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Engineered Solution Provider In Geosynthetics

Presentation on Geotextiles
By

M. VENKATARAMAN
M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Geotextile

A planar, permeable, polymeric (synthetic or natural) textile material, which may be woven, nonwoven or knitted, used in contact with soil/rock and/or any other geotechnical material in civil engineering applications.

M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Classification of Geotextiles
Geotextiles

Knitted Mono filament

Woven Multi filament Weave Pattern Slit Film

Nonwoven

Composite Continuous Filaments

Staple Fibres

Chemically Bonded Heat Treated

Thermally Bonded Heat Treated

Mechanically Bonded Chemically Treated

Stitch Bonded

Un Stabilized

Chemically Stabilized

Un Modified

M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Manufacturing of Geotextiles
Minerals
Glass Ceramics Asbestos

Synthetic Polymers
PET, PP, PA etc.

Monofilament

Multifilament Texturing Twisting Weaving

Tape, Film Fibrillation

Spun bond

Melt blown

Non Woven Bonding


Thermal Chemical Needle Punching Spun lacing

Knitting Coating, Laminating

Technical Fabrics

M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Types of Woven Geotextile


Woven Mono-filament Woven Mono-filament
(Calendered)

Woven Multi-filament

Woven Slit film tape woven

[Courtesy : Robert M. Koerner, Designing With Geosynthetics]


M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Types of Non-woven Geotextile


Non-woven Continuous filament needle-punched Non-woven Continuous filament thermally bonded Non-woven Staple needle-punched Non-woven thermally bonded Non-woven resin bonded Other woven and non-woven combinations
M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Types of Non-woven Geotextile


Non-woven Needle Punched Non-woven Thermally Bonded

[Courtesy : Robert M. Koerner, Designing With Geosynthetics]

Knitted Type

[Courtesy : S.K. Shukla, Geosynthetics and their Applications]


M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Functions & Mechanisms


Separation Reinforcement Drainage Filtration Protection/Cushion or Combined Functions
M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Separation

Granular fill- Soft Soil system without Geosynthetic

Granular fill- Soft Soil system without Geosynthetic

[Courtesy : S.K. Shukla, Geosynthetics and their Applications]


M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Reinforcement

Reinforcement Function

[Courtesy : S.K. Shukla, Geosynthetics and their Applications]


M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Filtration & Drainage

Filtration Function

Drainage Function

[Courtesy : S.K. Shukla, Geosynthetics and their Applications]


M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Granular vis--vis Geotextile


Granular Filters Quality control difficult Installation difficult Discontinuities/contamination Large volume Intimate contact with surface Geotextile Filters Assured quality Easy installation Continuity Conserves granular material Requires surface preparation prior to laying

M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Geotextile Filter Criteria


Soil retention/tightness Permeability Clogging resistance Clogging Blinding Blocking

M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Geotextile Filter Criteria Survivability


Tensile strength Elongation Tear strength Puncture strength Durability Ultraviolet resistance Chemical resistance Biological resistance
M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Geotextile Filter Criteria


Soil Retention Criteria
O95 < Dw O95 = Apparent opening size of geotextile = 0.5 to 5.0 (a constant)

Dw = Representative soil particle size


= D90 for unidirectional flow = D15 for cyclic flow
M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Geotextile Filter Criteria


Permeability Criteria Less critical applications and less severe conditions Kgt > Ksoil Critical applications and severe conditions

Kgt > 10 Ksoil

M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Properties & Test Methods


Field Problem Laboratory Simulation

[Courtesy : S.K. Shukla, Geosynthetics and their Applications]


M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Properties & Test Methods


Type of Properties Property Name Test Method
ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM D 5261 D 5199 D 1505 D 4632 D 4884 D 4533 Mass per Unit Area Physical Properties Thickness Specific Gravity Grab Strength & Elongation Seam Strength Mechanical Trapezoid Tear Strength Properties Other - Burst, Puncture, Pullout strengths etc. Apparent Opening Size Permittivity (Cross-Plane Hydraulic Properties Permeability) Transmissivity (In-Plane Permeability) Installation Damage Creep Endurance Abrasion UV Resistance Properties Temparature Chemical Resistance

