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History of Religion and Philosophy

By Martin Benedict Perez, Social Sciences, Philippine Science High School

REVOLUTIONS IN THOUGHT

CONTENTS AND READING LIST


I The Axial Age .
I I .

II I.
I. V

Philosophy in China

A .Chinese origins and cosmology 58 - 61 B .The Hundred Schools of Thought 61 63 C .Confucianism and Daoism 90 92 A .Enter the Vedic Age B .The Hindu World View C .Hinduism and Buddhism

World History Connections to Today Background Reading

V .Religion in India
VI .

50 57 78 79 80 82, 87 88

V I. Monotheism of the Hebrews I

A .The World of the Hebrews 31 44 B .Development of Monotheism 44 45 C .Judaism, Christianity, and Islam

WHAT WEVE LEARNED SO FAR


1 . Civilization is social order promoting cultural creation . Will Durant 2. 3 . Civilization developed over time . It is the sum of several interrelated developments in the methods of food production and social organization. 4. 5 . Taken culturally , civilization can be a relative term . Different people see other people differently.

WHAT WERE ABOUT TO LEARN


1 . How societies adjusted to rising complexities . How did they deal with change? 2. 3 . What problems they encountered as civilization developed . More importantly, what were their solutions? 4. 5 . We will explore the philosophical and religious movements that would eventually define the cultures we know today . And is there a reason for why endure to this day?

STRUCTURE OF THE PRESENTATION


I CONTEXT . I I . II I.
We look at the geography, history, and ethos of the regions where these ideas were founded. We get a feel of how these ideas work and how they relate to the societys ethos. We study how the philosophies and ideas have crystallized into the forms we see today.

PHILOSOPHY

I. V V .SYSTEM

STRUCTURE AND FLOW


I The Axial Age .
I I .

II I.
I. V

Philosophy in China

A .Chinese origins and cosmology CONTEXT B .The Hundred Schools of Thought PHILOSOPHY C .Confucianism and Daoism SYSTEM A .Enter the Vedic Age B .The Hindu World View C .Hinduism and Buddhism CONTEXT PHILOSOPHY SYSTEM

V .Religion in India
VI .

V I. Monotheism of the Hebrews I

A .The World of the Hebrews CONTEXT B .Development of Monotheism PHILOSOPHY C .Judaism, Christianity, and Islam SYSTEM

PREFACE

RELIGION AND THE SOCIAL SCIENCES

About 84% of the worlds population belongs to some form of organized religion. Thats about 5.7 billion people in 10,000 distinct religions. Christianity alone has about 33,000 denominations.

A SOCIAL SCIENCE DEFINITION


In general, religion is a social arrangement designed to provide a shared, collective say of dealing with the unknown and unknowable aspects of human life, death and existence, and the difficult dilemmas that arise in the process of making moral decisions. As such, religion not only provides responses to enduring human problems and questions but

also forms a basis for social cohesion and solidarity . Allan G . Johnson ,
Blackwell Dictionary of Sociology

A SOCIAL SCIENCE DEFINITION


Religion is a set of beliefs,symbols, and practices (for examplerituals), which is based on the idea of thesacred, and which unites believers into a

socio - religious community . The sacred is


contrasted with the profane because it involves feelings of awe. Sociologists have defined religion by reference to the sacred rather than to a belief in a god or gods, because it makes social comparison possible. Oxford Dictionary of Sociology

The truth is one, but the sages know it by many names.

Ekam sad vipra bahudha vadantikam Sat (RV 1.164.64)

PART 1 THE AXIAL AGE

THE HISTORY OF CIVILIZATION


THOUSANDS OF YEARS BEFORE THE PRESENT

12 11 11 . 5: End of ice ages 10 Earliest evidence of agriculture in near east 9 Earliest evidence of agriculture in Southeast Asia 8 7 6 Evidence of pastoralism in Russia, Ukraine, 5: First cities and city states Kazakhstan Evidence of agriculture in Americas 4 3 First empires 2 1 First superempire (Persia) 0
Foundation of world religions

AXIAL AGE

Foundation of largest pastoral empire (Genghis Khan, Industrial Revolution 1220CE)

THE AXIAL AGE

ABRAHAMIC
DHARMIC

SINIC

THE AXIAL AGE


1 . All occurred in or near the original river valley civilizations . This meant that the material preconditions were present for the development of religion and thought. 2. 3 . Axial Age revolutions can be counted on the fingers of one hand . This does not mean that religion and thought stopped evolving, but that most breakthroughs and advances either ( a ) occurred within the original tradition, or ( b ) is a combination of several other traditions. 4. 5 . Each revolution in thought was born during a period of crisis or instability . Old orders were breaking down and there was a demand for a new standard of behaviour ethics. 6.

