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By : Khaled Mahmoud Mohamed Supervision : Pro.Dr.

Mahmoud El Kadi

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF SANITARY LANDFILL

1 .scope:
Designation, design and construction of a sanitary landfill for 6th October city to reduce the waste impact to the environment. 2. Purpose: To minimize the impact of any hazardous waste and solid waste (refuse, trash, and garbage) on the environment and human health.

3-Design Goals
Although the design guidelines presented herein for hazardous waste landfills represent the minimum requirements, they should be met to fulfill the following goals: To serve the disposal needs of a specific community or region. To be capable of being characterized, modeled, analyzed, and monitored. To use landfill space efficiently and extend site life as much as is practical. To protect groundwater quality by eliminating leachate discharge.

3-Design Goals (cond):


To protect air quality and generate energy by installing a landfill gas recovery system (when applicable). To minimize dumping time for site users to reduce potential nuisance conditions for neighbors. To make construction, operation and closure less technically difficult and more cost-effective To provide flexibility for innovation and alternatives. To provide a plan for using the land once the site is closed

4. Selection Of Landfill:
Proper landfill site selection is the fundamental step in solid waste disposal and the protection of the environment, public health and quality of life Proper landfill site selection should ensure against nuisances and adverse long-term effects. well-selected landfill site will generally facilitate an uncomplicated design and provide ample cover material

4.1 The Generic Site Selection Process:


- The size (land area) and the strategic location of the proposed site: to ensure that the facility meets the disposal need. While the size depends on the waste stream over the predicted site life and provision for sufficient buffer zones. - Strategic location: is determined by the waste generation areas to be served and transport routes. It is economically useful to establish the proposed facility as close to the generation areas as possible, with a view to minimizing transport costs.

The Generic Site Selection Process( cond):


-Public Participation Process (PPP): should be initiated and maintained throughout the site selection process. This may, however, be controversial, as making the public aware too early can compromise the results:
It may stir up public and political resistance, i.e. the not in my back yard. lead to land speculation and soaring land prices losing a competitive edge in the case of a private sector contractor.

On the other hand, not to inform the public early on or presenting then with a fait accompli is guaranteed to generate mistrust and even more resistance. Unless dictated by local regulations, therefore, informing the public is a case-specific issue.

The Generic Site Selection Process( cond):


-Fatal Flaws: are defined as phenomena that prohibit the development of an environmentally or publicly acceptable waste disposal facility except at excessive cost. -The Feasibility Study: may comprise many administrative and technical aspects, which depend on local legislation. include a preliminary Geohydrological Investigation environmental impact assessment (EIA) detailed design Depending on local legislation, sophistication and know-how of the authorities or fund donors

5. Determination of landfills volume in 6th October city:


The population in 6th October in 2009 about 500.000 The landfill will designed for five years service The annual increase rate in population 2.5% The population in 6thoctober after 5 years will be: 565705 The average of generation of waste \day from one body 1 km

Determination of landfills volume in 6th October city (cond):


So the total waste from 6th October city \day 565705 km =56.5ton For one year, total waste =20622.5 ton For five year total waste =103112.5 ton If density of waste approach to 200 km/m3 The volume corresponding waste weight 103112.5 ton and density 200km/m3 about 515562.5 m3

Determination of landfills volume in 6th October city (cond):


After compression of waste the density will approach to 500 km /m3 so the volume corresponding waste weight 103112.5 ton and density 500km /m3 = 206225 m3 If we suppose that area of landfill will be 3 fed an =13500 m2 so the depth will be about 15.5 m

5.1 Location of 6th October city landfill:

5.1 Location of 6th October city landfill (cond):


-The landfill will located at 20 km east to 6th October City between Alex Cairo desert road and wehat Giza desert road where no any object from of the environment can affected by impact of landfill

6-Design Steps
6.1- Determine Hazardous Waste Generation, Quantities, and Characteristics: -The purpose of this inventory is to review both existing and projected data on hazardous waste generation, quantities, and characteristics for the region serviced by the proposed landfill -the hazardous waste may be characterized on the basis of risk they pose: High-risk wastes: contain significant concentrations of constituents that are highly toxic, mobile, persistent and/or bio-accumulative, e.g. chlorinated solvents, waste from metal degreasing, cyanide waste, dioxin-based waste, and PCB (poly-chlorinated biphenyl) waste.

