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Professional Nursing 2

DGN 103/2
Course coordinator :

PN. NOOR AINI


HUSSAIN
GROUP 3
MEMBERS
MANISAH MAHMOOD
LATIFAH GHAZALI
MUNIYATI MUSA (L)
JOANNA JOSEPH
MUHAMMAD NAIM
NUR NADIA NABILA
PERSONAL VALUES
THAT INFLUENCED
ETHICAL DECISION
MAKING IN NURSING
PRACTICE
Objectives
 to describe ethics
 to describe characteristic of ethical
dilemma
 to define decision making
 to define personal values
 to define ethical decision making
 to define process in ethical decision
making
 to define the role of ethical decision model
Ethic
The philosophical study of
morality
 Is a system of valued
behaviors and beliefs for
determining right or wrong
and for making judgments
about what should be done to
or for other human beings
Characteristic of ethical
dilemma
Choice between equally undesirable alternative
Different courses of action possible
Involves valid judgments about action or
consequences
Data will not help resolve issue
Different sources (psychology, theology) offer
resolution
Unfavorable outcomes will result
Choices have for effecting on person,
relationship and
society
Resources which must be allocated are finite or
limited
Can be resolved not solved
Definition of decision making

Critical-thinking process for


choosing the best actions to meet a
desired goal. Decision must be
made whenever several mutually
exclusive choices are available or
when there is an opinion to act or
not
Personal Values
•Personal values influence our daily lives
•When nurses choose to be involved in
ethical decision making , they can’t escape
the task of clarifying their own values.
•Not all of us are ready to examine the very
roots of our beliefs.
•What if I don’t like what I find?
•What if I don’t want to change?
•The decision model does not acquire that
people necessarily change what they value
•It does require that you be willing to clearly
state what it is you value and why
 Some views of nursing as a profession
include the belief that nurses are not
supposed to share any personal
information with patients (or become
emotionally involved)
 This may interfere with the nurses ability
to be objective in providing needed patient
care
 However, there may also be a time and
place for the sharing the personal value
positions between a health professional
and a patient
Personal Value Set : Who Am I?
 Socrates said, “The unexamined life is not worth
living.”
 An inscription at the Delphic Oracle said, “Know
thyself.”
 If nursing is to be ethical, nurses must know ethics
 As professionals, nurses need to know
themselves – what they believe in and value
 If nurses are going to be ethical, they must know
themselves
 Sometimes psychotherapy helps one understand
the hidden springs of one’s belief’s, values, and
actions.
Cont..
 Sometimes a straight question will help one see where
a moral value come from
 Such question include, “Can I live with this?” or “Why
does this bother me?” “What would I do (or want done)
in this situation?”
 The important thing to remember is that nurses are
persons with personal values sets that influences how
they practice the profession of nursing
 We need to know what we value in life, in health,
during illness, and in death
 Values, as defined by Simon and Clark, are a set of
personal beliefs and attitudes about the truth, beauty,
or worth of and thought, object, or behavior
Values and Principle Underlying The
Decision-Making Process
The Principle of Self-Determination
- Patient self-determination is widely
accepted patient as an important value
to respected and enhance by nurses
and other participants in health care
decisions .