THE AXIAL AGE


4 . The Axial Age also overlapped with the Iron Age of human history . With more durable and more valuable goods, a certain materialism emerged. Improved weapons also made war and conquest possible.
India Paleolithic Neolithic Bronze Age Iron Age Axial Age Before 10,000BCE 10,000BCE c3500BCE 3000 1200BCE 3000 700BCE 1200 200BCE 800 - 200BCE 600 200BCE 3300 1200BCE 1300 600BCE China Near East

PART 2 CHINESE PHILOSOPHY

PAN GU
THE THREE AUGUST ONES Emperor of Heaven Emperor of Earth Emperor of Mankind

THE FIVE EMPERORS XIA DYNASTY SHANG ZHOU QIN HAN SUI TANG SONG YUAN MING QING

Nuwa and Fuxi, the Earthly Sovereign and the Heavenly Sovereign

THE THREE AUGUST ONES

Shennong, The Divine Farmer

A fish-decorated bowl dating to the Yangshao culture at 5000BCE.

Black egg-shell pottery dating back to the Longshan culture at 3000BCE.

Bronze making was a signature of the Xia, but the very existence of the dynasty is in question. Chinese historians often claim that it is one and the same as the contemporaneous Erlitou culture.

The Shang is the first historically established dynasty in Chinese history.


The Oracle Bone

The excavations at Anyang

Bronze is a metal alloy composed mainly of copper and tin.

SHANG RELIGIOUS BELIEFS


Some things historians learned from the Oracle Bones: The notion of a supreme heavenly power (referred to as Shangdi, or "God above," and later as "Tian," or "Heaven"). The belief in the power of the spirits of ancestors to affect events on earth. And the importance attached to rituals venerating ancestors and the role assigned to the king in performing these ceremonial rituals.

THE MANDATE OF HEAVEN (tianming)


To justify their overthrow of the corrupt King of Shang , the Duke of Zhou declared that he has lost heaven s favor . This has become the performance standard throughout Chinese history . An emperor or a dynasty is said to have the Mandate when they do well, and lose the Mandate when they dont.

ZHOU DYNASTY (1100-256BCE)


The Zhou is divided into the Western Zhou ( 1027 - 771 BCE ) , capital at Xian Eastern Zhou ( 770 - 221 BCE ) , capital at Luoyang

State administration was feudal: local lords help power over their domains, but owed military loyalty and support to the center.

ZHOU DYNASTY (1100-256BCE)


The Eastern Zhou is divided into 1 . Spring and Autumn Period ( 770 - 476 BCE ) 2. 3 . Warring States Period ( 475 - 221 BCE ) After the displacement of the Western Zhou and the shift to the east, small states competed for power. Many philosophical schools emerged during this period also called The Hundred Schools of Thought

CONFUCIUS & LAOZI

THE THREE CONFUCIAN VALUES

Humaneness

xia o ren li

Filial piety

Ritual propriety

Master You said: It is a rare thing for someone who has a sense of filial and fraternal responsibility (xiaodi) to have a taste for defying authority. And it is unheard of for those who have no taste for defying authority to be keen on initiating rebellion. Exemplary persons concentrate their efforts on the root, for the root having taken hold, the way will grow therefrom. As for filial and fraternal responsibility, it is, I suspect, the root of humaneness (ren). [1.2]

xia o

THE THREE CONFUCIAN VALUES

Filial piety

ren

THE THREE CONFUCIAN VALUES

Humaneness

The Master said, Wealth and honor are what people want, but if they are the consequence of deviating from the way (dao), I would have no part in them. Poverty and disgrace are what people deplore, but if they are consequence of staying on the way, I would not avoid them. Wherein do the exemplary persons (junzi) who would abandon their humanness (ren) warrant that name? Exemplary persons do not take leave of their humaneness even for the space of a meal. When they are troubled, they certainly turn to it, as they do in facing difficulties. [4.5]