6.1- Determine Hazardous Waste Generation, Quantities, and Characteristics(cond): Intermediate risk wastes: contain metal hydroxide sludge (excluding Cr6+ which is under the high-risk waste due to its extreme toxicity). The toxic metals of this category are relatively insoluble with low mobility Low risk wastes: include primarily high volume low hazard wastes and some putrescible wastes. One may add to such characterization what we call extremely hazardous

Determine Hazardous Waste Generation, Quantities, and Characteristics(cond):


Waste characteristics will provide important design information: Hazardous waste ratings have different disposal requirements. Special storage areas for certain types of waste streams that might be further used in daily cover or final cover operations Waste preparation for landfill disposal Waste type affects the handling techniques Waste type affects daily operating procedures The size of the waste stream affect the consequent size of the operation and hence the design.

Determine Hazardous Waste Generation, Quantities, and Characteristics(cond):


Determine the need for disposal capacity. Capacity is a function of present and future waste generation. Waste type affects cover requirements Leachate treatment may be more complex due to the wide variety of waste types and constituents Due to volatility or for other reasons, hazardous materials may require immediate cover Segregation by type and chemical characteristics of wastes is usually practiced to prevent undesirable reactions within the landfill Some wastes are not amenable to detoxification may be encapsulated in some permanent material prior to landfill disposal. Encapsulation materials include concrete, molten asphalt and plastics (polyethylene)

6.2 Compile Information for Potential Sites:


6.2.1 Preparation of Base Maps of Existing Conditions on and Near Sites:
Base maps usually show the landfill location in relation to surrounding waste generation and communities roads and other features Contour maps show drainage patterns adjacent to and through the proposed disposal sites must be prepared Areas with excessive slope or potential direct overland flow from a site to surface waters must be carefully evaluated.

6.2.1 Preparation of Base Maps of Existing Conditions on and Near Sites:


Utility corridors, buildings, wells, roads and other features. Drainage ways. Surface water and wetlands.

6.3 Design preparation :


The design report must address matters such as: the proposed site boundaries, buffer area, waste fill area and contours, surface water control works, on-site roads and structures, and final cover design, the design of any liner and leachate collection system or landfill gas control works needed for the site, monitoring facilities for groundwater, leachate and surface water, a contingency plan for leachate control, and site closure and post-closure care requirements.

6.4 Compile Hydrogeological Information:


Water movement in the unsaturated zone of soil in arid regions is complex rates and directions of water movement can be defined by monitoring water content, water potential, humidity, and temperature Water content indicates directions of water movement Water moves through soil in liquid and vapor forms, and the two forms can move simultaneously as a consequence of water-potential, humidity, and temperature gradients in the soil.

6.4 Compile Hydrogeological Information:


hydrologic conditions at and near the waste-burial site in arid and hyper-arid regions suggested that low average annual precipitation and high average annual evaporation would prevent water from percolating downward For purposes of designing a hazardous waste landfill in an arid site, the following: Hydrogeological information are required characteristics, bedrock, and groundwater. ,soil

6. 5 Compile Climatologically Data:


Weather conditions are important considerations in the design of landfills: Surface water control is directly dependent on precipitation, infiltration and evaporation. Leachate control will also be directly influenced by precipitation, along with evaporation and transpiration Site access may be affected by wet or foggy weather conditions

Compile Climatologically Data:


Climatological data can usually be obtained from the local or national weather observers. Important Climatological data include: Precipitation Evaporation Temperature, and Wind direction

6.6 Identify Local Regulations and Design Standards


Regulations and design standards for landfill constructions include but not limited to loading rates, frequency of cover, distances to residences, roads, surface water and airports, monitoring, groundwater quality standards, building codes, and contents of application for permit should be consulted with concerned department.

6 .7 Site Layout Development


site layout begins with geotechnical information, which includes data on the surrounding site geology, hydrology and soils. data describing subsurface formations and groundwater conditions are diagrammed to present an interpretation of the subsurface conditions at the planned site.

6.8 Design of Filling Area


Designing the working face requires consideration of the following: Landfilling method. Cell width, depth, length, fill depth, liner thickness, interim cover soil thickness, and final soil cover thickness. Operational features such as use of cover soil, method of cover application, need for imported soil, equipment requirements, and personnel requirements. daily quantity (tons/day), traffic volumes (vehicles/day), and landfill equipment

6.9 Prepare Operations and Maintenance Plan:


An Operations and Maintenance Plan covers the following subjects:
Describe operations and maintenance procedures for equipment Describe landfill operations and prepare development plan for the landfill area showing cell and lift development, temporary access roads, and intermediate and final cover development.

