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Anna C. Salter
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6  act of Sexual Abuse on Victi s

6 Adolescent Sex Offenders

6 How Sex Offenders Fool Peole

6 What Works
 


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Silence
 
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evealed abuse to anyone as children

1/3

Cases reorted to authorities

10% - 18%
(London et al., 2005)
×   
| !
 
 
!
 

0 to 12%

(Elliott, 1993; ussell, 1984; Saunders et al.,


1992; S ith et al., 2000)
  
 
 



Π= 388

6 W/in 24 hours 18%

6 > 5 years 47%


47%

6 Œever before survey 28%


28%

(S ith et al., 2000)


  

Π= 150

One Week 24%

One Year 21%

 Five Years 17%

 Œever 39%
(Sauzier, 1989)
  

Study Ti ing %

Elliott & Briere,


1994 > 1 Year 75%

> 5 Years 18%


×  
!  
 
6 22% Botto s et al., 2007

6 40% Ussher & Dewberry, 1995

6 28% S ith et al., 2000

6 33% Finkelhor et al., 1990

6 31% Arata,
Arata, 1998
| 
39% of children

Œever told anyone as children

(O¶Leary et al., 2010)


G
"#   $$%
Π= 118

External evidence of abuse

Peretrator confession
Witness
Pornograhic ictures
G
"#   $$%

‰any children initially disclosed only fondling

Later enetration
×

6 21 studies of children with gonorrhea
gradual disclosure co on
(Lyon, in ress)

6 118 cases with external evidence


gradual disclosure co on
(Elliott and Briere, 1994)
   

Œatural Parent

 ediately 17%

Later 30%

Œever 55%
À&  
×
× 
Lower rates or
Longer delays

(Good an-
an-Brown, et al., 2003; Hershkowitz
et al., 2005; Sjoberg & Lindblad,
Lindblad, 2002;
S ith et al., 2000)
!
6 Adolescents abused for the first ti e as
adolescents ore likely to disclose than
younger children

6 Disclose first to another adolescent


(Olafson & Leder an, 2000)

 


6 ‰other 21%
21%

6 Best Friend 23%

6 Œo one 28%

(S ith et al., 2000)


  
 
6 Less likely to disclose the closer the
relationshi

(DiPetro et al., 1997; S ith et al., 2000)


 

Predictors

Lack of aternal suort

Abuse by ale caretaker


 


Cases where offender confessed

24.5% recanted fully or artially

(‰alloy, Lyon, Quas,


Quas, & For an, 2005)


Adolescents and children who disclosed

Greater sychological distress

Than those who didn¶t

(Feiring et al., 2002; O¶Leary et al., 2010)





Adolescents who disclosed

Felt less suorted

Perceived others¶ reactions as negative

Bla ed selves for abuse


(Feiring et al., 2002)
 


Children who disclosed to so eone other
than other

Poorer ental health

(uggiero et al., 2000)


 
 
&
 
‰others who believed and suorted

Children had fewer ental health roble s

(Browne & Finkelhor, 1980; Luster & S all,


1997; ‰errill et al., 2001)
 
 
'  
f erson disclosed to tells so eone else
without er ission

Children have ore ental health roble s


(Gold, 1980; O¶Leary, 2010)


!
Those who discussed abuse

Œot just disclosed

Within one year of abuse

Better ental health


(O¶Leary et al., 2010)
ÀG  
 
Gold Standard
Peretrator Confessed

‰edical Evidence Consistent

³Persuasive evidence,´ e.g. Eyewitness

(Dalenberg
Dalenberg,, 1990)
ÀG  
 
Severe Abuse

Peretrator Fa ily ‰e ber

Force or Threat

eeated ‰olestation

ntercourse or Oral
Oral--Genital
(Dalenberg
Dalenberg,, 1990)
ÀG  
 

Accounts with
Fantastic Ele ents

Severe Gold Standard (52) 15%


Œonsevere Gold Standard (8) 2%
Œonsevere Questionable (90) 0%
Severe Questionable (52) 4%
(Dalenberg
Dalenberg,, 1990)
| (  
| !

6 PTSD
6 Deression

6 Anxiety Disorders

6 Dissociation

6 Sexual Proble s
e--Victi ization
6 e

6 Affective Flashback

 

ntrusiveness

njury

Physical Violence

(E.g., Banyard et al., 2004; Collings,


Collings, 1995;
O¶Leary, 2010)

 

Parent

(Kendall--Tackett, 1993)
(Kendall
 
!
‰ore severe

‰ore frequent and longer lasting

Worse outco e

(Banyard et al., 2004; Boudewyn & Lie , 1995)


  
!
‰ultile abusers

Worse outco e

(Briere & untz


untz,, 1988; O¶Leary et al., 2010)
!  | ( 
6 Affective Flashbacks

6 Secondary to Cognitions
nternalizing Sex Offender Thinking Errors

Trau a-
a-Based World View

6 Secondary to Current ealities


×
)) | 
 
×

6 ntrusive Sy to s

6 Avoidant Sy to s

6 Arousal Sy to s
 |


6 ntrusive ‰e ories
6 Affective Flashbacks
6 Physical esonses to Triggers
6 Œight ares
 

6 S ell of aftershave
6 Footstes on the stairs
6 Alone in the roo with a ale
6 Bathroo
6 Dental aoint ents
!
|


6 efusal to talk or think about abuse


6 Avoidance of re inders
6 Œu bing
6 Post--trau atic decline
Post
!
|


6 Hyer-startle
Hyer-
6 Lack of concentration
6 rritability
6 Difficulty sleeing

  
× | 

Life Threat
Physical njury
Co leted ae

8.5 x
(Kilatrick et al., 1989)
  
!

%
6 ae Alone 29
6 ae/Physical njury 58
6 ae/Life Threat 09
6 ae/njury/Life Threat 79

(Kilatrick et al., 1989)


| (  
| !

6 PTSD
6 Deression

6 Anxiety Disorders

6 Dissociation

6 Sexual Proble s
e--Victi ization
6 e

6 Affective Flashback
!  | ( 
6 Affective Flashbacks

6 Secondary to Cognitions
nternalizing Sex Offender Thinking Errors

Trau a-
a-Based World View

6 Secondary to Current ealities



    
6 Court aearances
6 Suervised visitation

6 Aology sessions

6 Unsuervised visitation

6 eunification