrish

REFERENCE VOLTAGE
Used

to determine how each digital input will be assigned to each voltage division Types:

Non Multiplier DAC: Vref is fixed Multiplier DAC: Vref provided by external source

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## Compiled by Rafael, Ravikanth and Hrish

ERRORS
Gain Offset Full

scale Non-Monocity

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## Compiled by Rafael, Ravikanth and Hrish

GAIN ERROR

Analog Output .

Occurs when the slope of the actual output deviates from the ideal output

D ig it a l In p u t
I d e a l O u tp u tP o s itiv e O f f s e t E r rNo e rg a tiv e O f f s e t E r r o r

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## Compiled by Rafael, Ravikanth and Hrish

OFFSET ERROR

Analog Output .

Occurs when there is a constant offset between the actual output and the ideal output

D ig it a l In p u t

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## FULL SCALE ERROR

Analog Output

Occurs when the actual signal has both gain and offset errors

D ig ita l In p u t
Ideal O utput F ull S cale E rror E rror

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## Compiled by Rafael, Ravikanth and Hrish

Non-Monotonic Error

Occurs when an increase in digital input results in a decrease in the analog output

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## Compiled by Rafael, Ravikanth and Hrish

Common Applications

Electronic Cruise Control Computer Printers Sound Equipment (e.g. CD/MP3 Players)

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