li

THE THREE CONFUCIAN VALUES

Ritual propriety

Lin Fang asked about the roots of observing ritual propriety (li). The Master replied : What an important question ! In observing ritual propriety, it is better to be modest than extravagant; in mourning, it is better to express real grief than to worry over formal details. [3.4] Zilu asked how to serve the spirits and the gods. The Master replied, Not yet being able to serve other people, how would you be able to serve the spirits? Zilu said, May I ask about death? The Master replied, Not yet understanding life, how could you understand death? [11.2]

Zigong asked about the exemplary persons (junzi). The Master replied: They first accomplish what they are going to do, and only then say it. [2.13] The Master said: Exemplary persons cherish their excellence; petty persons cherish their land. Exemplary persons cherish fairness; petty persons cherish the thought of gain. [4.11] The Master said, Exemplary persons seek harmony not sameness; petty persons, then, are the opposite. [13.23]

junz i

THE CONFUCIAN IDEAL

Noble man or The Perfect Gentleman

xiaorenPetty or small person

THE CONFUCIAN ETHOS


Therefore , what was wrong with society during the Western Zhou and what had to be done?
1.Ritual had become meaningless, and concern for wealth and power became the foremost fixation of the elites. 2. 3.Man has lost his Way. There were a lot of xiaoren. 4. 5.THEREFORE, men must be mindful of ritual propriety and filial piety. Individuals must always cultivate knowledge. 6. 7.Society must be ruled like a family. Later Confucians would teach that the Emperor must be a father figure, and the various provinces and states would be loyal and supportive of the Imperial Center.

The Master said: As a younger brother and son, be filial at home and deferential in the community; be cautious in what you say and then make good on your word; love the multitude broadly and be intimate with those who are humane. If in so behaving you still have energy left, use it to improve yourself through study. [1.2] The Master said: Lead the people with administrative injunctions and keep them orderly with penal law, and they will avoid punishments but will be without a sense of shame. Lead them with excellence and keep them orderly through observing ritual propriety and they will develop a sense of shame, and moreover, will order themselves. [2.3]

Yang ( white ) Masculine Warm Tough Day Large Assert Stone Confucius

Yin ( black ) Feminine Cool Soft Night Small Yield Water Lao Zi

What is the Way?

What is the Way?


The way that can be spoken of Is not the constant way; The name that can be named Is not the constant name. [1] The whole world recognizes the beautiful as the beautiful, yet this is only the ugly; the whole world recognizes the good as the good, yet this is only the bad. [2] The way conceals itself in being nameless. It is the way alone that excels in bestowing and in accomplishing. [41]

THE DAODEJING
The whole world recognizes the beautiful as the beautiful, yet this is only the ugly; the whole world recognizes the good as the good, yet this is only the bad. Thus Something and Nothing produce each other; The difficult and the easy complement each other; The long and the short off-set each other; The high and the low incline towards each other; Note and sound harmonize with each other; Before and after follow each other. Therefore the sage keeps to the deed that consists in taking no action and practises the teaching that uses no words. [2]

THE DAODEJING
Exterminate the sage, discard the wise / And the people will benefit a hundredfold / Exterminate benevolence, discard rectitude / And the people will again be filial / Exterminate ingenuity, discard profit / And there will be no more thieves and bandits. These three, being false adornments, are not enough / And the people must have something to which they can attach themselves / Exhibit the unadorned and embrace the uncarved block / Have little thought of self and as few desires as possible. [19]

THE DAODEJING
The best of all rulers is but a shadowy presence to his subjects / Next comes the ruler they love and praise / Next comes one they fear / Next comes one with whom they take liberties. When there is not enough faith, there is lack of good faith. Hesitant, he does not utter words lightly / When his task is accomplished and his work done / The people all say, 'It happened to us naturally. [17]