7- Design feature:

Design feature
7.1 Liner system:
The primary purpose of the liner system is to isolate the landfill contents from the environment and, therefore, to protect the soil and ground water from pollution originating in the landfill. Landfill liners are designed and constructed to create a barrier between the waste and the environment and to drain the leachate to collection and treatment facilities.

Design feature
Types of liner system landfill: A- single-liner system B-composite liner system C- double-liner system

Design feature

Design feature

Design feature

Design feature
7.1.1Liner components:
Clay: To protect the ground water from landfill contaminants -clay liners are constructed as a simple liner that is twoto five-feet thick. In composite and double liners -effectiveness of clay liners can be reduced by fractures induced by drying out and the presence of some chemicals. -The efficiency of clay liners can be maximized by laying the clay down in four- to six-inch layers and then compacting each layer with a heavy roller.

Design feature
Liner components(cond): Geomembranes: Geomembranes are also called flexible
Flexible Membrane liners (FML). These liners are constructed from various plastic materials, including polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE). This material is strong, resistant to most chemicals, and is considered to be impermeable to water. Therefore, HDPE minimizes the transfer of leachate from the landfill to the environment

Design feature
-Major factors to consider in membrane selection include the following:
Weathering resistance Soil compatibility Resistance to biological attack Physical suitability Compatibility with waste Resistance to UV Adequate tensile strength Tear, puncture and creep resistance Adequate thickness Adequate elongation properties High seam strength Low permeability Base of field seaming

Design feature
Geomembranes: Geomembranes are also called flexible

Design feature
Geotextiles: In landfill liners, Geotextiles are used to
Prevent the movement of small soil and refuse particles into the leachate collection layers and to protect geomembrane from punctures allow the movement of water but trap particles to reduce clogging in the leachate collection system.

Geosynthetic Clay Liner (GCL): Geosynthetic clay


These liners consist of a thin clay layer (four to six millimeters) between two layers of a geotextile. These liners can be installed more quickly than traditional compacted clay liners, and the efficiency of these liners is impacted less by freeze-

Design feature
Geonet: A geonet is a plastic net-like drainage blanket Which may be used in landfill liners in place of sand or gravel for the leachate collection layer? Sand and gravel are usually used due to cost considerations, and because geonets are more susceptible to clogging by small particles. This clogging would impair the performance of the leachate collection system.

Design feature
Final Cover System Cover systems are designed to minimize leachate generation by minimizing water infiltration from precipitation, limit the uncontrolled release of landfill gases -Designing the final cover system must meet the following criteria: Minimum slopes of 2% and maximum slopes of 30% Contain landfill gas and enhance gas collection and recovery efforts Minimize erosion Minimize surface water infiltration Promote efficient surface water drainage and runoff Maintain stability on side slopes, and Enhance site aesthetics

Design feature
Final Cover System(cond):
-Describe each layer of the cover system, including: Foundation Layer The foundation layer will serve as a base for either a lowpermeability soil layer Low Permeability Layer Design the low permeability layer to minimize moisture infiltration, to enhance landfill gas containment and control Drainage Layer Design the drainage layer to minimize infiltration, leachate generation, slope stability problems, erosion, and to enhance access for maintenance equipment Protective Layer An additional soil layer may be used to protect low-permeability layers from physical or environmental damage.

Design feature
Final Cover System(cond):
Topsoil Layer The primary function of the topsoil layer is to provide an optimal growing medium for desirable vegetation. Topsoil may be amended with wood waste, sewage sludge, or compost. Soil amendments should not cause odors, airborn contaminants or surface water quality problems. Vegetative Layer The vegetative layer's main functions are to minimize erosion and long-term maintenance, and to maximize evapotranspiration

Design feature
Final Cover System(cond):

Leachate collection systems:


collection system is composed of sand and gravel or a geonet. A geonet is a plastic net-like drainage blanket. this layer is a series of leachate collection pipes to drain the leachate from the landfill to holding tanks for storage and eventual treatment In double-liner systems, the upper drainage layer is the leachate collection system, and the lower drainage layer is the leak detection system. The leak detection layer contains a second set of drainage pipes

Leachate collection systems:


Leachate generation depends on :
the availability of water landfill surface conditions waste conditions underlying soil conditions

Landfills are classified according to their potential of generating leachate into two types:
.