ASTM D 4751 ASTM D 4491/5463 ASTM D 6574 ASTM D 5262 ASTM D 4886 ASTM D 4355 ASTM D 4594 ASTM D 6389

M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Standards & Specifications


STANDARDS

AASHTO Geosynthetic Research Institute (GRI) IRC MOSRTH


APPLICATIONS/PRODUCTS

Separation & Filtration Drainage Erosion control Geotextile Tubes


M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Application areas
Railways Roads-Pavements Landfill Engineering Coastal Protection & River Training Works Ground Improvement

M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Railways-Track bed Stabilistion

Laying of Woven Geotextile below the Railway track

Spreading of Sand layer covering above Fabric


M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Geotextile in Railways
Separation Barrier to prevent the intermixing of Sub-Ballast from fine subgrade materials Reinforcement Absorbs stress and reduce the imposed loads. Improves the performance of the Track and life. Filtration While mud pumped from the wet subgrade, Fines will be filtered out and retained in the subgrade.
M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Geotextile in Roads

GEOTEXTILE

Prevention of Aggregate Penetration-Separation

M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Geotextile in Roads

Woven Geotextile As a Separator & Reinforcement (Thane, Mumbai)


M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Geotextile in Roads
Unpaved Roads Reinforcement Membrane Tension Passive anchorage Enhanced confinement and Lateral Restraint

Separation
Separates subsoil from the Granular subbase Filtration Prevent soil fines from pumping up through aggregates
M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Geotextile in Roads
Paved Roads Reinforcement Base-Course Reduction Ratio (BRR) Traffic Benefit Ratio (TBR) Improves Performance of the road Separation Separates subsoil from the Granular subbase Filtration Prevent soil fines from pumping up through aggregates
M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Geotextile in Ground Improvement


Embankments Reinforcement Slope Stability-Basal Reinforcement Increase in Bearing Capacity Reduces the settlement of embankment Separation Separates Foundation soil from Embankment fill Filtration Prevent soil fines from pumping up through Embankment fill
M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Geotextile in Ground Improvement

Separator - Approach Embankment for Bridge across Vasista, Godavari at Chinchinada, A.P. (N H 5A)3
M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Geotextile in Ground Improvement


Foundations Reinforcement Shear Stress reduction Confinement Effect Membrane Effect Reduces Settlements Separation Separates Soft Foundation soil from Granular fill
M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Ground Improvement, Vizag Airport


Using Woven Geotextile and PVDs

Woven Geotextile
Sl o pe

Sand 100mm Sand 400mm Moorum 500mm

Working Platform

1:3

Band Drains (polypropylene) 100mm x 3.3mm @ 2m C/C in Triangular Fashion M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Ground Improvement, Vizag Airport

Laying of Woven Geotextile

M. Venkataraman, GWRL

High Strength Geotextiles


High Tenacity Polyester Geotextiles are especially suitable for Reinforcement. High strength Geotextiles with low Strain. These Geotextiles also perform function of Drainage High Permeability

&
Separation

M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Reinforcement Reinforced Soil Wall/Slope Walls & Steep Slopes Widening Roads Repairing Failed Slopes

Geotextiles in Reinforced Soil Wall & Slope

[Courtesy : K. Rajagopal, Overview of Geosynthetic Constructions in India


M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Geotextiles in Reinforced Soil Walls & Slopes


Filtration

Wraparound Wall

Filter layer in between two Reinforcement Layer

Filter - Woven Geotextile


Geogrid Wraparound Wall at CH. 48 KM & CH. 50 KM, Lucknow - Muzaffarpur National Highway Project
M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Geotextile in Retaining Walls