THE DAODEJING
Govern the state by being straightforward / Wage war by being crafty / But win the empire by not being meddlesome. / How do I know that it is like that? / By means of this. The more taboos there are in the empire / The poorer the people / The more sharpened tools the people have / The more benighted the state / The more skills the people have / The further novelties multiply / The better known the laws and edicts / The more thieves and robbers there are. Hence the sage says / I take no action and the people are transformed of themselves / I prefer stillness and the people are rectified of themselves / I am not meddlesome and the people prosper of themselves / I am free from desire and the people of themselves become simple like the uncarved block. [57]

THE DAOIST ETHOS


Therefore , what was wrong with society during the Western Zhou and what had to be done?
1.Man has lost his balance. The desire for unnatural things such as wealth and power create conflict among man. 2. 3.Man should be like the uncarved block and take unattached action. We are most powerful in our simplicity. 4. 5.THEREFORE, leaders must not interfere and be but a shadowy presence to their subjects. He must only create an environment for them to be their true selves. He leads by example.

CALVIN THE DAOIST

THE CHINESE AXIAL AGE


Born during the chaotic Eastern Zhou period, Chinese philosophy was primarily preoccupied with restoring social order and harmony.
Zuang Zi (370 301BCE)

Sun Tzu Buddhism enters

Lao Zi

Xun Zi (300 237BCE)

Confucius (551 479BCE)

Mencius (370 290BCE)

Qin Shi Huang Di and the Legalists

Shang

Western Zhou (1027 771BCE)

Eastern Zhou (770 221BCE)

Qi n

Han

AXIAL AGE ( 800 200BCE )

Confucianism is like a solid land, while Daoism is the free sky. Only when we live in between can we get the endless mind. When Confucianism teaches us how to shoulder heavy responsibilities, Daoism teaches us how to turn the heavy weight into total lightness. Yu Dan

PART 3 HINDU RELIGION

Asato Ma Sad Gamaya Tamaso Ma Jyotir Gamaya Mrityor Ma Amritam Gamaya Om Shanti Shanti Shanti.
Lead Us From the Unreal To Real, Lead Us From Darkness To Light, Lead Us From Death To Immortality, Aum(the universal sound of God) Let There Be Peace Peace Peace.
CLICK: LISTEN TO SOME RENDITIONS OF THIS CHANT.

INDUS RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATION


1.Indus River Valley Civilization spanned the years 3300 to 1300BCE. 2. 3.In the absence of a translatable script, discovery and study of Harappan cities pushed archaeology to its limits. It was a great success for the field. 4. 5.The cities were complex for its time. They manufactured bronze, were ruled over by a priestly class, and had a well-developed drainage and sewage system (the first for its time).

ENTER THE VEDIC AGE


( 1500 500BCE )

THE VEDIC AGE: The Aryan People


This period began with the entrance of the semi-nomadic and pastoral Aryans into the Indus River Valley.

THE VEDIC AGE: The Aryan People

THE VEDIC AGE: The Aryan People


In 1780 , William Jones noticed a deep similarity between Sanskrit and Latin .
Meaning Sanskrit three seven father mother snake king god trayas sapta pitar matar sarpa raja devas Latin tres septem pater mater serpens regem divus

The Aryans are credited with the spread, and most likely origin, of the Indo-European languages.

THE VEDIC AGE: The Aryan People


Aryan social structure 1.The Aryans had two basic divisions: noble and common. 2. 3.The non-Aryans comprised a third: the Dasas (or Dravidian). 4. 5.A raja ruled over a society with the assistance of a Chief Priest and a circle of other ritualists. 6. 7.By the Brahmanic Era ( 1000 500BCE ) , the priests gained enormous power and influence.

THE VEDIC AGE: The Caste System

THE VEDIC AGE: The Caste System

The caste system is a ritual or spiritual hierarchy (and may not represent economic or physical or reality). Only the upper three castes can participate in social, political, and religious life. The Brahmin were often at an advantage with their claim to exclusive knowledge of sacred texts.

