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DRIVE-CLiQ is a proprietary Siemens network, based on 100Mbit/s Ethernet, but without

much of the lost packet and collision handling capability. This allows for a high speed
deterministic system, but means that the protocol is not suitable for wireless or slip-ring

As well as connecting motors, drive modules and Control Units, DRIVE-CLiQ allows the
connection of additional components such as Sensor Modules and Terminal Modules

Siemens have made the DRIVE-CLiQ protocol available to third-party encoder

manufacturers. Further information can be found in article 65402168 and article 60179485

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PROFINET E PROFIBUS: quali differenze?

Differenze tra PROFINET e PROFIBUS
Profibus, sta per Process Field Bus cioè un bus di campo (da qui: field bus). È stato
sviluppato da Siemens e da un consorzio di altre aziende per l'automazione industriale di
processo. Profibus si traduce praticamente in una rete di trasmissione dati / comunicazione
mono-master e multi slave. Utilizzando un solo cavo ha il vantaggio di ridurre il cablaggio tra
i nodi della rete ed è principalmente utilizzato per collegare il Master (PLC) con utenze I/O
remote. I cavi LAPP per Profibus, sono gli UNITRONIC® BUS PB, sono schermati e sono di
colore viola. Sono disponibili per posa fissa, per catena portacavo, per torsione anche per
ambienti gravosi con presenza di alte e basse temperature e di agenti chimici.

ProfiNet sta per Process Field Net, nasce come evoluzione di Profibus in modo da
permettere il “dialogo” tra segmenti diversi di bus di campo utilizzando Ethernet. Ethernet
permette di collegare il “campo” ai sistemi gestionali dell’azienda con una struttura
gerarchica e ha il vantaggio di fornire i dati in tempi brevissimi fino anche a meno di 1ms. I
cavi LAPP per Profinet sono identificati dal Brand ETHERLINE® e come i cavi per Profibus
sono costruiti per gli ambienti industriali gravosi.

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Interfacing to peripherals is implemented by PROFINET IO. It defines the communication with field connected
peripheral devices. Its basis is a cascading real-time concept. PROFINET IO defines the entire data
exchange between controllers (devices called "IO-Controller") and the devices (devices called "IO-Deces").

Conformity Classes (CC)

Applications with Profinet IO can be divided according to the international standard IEC 61784-2 into three
conformity classes:
In Class A (CC-A), only the devices are certified. A manufacturer certificate is sufficient for the network
infrastructure. This is why structured cabling or a wireless local area network for mobile subscribers can also
be used. Typical applications can be found in infrastructure (e.g. motorway or railway tunnels) or in building

Class B (CC-B) stipulates that the network infrastructure also includes certified products and is structured
according to the guidelines of Profinet IO. Shielded cables increase robustness and switches with
management functions facilitate network diagnostics and allow the network topology to be captured as
desired for controlling a production line or machine. Process automation requires increased availability, which
can be achieved through media and system redundancy.

With Class C (CC-C), positioning systems can be implemented with additional bandwidth reservation and
application synchronization

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Three protocol levels are defined:
TCP/IP for non time-critical data and the commissioning of a plant [2] with reaction times in the
range of 100 ms
RT (Real-Time) protocol for PROFINET IO applications [2] up to 10 ms cycle times
IRT (Isochronous Real-Time) for PROFINET IO applications in drive systems [2] with cycles
times of less than 1 ms

Station Description
The characteristics of an IO-Device are described by the device manufacturer in a General
Station Description (GSD) file. The language used for this purpose is the GSDML (GSD
Markup Language) - an XML based language. The GSD file provides the supervision
software with a basis for planning the configuration of a PROFINET IO system.

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IO connection life-cycle
The PROFINET IO connection life-cycle describes the connection between a PROFINET IO
Controller and IO Device. The connection allows the cyclic exchange of process IO data, and
the acyclic handling of alarms. The PROFINET IO connection life-cycle consists of address
resolution, connection establishment, parameterization, process IO data exchange / alarm
handling, and termination.

Address resolution
A PROFINET IO device is identified on the PROFINET network by its station name.
Connection establishment, parameterization and alarm handling are implemented with
User Datagram Protocol (UDP), which requires that the device also be assigned an
IP address. After identifying the device by its station name, the IO controller assigns the pre-
configured IP address to the device.

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IO addressing
Every module within a PROFINET network has three addresses:

MAC address
IP address
Device name, a logical name for the module within the total configuration

Because PROFINET uses TCP/IP a MAC and IP address are used. A MAC address changes
if the device is replaced. An IP address is a form of network addressing which may be
dynamically assigned. Because there was a need for a fixed address a device name is used.

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PROFIsafe (PROFIBUS safety or PROFINET safety) is a safety communication technology for distributed
automation. Its specification for PROFIBUS DP and PROFIBUS PA was published first in 1999. Extensions for the
Ethernet based PROFINET IO followed in 2005.
The IEC 61508 standard specified how microcontrollers and software can be used in safety automation. This
triggered the development of PROFIsafe, which was to integrate safety into the existing standard PROFIBUS
fieldbus technologies. PROFIsafe is designed as a separate layer on top of the fieldbus application layer to reduce
the probability of data transmission errors. PROFIsafe messages use standard fieldbus cables and messages.
PROFIsafe does not depend on error detection mechanisms of underlying transmission channels, and thus supports
securing of whole communication paths, including backplanes inside controllers or remote I/O. PROFIsafe coined the
term "Black Channel" for this concept, which was adopted by other safety fieldbusses. PROFIsafe can be used in
safety applications up to Safety Integrity Level 3 (SIL) according to IEC 61508, Performance Level "e" (PL) according
to ISO 13849, or Category 4 according to EN 954-1.
PROFIsafe uses error and failure detection mechanisms such as:
Consecutive numbering
Timeout monitoring
Source/destination authentication
Cyclic redundancy checking (CRC)
PROFIsafe was standardized in IEC 61784-3-3 and Chinese standard (GB/Z 20830-2007).
PROFIsafe runs its own web portal with more details on the technology and hints for device developers, integrators
and end users. The PROFIsafe standard is maintained, updated and marketed by PROFIBUS International, a non-
profit organisation administered from Karlsruhe in Germany.

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