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# Optimal Placement of Wind

## Turbines Using Genetic Algorithms

Michael Case, North Georgia College

Outline

Background

Problem

Genetic Algorithm

## Modeling of Wind Farm

Results

MATLAB Compiler

Future Research

Future of Wind Turbines in U.S.
Courtesy of U.S. Department of Energy

good wind areas

## These areas have the

potential to supply more than
one and a half times the
current electricity
consumption of the United
States

## This is why the development

of placement and
performance algorithms will
be essential in escalating the
development of turbine
technology.

Wind Energy Research and Development

## A very conventional wind

farm located in Denmark.

## The method used to the

position the turbines seen
here produces results similar
to the genetic algorithm
method employed here.
http://www.afm.dtu.dk/wind/turbines/gallery.htm

Offshore Turbine Development

## Denmark is one of the

Turbine technology, and is
wind farm development.

## D.O.E. plans to convert

abandoned offshore oil rigs
into wind farms off the
in action.
http://www.afm.dtu.dk/wind/turbines/gallery.htm

Why Use Genetic Algorithms?

## Efficiency is affected by positioning in wind

farms for multi-megawatt energy production

## Genetic Algorithms optimize the power output

without dependence on gradients or local
maxima
( )
( )

i
0
i
i
u P
u P
Efficiency

The Problem

## To use genetic search algorithms to support the

findings of scientists in the wind industry who have
sought to find the optimal positioning for wind
turbines based on cost and power output. Genetic
Algorithms converge rapidly for the NP-Complete
class of problems, as more parameters are introduced
into a system genetic algorithms usually become more
and more efficient then other search algorithms that
have been used to solve nonlinear problems of this
class, which makes it ideal for our research involving
turbine placement.

Genetic Algorithm

## Initially- Generate random population of n chromosomes

(sqrt(200)*n, preferably)

the population

## New population-Create a new population by repeating

following steps until the new population is complete

Genetic Algorithms

## Selection- Chromosomes from a population are selected

according to their fitness (more fit individuals have greater
chance)

## See roulette wheel for example

No. String Fitness % of Total
1 01101 169 14.4
2 11000 576 49.2
3 01000 64 5.5
4 10011 361 30.9
Total 1170 100.0

Genetic Algorithms

## Crossover- With a crossover probability cross over the

parents to form new offspring (children). If no crossover
was performed, offspring is the exact copy of parents. We
used a crossover rate of .75.
Chromosome 1 11011 | 00100110110
Chromosome 2 11011 | 11000011110
Offspring 1 11011 | 11000011110
Offspring 2 11011 | 00100110110

Genetic Algorithms

## Mutation- With a mutation probability mutate new offspring

at each locus (position in chromosome). It is important to
keep the mutation rate low (.001) to keep the search from
becoming random.
Original offspring 1 1101111000011110
Original offspring 2 1101100100110110
Mutated offspring 1 1100111000011110
Mutated offspring 2 1101101100110110

Genetic Algorithm

## Replacement- Use new generated population for a further

run of the algorithm

## Evaluate-If the end condition is satisfied, stop, and return

the best solution in current population

## Loop- Continue evaluating Fitness until the search

terminates at 100%efficiency or the number of generations
you assign is reached

Modeling a Wind Farm
]
]
]
]
]
]
]

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
+

2
1
0
1
2
1
r
x
a
u u

## u = wind speed downstream

from the turbine
u
0
= initial wind speed
= entertainment constant
=axial induction
r
1
x = distance downstream the
turbine
) 1 ( 4 a a C
T

The turbine thrust coefficient and the
the axial induction factor , and the
r
, by the Betz relations.
Velocity Downstream for a
single turbine:
Thrust Coefficient:

Modeling a Wind Farm
a
a
R r
r
2 1
1
1

R
r
Entertainment Constant:

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

0
ln
5 . 0
z
z

z
0
=surface roughness of the site
z = hub height of turbine
Resulting Velocity of n Turbines:
2
1
0 0
1 1

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

n
i
i
u
u
u
u
Assuming that the K.E. deficit of a
mixed wake is equal to the sum of the
energy deficits.

Cost and Fitness Functions
2
tot
tot
1
tot
P
cost
P
1
objective w w +

,
`

.
|
+

2
00174 . 0
tot
3
1
3
2
cost
t
N
t
e N
Cost Function:
P
tot
=total Power
N
t
=Number of Turbines
Cost
tot
=yearly cost

1,2
=act as weights for the fitness function.
Fitness Function:

Results

Number of turbines is 50

Efficiency is 60.5%

## Total power output is 15,669 kWyear

0
u
X X X X X
X X X
X X X X X X
X X X
X X X X X
X X X X X X
X X X X X X
X X X X X X X
X X X X X X
X X X
Randomly Generated Result

Number of turbines is 30

Efficiency is 92%

## Total power output is 14,310 kWyear

0
u
X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X
GA Generated Result

The MATLAB Compiler

## The MATLAB Compiler

is a very powerful tool
that can be used to create
code from M-Files to C,
C++, or Fortran 90/95 for
a various number of
platforms, and will allow
for thousands of
generations to be run on
SP3 here at CSIT. http://www.csit.fsu.edu/supercomputer/fsu-sp.html

Future Research

## Parametric study of objective function and cost functions

for various turbine models on land and sea

techniques

process