SAMPLES OF VEDIC TEXTS


( 1 ) shruti [4 Vedas] heard Rig Veda Yajur Veda Atharva Veda Sama Veda ( 2 ) smriti [2 types] remembered puranas Dharmashastras [4 Sections] Samhitas Brahmanas Aranyakas Upanishads [2 puranas] Mahabharata * Ramayana
* contains Bhagavad Gita

THE VEDIC AGE: The Caste System


Thus, a large segment of society was far removed from political and religious life. Brahmin performed rituals and spoke about the gods, but these meant nothing to the ordinary person.

There was a need for social justice and a path for the ordinary person to achieve salvation. This was the ethos of

THE HINDU AXIAL AGE


Indian religion emerged during the Brahmanic age as a reaction to the exclusive, abusive, and alienating ways of the Brahmin class.
Mahavira (540 468BCE)

Harappan Culture 3300 to 1300BCE

Siddhartha Gautama (566 486BCE)

Aryans enter 1500BCE

UPANISHADS BRAHMANIC AGE / LATE VEDIC VEDIC AGE (began 1500BCE)


Caste system emerged

AXIAL AGE ( 800 200BCE )

ACROSS AXIAL AGES The goal of Chinese philosophy The goal of Indian religion

To argue for a more To solve the accessible problems of social spirituality that chaos as they they lacked during observed during the the Brahmanic age. Eastern Zhou.

HINDUISM & BUDDHISM

Fast facts about Hinduism


Third largest religion in the world (about 900 mil). No distinct founder. No single authoritative text. The cow is holy. It has 330 million gods! But all those gods just represent one: Brahman. Lastly: There is no such thing as Hinduism

AN INACCESSIBLE SPIRITUALITY

THE UPANISHADS
Literally means sitting down near A collection of teachings, speculations, parables, and poems about the nature of reality and immortality. One such story is that of Uddalaka and Svetaketu .

THE UPANISHADIC IDEAL


Asato Ma Sad Gamaya Tamaso Ma Jyotir Gamaya Mrityor Ma Amritam Gamaya Om Shanti Shanti Shanti.
Lead Us From the Unreal To Real, Lead Us From Darkness To Light, Lead Us From Death To Immortality, Aum(the universal sound of God) Let There Be Peace Peace Peace.

The pursuit of truth is most important . Dont simply rely on what is told to you. Find out on your own. Seek immortality . Live not so you can simply die, but so you can live forever.

TEACHINGS OF THE UPANISHADS


1.The supreme reality is Brahman. 2.The essence of all things, atman , comes from Brahman. 3.The world is impermanent and illusory (maya ). 4.The soul is trapped in a cycle of birth and rebirth (samsara ). 5.The key to our release is in our actions (karma ). Solution 1 : Social Responsibility The performance of dharma (duty) leads to positive karma and a person achieves merit for the next life and could be reborn to a higher caste. Solution 2 : Ascetic Discipline Since all action, good or bad, only leads to further rebirth, one can choose to renounce all existence to achieve moksha , the liberation from samsara.

THE HINDU LIFE


Four Goals of Life 1.kama (pleasure) 2.artha (wealth, power) 3.dharma (moral harmony) 4.moksha (liberation) Stages of Life 1.Bramacharya (learning): begins at youth 2.Grihasthya (earning): begins upon marriage 3.Vanaprastha (serving): begins with the first grandchild 4.Sanyasa (seeking): begins by leaving home

So to escape the cycle of birth and rebirth, one must choose between two paths. That of dharma and moksha. Is there a third path?

CALVIN ON EXPECTATIONS

BUDDHISM 3 Dharma Seals


1.Dukkha (we can never be satisfied) 2.Annica (the world is in flux) 3.Annata (there is no soul or self)

4 Noble Truths

1.All life is suffering. 2.Expectation from desire is the root of suffering. 3.Desire must be renounced. 4.Renunciation can be achieved by following the noble eight-fold path.

BUDDHISM The Middle Way


Buddhists practice moderation and non-extremism. They walk a path between austerity and indulgence.

The Noble Eight Fold Path views right


right right right right right right right resolves speech conduct livelihood effort recollection meditation

Practice mindfulness .

A DISCIPLINE OF THE MIND


Buddhism was never meant to be a religion. Teaching in the 9th century, Buddhist monk Linji wrote, When you see the Buddha , Kill the Buddha .