Filter - Woven Geotextile

Geotextile as Filter behind the Gabion Retaining wall, Vedanta Aluminium Ltd., Lanjigarh
M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Geotextiles in Landfills
Geotextiles are used in containment applications to fulfil various functions such as: Protection Separation Filtration Drainage Reinforcement Other functions such as sealing are carried out by geomembranes and GCL.
M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Geotextiles in Landfills
Filtration and Separation To allow passage of fluids from a soil while preventing the uncontrolled passage of soil particles. Installation of a geotextile filter over the leachate collection layer as a filter and separator in the base of a Landfill Protection Localised stress reduction layer to prevent damage to a given surface or layer.
M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Geotextiles in Landfills

Laying of Nonwoven Geotextile as a protection layer, MSW Landfill, Jaipur Protection Layer in Landfill, HZL, Visakhapatnam, A.P Panoramic View of Completed Hazardous Landfills HZL, Vizag
M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Geotextiles in Coastal and River Protection works


Geotextile Products for Coastal and River Protection works Geotextile bags Geotextile Tubes Geotextile Containers Geotextile Sand Mattress

M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Geotextile Bags / Containers


FEATURES Material : Woven Geotextile Dimensions: Length = 0.5 m to 3 m Width = varies Height = varies Fill Material : Sand / Soil
M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Sand Mattress
Two layers of geotextile stitched together Fill Material : Sand / Soil Dimensions: Length & Width as per site conditions Thickness = 50 mm
M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Geotextile Tubes
Geotextile containment systems in tubular forms filled with locally available sand which are formed in-situ on land or in water to protect shore and marine environments
FEATURES: Material :Woven Geotextile Diameter:3 m to 5 m Length :20 m to 40 m Fill Material: Locally available Sand / Slurry
M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Coastal ProtectionErosion Control


Due to Sea or River current, fine soils of the bank start migrating causing Erosion Conventional design of cementing the banks is not a solution due to Hydraulic pressure of the soil Geotextile allows water to pass through but resist the fine soil migration

M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Coastal ProtectionErosion Control

Profiling Installation - Geotextile Gabion Installation in Progress


M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Shankarpur to Halda, West Bengal


Problem Severe erosion due to Waves , 1m high Vertical Cuts, 4 m deep Damage to public property along the coastal line Solution Geotextile Tube
HWL

Woven Geotextile Bags Geotextile GEOTEXTILE TUBE - SHORE PROTECTION


M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Shankarpur to Halda, West Bengal

Geotextile Bags Installation - Geotextile Geotextile Tube Geotextile Bags Installation Geotextile Tube
M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Shankarpur to Halda, West Bengal

After Installation - During Low Tide After Installation - During High Tide
M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Coastal Protection work at INS Hamla, Malad

Filling of Geotextile Tube At INS Hamla, Malad Algae growth over Geotextile Tubes at Malad
M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Submerged Geotextile Tube Dyke


Haldia Dock Yard, West Bengal Problem Silting of Navigation Channel Frequent Dredging Solution Submerged Dyke

M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Geotextile Tube being unrolled Filling of the Tube in Barges Trial Geotextile Tube
M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Geotextile Tube Sea Wall Uppada, A.P (Ongoing Project)

M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Ports: Shell-Hazira, Gujarat

M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Ports: Shell-Hazira, Adani Port

Panoramic view of Reclamation Bund using Imported Geotextile Containers at Adani Port, Gujarat
M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Ports: Hazira, Adani Port

Installation of Garware Geotextile Containers at Adani Port, Gujarat (Ongoing Project)


M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Anti-Buoyancy Bags- A Value added Product

Anti-Buoyancy Geotextile Bags for Mundra-Bhatinda Gas Pipeline, Gujarat


M. Venkataraman, GWRL

Conclusions
Geotextiles play an important role in Separation, Filtration and drainage. In Recent years, High strength Geotextiles and Composites are also used as Reinforcements. High Strength Geotextiles are cost effective than other reinforcements (Geogrids). Geotextile bags, tubes and containers which are made with Geotextile are playing a major role in Coastal & River Protection works
M. Venkataraman, GWRL