1.landfills with sporadic leachate generation 2. landfills with significant leachate generation.

Leachate collection systems:


1-landfills with sporadic leachate generation:
Sporadic leachate generation is the result of unusual wet periods or poor site drainage. In this case, the leachate is controlled by other economical means rather than the installation of a costly leachate management system

2- landfills with significant leachate generation:


in the case of significant leachate generation, a leachate management system would be a minimum requirement in landfill design.

Leachate collection systems:


7.2.1 Design Criteria for the Leachate Collection and Removal System (LCRS)
system should be sized in accordance with a water balance calculation system should include a detection system located at the lowest elevation of the fill area clean-out units should be part of the system The piping and fittings should be manufactured of a material resistant to the mechanical, biological thermal and chemical stresses that may occur in the landfill environment Filters should be used to control clogging of the pipes.

Leachate collection systems:


7.2.1 Design Criteria for the Leachate Collection and Removal System (LCRS)(cond):
Leachate collection pipe minimum 6-inch diameter, schedule 80 or equivalent strength pipe. Minimum slopes for collection pipes: 1% after predicted settlement. Minimum slopes for leachate drainage layer: 2% after foundation settlement. Manhole/cleanout spacing: Should be compatible with available cleanout equipment. At a minimum, provide cleanouts at both ends of all leachate collection pipes and sweep bends to accommodate cleanout equipment

Leachate collection systems:

Leachate collection systems:


7.2.2 Leachate Holding Tanks and Conveyance Pipelines
Leachate holding tanks are impoundments connected with the leachate pipeline system and in which the leachate is collected for sometime to be further conveyed to a leachate treatment unite to be prepared for final disposal or reuse. The leachate holding tanks have more advantages over conventional leachate evaporation lakes or leachate collection ponds. The later represent a threat to air, soil and groundwater quality. Leachate Evaporation lakes and ponds may also have adverse impacts on the biodiversity particularly birds.

Leachate collection systems:


7.2.2 Leachate Holding Tanks and Conveyance Pipelines

7.3 Gas Control


hazardous waste landfills contain negligible amount of organic waste, therefore the potential for gas emissions is not likely. mixing of waste categories is a common practice. Hazardous wastes, whether intentionally or not, are mixed with municipal solid wastes in many waste disposal practices municipal wastes might also be mixed with wastes categorized as hazardous For this reason elimination of municipal and/or organic wastes is not guaranteed consequently gas emissions are a valid probability.

7.3 Gas Control


The designer of a hazardous waste landfill in a developing country must take into consideration such miss action if the total capacity of the landfill exceeds 100,000 tones. For landfills exceeding this total capacity an assessment of the potential emissions of methane gas emissions and the non methane organic compounds (NMOCs) shall be carried out If the assessment indicates that the emission of NMOCs exceeds or is expected to exceed 150 tones/year, the installation and operation of landfill gas recovery and management systems are mandatory.

7.3 Gas Control


a gas recovery and management system is installed direct venting to the air of gases collected must be avoided. Combustion, even by incineration or flaring to reduce odours and greenhouse gas emissions.

7.4 Access Roads


constructed and maintained access road to and from the site road system within the landfill site capable of supporting all vehicles hauling waste are required during the operating life of the landfill Roads should be laid out to eliminate crossing of traffic and consequent tie-ups. Waiting space should be provided near the scales and parking areas should be provided for employee vehicles and landfill equipment

Sequence of construction

Sequence of construction

Sequence of construction

Sequence of construction

Sequence of construction

Sequence of construction

Sequence of construction

Sequence of construction

Sequence of construction

Sequence of construction

Sequence of construction

Sequence of construction

Sequence of construction

Sequence of construction

Sequence of construction

Reference
Reference:
1. Preparation of a Set of Tools for the Selection, Design and Operation of Hazardous Waste Landfills in Hyper-Dry areas Prepared by Regional Center for Training And Technology Transfer for the Arab States In Egypt (Bcrc-Cairo) 2. Requirements For Hazardous Waste Landfill Design, Construction, And Closure August 1989Center For Environmental Research Information Office Of Research And Development U.S. Environmental Protecting Agency Cincinnati, OH 45268 3. Landfill Types and Liner Systems Kerry L. Hughes, Ann D. Christy, And Joe E. Heimlich

Thank you