THE SPREAD OF BUDDHISM

MAHAYANA BUDDHISM
Emphasizes faith and belief in the Buddha and the virtues of the bodhisattva (future Buddha): compassion and wisdom Believes in bodhisattva (exemplary humans who take on divine qualities) as objects of worship to guide people on their path Believes in rebirth to a Pure Land where one can attain Nirvana -

THERAVADA AND VAJRAYANA


Hinayana ( lesser vehicle ) / Theravada ( doctrine of the elders ) Focus is on individual salvation and the importance of monastic / ascetic life

Vajrayana ( diamond vehicle or True Word Sect ) Stresses the importance of a close relationship between a guru and disciples (symbolized by the Dalai Lama)

PART 4 MONOTHEISM OF THE HEBREWS

WHAT WEVE DISCUSSED SO FAR


CHINESE PHILOSOPHY

Responded to social chaos.


Confucius Lao Zi Western Zhou (1027 771BCE) Eastern Zhou (770 221BCE)

HINDU RELIGION
Made spirituality accessible.

Upanishads BRAHMANIC AGE / LATE VEDIC

The Buddha

AXIAL AGE ( 800 200BCE )

THE HEBREW AXIAL AGE

Saul
722BCE: Assyrians invade Israel

David
Exile in Babylon 586BCE: Babylonians invade Judah

Solomon ISRAEL (north) JUDAH (south) Moses

539BCE: Persians invade Babylon

AXIAL AGE ( 800 200BCE )

MONOLATRY

PROPHETIC REVOLUTION

POST - EXILIC

MESOPOTAMIA

MONOTHEISM
Monotheism is the belief in one God. It is an idea that is older than the Hebrews, but it is in them we see the earliest and clearest expression. Moreover, the Hebrew traditions would pave the way for Judaism, Christianity and Islam.

THE HEBREW STORY


The Hebrews belong to the Semitic language group of people. Other semitic people include: Akkadians, Aramaeans, Amorites, Phoenicians, and the early Arabs. (Semites = son of Shem, one of Noahs sons)

Terah took his son Abram, his grandson Lot, son of Haran, and his daughter-in-law Sarai, the wife of his son Abram, and brought them out of Ur of the Chaldeans, to go to the land of Canaan. (Gen. 11:31)

This suggests a migration of the Hebrew people from Mesopotamia to Syria around 1900 to 1500BCE.

THE HEBREW STORY


Around 1250BCE, the Hebrews found a leader in Moses. His story would end in the forging of the Hebrews covenant with Yahweh.

Thou shalt not have other gods before me .


In terms of Hebrew religious development, this is the first major shift: from polytheism to monolatry. Characteristics of monolatry: 1. transcendent theology 2. moral precepts, rituals, and tabus

THE HEBREW STORY 1050 1025


Invasion of the Philistines Saul unites the tribes of Israel into one kingdom

1000 to 961
Reign of David

961 to 922 .

Reign of Solomon

THE HEBREW STORY


Solomons demise fractured the kingdom into two: Kingdom of Israel ( north ) and Kingdom of Judah ( south ) . Relatively weak as a whole, the kingdoms were weaker apart. In 722, Israel fell to the Assyrians. In 586, Judah fell to the Babylonians.

THE HEBREW AXIAL AGE


HOMEWORK Look up one passage from any of the prophets during the Hebrew Axial Age which does any of the following: 1.Talks about the ethos of their society 2.States a prophecy about the fate of Israel 3.Comments on peoples behavior 4.Sounds like something Confucius, Lao Zi, the Upanishads, or the Buddha would say. 5. Just bring one. Write it down. Prepare for graded recitation.

Elijah ( Book of Kings ), Amos , Hosea , Isaiah , Jeremiah , Ezekiel

THE HEBREW STORY


I hate, I despise your feasts, and take no delight in your solemn assemblies. Even though you offer me your burnt offerings and cereal offerings, I will not accept them, and the peace offerings of your fatted beasts I will not look upon. Take away from me the noise of your songs; to the melody of your harps I will not listen. But let justice roll down like waters, and righteousness like an ever-flowing stream. Amos 5:21-24

THE HEBREW AXIAL AGE


Prophets in the Kingdom of Israel
Elijah . Challenged other cults and announced the oneness and indescribable nature of God. Amos . God is righteous and will judge all nations equally. Amos also preached about social justice. Hosea . Prophesied that due to Israels infidelity (idolatry and sin), Yahweh will send them away.

