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Where Are We?

Part I Getting Started


  

Introduction and overview Installation of Linux Fedora 12 Starting servers and TCP/IP configuration

    

Part II Designing and Implementation of a LAN Part III Virtual Pivate Networks Part IV Traffic Surveillance and Network Security Part V Internetworking between Linux and Windows Part VI Other Server Systems

TRU-COMP425

Installation of Linux

Part I. Getting Started Installation of Linux


Winter 2010

COMP425 Computer Network Administration

Learning Outcomes
 

    

Discuss how a computer system starts from a hard disk. Explain a hard disc structure partition table, MBR, super block, file system. Explain the file system structure of FAT. Describe boot loader. Describe mount point, mounting and unmounting. Identify a proper Linux distribution for a given computer system. Use a Linux distribution DVD-ROM to install an Linux operating system. Use the software management tools, yum, .

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Installation of Linux

Introduction


Fedora 12 Installation Guide




http://docs.fedoraproject.org/install-guide/f12/en-US/html/

Background
 

http://fedoraproject.org/ http://docs.fedoraproject.org/

Goals
   

Understand how to locate the Fedora distribution online Create configuration data that allows a computer to boot Fedora Understand and interact with the Fedora installation program Complete basic post-installation configuration of a Fedora system

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Installation of Linux

Quick Start for Experts




Was there any difficulty?

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Installation of Linux

New Users


How do I download installation files?




A full set of the installable software on CD-ROM or DVD media


 

//fedora/linux/releases/8/Live/arch/iso/F-8-arch-DVD.iso ISO 9660 file system


  

Boot code Super block

A live image
 

Minimal boot CD and USB flash disk images A reduced-sized rescue CD image

 

From a mirror From BitTorrent




http://www.bittorrent.com/download/

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Installation of Linux

New Users


Which architecture is my computer?




i386
   

Intel except Core 2 Duo, Centrino Core 2 Duo, or Xeon AMD except 64 or x2 dual-core VIA C4 Apple MacBook Pro Intel P6 microarchitecture Pentium Pro and all later processors Athlon and all later AMD processors Intel Core 2 Duo, Centrino Core 2 Duo, Xeon AMD Athlon 64/x2, Sempron 64/x2, Duron 64 Apple Macintosh

i686
  

x86_64
 

ppc


Why?
Installation of Linux 7

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New Users


How do I make Fedora media?




Making CD and DVD media on Windows




Making Fedora Discs: http://docs.fedoraproject.org/readme-burning-isos/enUS.html Burning


   

Using the ISO Recorder V2 In Windows Explorer, right click on the ISO file In the context menu, select Copy image to CD Follow the steps given

   

Nero Easy CD Creator Active@ ISO Burner freeware ... # dd if=.img of=/dev/sdX

Making CD and DVD media on Linux




It is burning images, not copying files onto an existing file system.




Different?
Installation of Linux 8

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New Users


How do I start the installation program?

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Installation of Linux

Beginning the Installation




The boot menu




Install or upgrade an existing system




GUI

  

Install or upgrade an existing system (text mode) Rescue installed system Boot from local drive

Installing from a different source


  

DVD Minimal boot CD or USB, rescue CD Live CD or USB

DVD, network, hard disk Network or hard disk Install to hard disk application

Verifying media

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Identifying Your Locale




Language Selection


You may also select additional languages

Keyboard configuration

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Welcome Dialog


Initializing the hard disk? RAID or other nonstandard configuration?




RAID?


Redundant Arrays of Independent Disks is a computer data storage scheme that divides and replicates data among multiple hard disk drives. Why?

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Disk Partitioning

Tracks and sectors

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Installation of Linux

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Disk Partitioning


Options
   

Remove all partitions on selected drives and create default layout Remove Linux partitions on selected drives and create default layout Use free space on selected drives and create default layout Create custom layout

Review and modify partitioning layout What if there were other operating systems, e.g., windows, and no enough free space?


Resizing

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Partitions, minidisks, volumes




 

Partitioning is a means to divide a single hard drive into many logical drives. A partition is a contiguous set of blocks on a drive that are treated as an independent disk. A partition table is an index that relates sections of the hard drive to partitions. Typically at least one partition on a disk Some systems allow partitions to be larger than a disk so that disks can be grouped into one logical units

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Why have multiple partitions?




Encapsulate your data.




Since file system corruption is local to a partition, you stand to lose only some of your data if an accident occurs. The super block contains a description of the basic size and shape of this file system. The information within it allows the file system manager to use and maintain the file system. Usually only the super block is read when the file system is mounted. Small super blocks allow fast access to files.

Increase disk access speed.




 

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Why have multiple partitions?