The Principle of Well-Being


- Serving the patient’s well-being
through improving health is another
justifying reason or warrant for nursing
and all other health care.
Cont..
The Principle Of Equity
- The ideal that people be
treated “fairly and equally with
all concerned” has implications
for the consumers and provider
of health care.
Common personal values
 Accomplishment, Success  Flair
 Accountability  Freedom
 Accuracy  Friendship
 Adventure  Fun
 All for one & one for all  Global view
 Beauty  Good will
 Calm, quietude, peace  Goodness
 Challenge  Gratitude
 Change  Hard work
 Cleanliness, orderliness  Harmony
 Collaboration  Honesty
 Commitment  Honor
 Communication  Independence
 Community  Inner peace, calm, quietude
 Competence  Innovation
 Competition  Integrity
 Concern for others  Justice
 Content over form  Knowledge
 Continuous improvement  Leadership
 Cooperation  Love, Romance
 Coordination  Loyalty
 Country, love of (patriotism)  Maximum utilization
 Creativity (of time, resources)
 Customer satisfaction  Meaning
 Decisiveness  Merit
 Delight of being, joy  Money
 Democracy  Openness
 Discipline  Peace, Non-violence
 Discovery  Perfection (e.g. of details)
 Ease of Use  Personal Growth
 Efficiency  Pleasure
 Equality  Positive attitude
 Excellence  Power
 Fairness  Practicality
 Faith  Preservation
 Family  Privacy
 Family feeling  Problem Solving
Cont..
 Progress  Speed
 Prosperity, Wealth  Spirit in life (using)
 Punctuality  Stability
 Quality of work  Standardization
 Regularity Resourcefulness  Status
 Respect for others  Strength
 Responsiveness Succeed; A will to-
Success, Achievement
 Results-oriented
 Systemization
 Rule of Law
 Teamwork
 Safety
 Timeliness
 Satisfying others
 Security
 Tolerance
 Tradition
 Self-givingness
 Tranquility
 Self-reliance
 Trust
 Service
(to others, society)  Truth
 Simplicity  Unity
 Skill  Variety
 Wisdom
THE ROLE OF DECISION
MAKING
 Every competence adult has the right
to decide what will be done with his or
her person to accept, terminate or
refuse treatment.
 The patient’s care, safety and well-
being are the nurses primary
commitment.
 The patient in the centre of professional
scrutiny and activity with full patient
involvement, understanding and
agreement.
 The present and increasing complexity
of health care requires an
Ethical decision making

We accept certain assumption:

 All nursing practice involve in making ethical


decision
 Person-centre care demand a willingness to
confront ethical dilemmas
 Person can be assisted to achieve higher level
of moral reasoning
 There is no one “correct “ ethical theory
 Personal and professional values influenced
ethical decision
Ethical decision-making model
 Identify the ethical issue
 Recognize assumption, values
 Clarify personal/professional
moral/ethical codes
 Consider consequences
 Make a decision, take action
Steps in Ethical Decision Making

 Assessment
 Plan
 Implement
 Evaluate
assessment
 Visioning
 Mentoring
 Solution focused
 Critical thinking
 Self awareness
 System and practice review
PLAN
 Facilitation
 Enabling health care teams
 Research or development plan
 Learning pathways
Implement
 Critical companionship
 Communication
 Support of colleagues
 Interdisciplinary
 Sharing expertise
Evaluate
o Risk management
o Evidence based practice
o Learning in and through practice
o Building block for practice
Relationship between values and decision
making
 Decision may be difficult because of
multiple options , implication
*ethical dilemma
 must clarify values of self and other
Conclusion…
Student can identify the
personal values that can
influence ethical decision in
nursing practice…
Fundamental Principle of
Nursing Practice

“The fundamental principle of
nursing practice is respect for
inherent dignity and worth of
every client. Nurses are morally
obligated to respect human
existence and individuality of all
persons who are the recipients
of nursing action. Nurses
therefore must take all
reasonable means to protect and
preserve human life when there
is hope of recovery or
REFERENCE
 Aiken, T.D. 2004, Legal, Ethical, and Political Issues in
Nursing, 2nd ed, F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia.
 Benjamin, M. & Curtis, J. 1992, Ethics in Nursing, 3rd ed,
Oxford University Press, London.
 Burkhardt, M.A. & Nathaniel, A.K. 2002, Ethics and
Issues in Contemporary Nursing, 2nd ed, Thomson
Delmar Learning, USA.
 Delaune, S.C. & Ladner, P.K. 2006, Fundamentals of
Nursing: Standards and Practice, 3rd ed, Thomson
Delmar Learning, Canada.
 Harkreader. H. & Hogan. M.A. 2004, Fundamentals of
Nursing: Caring and Clinical Judgment, 2nd ed, Elsevier
Science, USA.
REFERENCE
 Kozier, B. et al 2004, Fundamentals of
Nursing: Concepts, Process, and Practice,
6th ed, Prentice Hall Health, Upper Saddle
River.
 Lindeman. C.A & McAthie, M. 1999,
Fundamentals of Contemporary Nursing
Practice, W.B. Saunder, Philadelphia.
 White, L. 2005, Foundations of Nursing,
2nd ed, Thomson Delmar Learning, USA.
THANK YOU….