THE HEBREW AXIAL AGE


Prophets in the Kingdom of Judah
Isaiah . He was concerned with the relationship between worship and ethical behaviour. Also spoke against the nations that threatened Judah. Jeremiah . Announced the coming judgment of God the end of everything He has done since bringing them out of Egypt and the creation of a New Covenant. Ezekiel . Spoke of the destruction and renewal of the Temple.

THE HEBREW AXIAL AGE Prophetic Revolution


As the kingdom of Israel was under threat, a new generation of preachers began to speak of a new message. 1.Thorough-going monotheism 2.God is righteous and just 3.He demands ethical behaviour 1. THEREFORE: Teachings of justice and compassion promoted social unity and cohesion in a time of turmoil.

THE HEBREW STORY


PSALM137
1

By the rivers of Babylon we sat and wept when we remembered Zion. 2 There on the poplars we hung our harps, 3 for there our captors asked us for songs, our tormentors demanded songs of joy; they said, "Sing us one of the songs of Zion!" 4 How can we sing the songs of the LORD while in a foreign land? 5 If I forget you, O Jerusalem, may my right hand forget its skill . 6 May my tongue cling to the roof of my mouth if I do not remember you, if I do not consider Jerusalem my highest joy. 7 Remember, O LORD, what the Edomites did on the day Jerusalem fell. "Tear it down," they cried, "tear it down to its foundations!" 8 O Daughter of Babylon, doomed to destruction, happy is he who repays you

THE HEBREW STORY


Post - Exilic Age
Upon being liberated by the Persians in 539BCE, the Israelites rebuilt the Temple of Jerusalem. Message of the Post-Exilic Age: 1.Eschatological doctrines, or thoughts on the end of time. oThe coming of a Messiah o

Second Temple Judaism

From the period of 515BCE to 70CE, certain developments emerged in Judaism that would affect the other Abrahamic faiths: the authority of a sacred text, centrality of law and morality in religion, the synagogue, and apocalyptic views of the future.

SHEMA YISRAEL
Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God, the LORD is one.
5Love

the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength.
6These

commandments that I give you today are to be upon your hearts.


7Impress

them on your children. Talk about them when you sit at home and when you walk along the road, when you lie down and when you get up.
8Tie

them as symbols on your hands and bind them on your foreheads.


9Write

them on the doorframes of your houses and on your gates. Deuteronomy 6:4-9

END

INSIGHTS FROM THE AXIAL AGE

IN CONCLUSION
CHINESE PHILOSOPHY
Responded to social chaos.
WESTERN ZHOU Confucius Lao Zi EASTERN ZHOU

HINDU RELIGION
Made spirituality accessible.
Upanishads The Buddha

BRAHMANIC AGE / LATE VEDIC

HEBREW MONOTHEISM
United a people.

PROPHETIC REVOLUTION

POST-EXILIC AGE

AXIAL AGE ( 800 200BCE )

CLOSING THOUGHTS
The Axial Age was that period in human history when the major religious traditions emerged. Happened at around the same time Happened around the same kind of place Happened because of a crisis at that time In solving the problems of their times, the Axial Age sages dug deep. They looked inward . They pushed us to the limits of our consciousness, hence pushing the boundaries of what was possible in society.

ethos = ethics

END OF PRESENTATION
Martin Benedict Perez 2010

SOME OF MY OWN INSIGHTS

Religion is about ethics .


When you see the Buddha, kill the Buddha. Buddhist Master Linji Once, having been asked by the Pharisees when the kingdom of God would come, Jesus replied, "The kingdom of God does not come with your careful observation,nor will people say, 'Here it is,' or 'There it is,' because the kingdom of God is withinyou. (Luke 17:20-21)

SOME OF MY OWN INSIGHTS

Religion is about ethics . Ethics shape society . And society will always leave us with something to think about .

POVERTY AND INEQUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION

WAR AND VIOLENCE

WEAK GOVERNMENTS

RELIGIOUS INTOLERANCE