Increase disk space efficiency.




You can format partitions with varying block sizes, depending on your usage. If your data is in a large number of small files (less than 1K) and your partition uses 4K sized blocks, you are wasting 3K for every file. In general, you waste on average one half of a block for every file, so matching block size to the average size of your files is important if you have many files. Runaway processes or maniacal users can consume so much disk space that the operating system no longer has room on the hard drive for its bookkeeping operations. This will lead to disaster. By segregating space, you ensure that things other than the operating system die when allocated disk space is exhausted.

Limit data growth.




Different structure for a different partition is possible on the same system




Multiple operating systems


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Example: DOS-type partition tables




Partition table sector


 

Sector 0 of the disk Called MBR (Master Boot Record) of total 512 bytes
    

Code area (Bootstrapping) Optional disk signature Nulls Table of maximum four primary partitions MBR signature

440 B 4B 2B 64 B 2B

Four partition descriptors (or also called partition record) of 16 bytes from offset 446
 

What information is stored? Maximum four partitions?

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Example: DOS-type partition tables




Partition table sector


  

Sector 0 of the disk Called MBR (Master Boot Record) of total 512 bytes Four partition descriptors (or also called partition record) of 16 bytes from offset 446
  

0 1-3 4

  

Boot indicator Begin CHS (Cylinder/Head/Sector) Partition type  05, 0f, 85 (hex) DOS, Window 95, Linux respectively  5-7 End CHS 8-11 Partition start 12-15 Partition size  0 unused E.g., three primary (or logical) partitions and one extended partition Windows can boot only from a primary partition Installation of Linux 19

 

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Extended partition
 

The first sector is used as a partition table sector again => logical partitions, or inner extended partition

Primary (or logical) partition

B
Bootblock
 

Inode list
superblock

Data blocks
directories, files

Example of UNIX Could be different from different file systems

Reference


Minimal partition table specification http://www.win.tue.nl/~aeb/partitions/partition_tables.html


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MS-DOS, OS/2, Windows

File attributes

An example: File-Allocation Table (FAT)

Block size: 512 Size of the link in FAT: 4 File: test File pointer: 1020 Reading 100 bytes Block to be accessed: Which block[s] would be retrieved from the file system? Displacement in the first block to be accessed: What displacement is the file pointer in the first block to be accessed? The size of FAT?

-1

End of file

Not the list of data blocks

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Disk Partitioning


Options
   

Remove all partitions on selected drives and create default layout Remove Linux partitions on selected drives and create default layout Use free space on selected drives and create default layout Create custom layout

Review and modify partitioning layout What if there were other operating systems, e.g., windows, and no enough free space?
  

# ntfsresize # ntfsclone # fdisk

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Disk Partitioning


General information on partitions




Data partitions provide storage for files. Each data partition has a mount point, to indicate the system directory whose contents reside on that partition /boot / swap what is it? And more partitions,
   

   

/home /var /usr /usr/local

user data the content for applications the majority of software

Where is /etc/password?

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Disk Partitioning


Partition types
 

The format of the file system ext3, ext4

Minimum partition sizes Understanding LVM (Logical Volume Management)


   

Physical volumes are combined to form a volume group. Each volume groups total storage is divided into logical volumes. Logical volumes function much like standard partitions. Warning: /boot partition must not be LVM because the boot loader cannot read LVM volumes An administrator may grow or shrink logical volumes without destroying data, not like physical volumes. For a while put / and swap partitions within LVM.
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Disk Partitioning


Disk Druid


An interactive program for editing disk partitions

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Boot Loader
 

A small program that reads and launches the operating system. GRUB by default
  

Where? In the master boot record (MBR) of the device for the root file system /boot/grub/grub.conf Fedora installation program automatically detects and configures GRUB to boot them. Add Edit Delete Optional

Booting additional operating systems




  

Setting a boot loader password




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Network Configuration


Manual network configuration, or DHCP Network devices


 

Active on boot IPv4 support




Edit ->

Hostname Miscellaneous settings


 

IP address of a gateway IP addresses of DNS servers

TOF
 

DHCP uses ARP DHCP uses IP


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Time Zone Selection

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Set the Root Password

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Software Selection

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Installing Packages


After installation completes, select Reboot to restart your computer

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First Boot
  

Setup Agent License agreement Firewall


 

By default the firewall is enabled SSH provides immediate remote access Confusing Lets not use it. Network time protocol (NTP) A user account, not the root account

SELinux (Security Enhanced Linux)


 

Date and time




System user


Sound card

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Your Next Steps




Updating your system


 

Applications -> System Tools -> Software Updater Apply Updates, and Reboot Now

yum utility


# su c yum update

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