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Adolescent Reproductive

Health
Presented by:
Dr. Richard O. Muga (MBS)
National Co-ordinating Agency for
Population and Development,
Nairobi-Kenya

Seminar for African Journalist held at Hilton Hotel, Nairobi-Kenya


on 15-18th June 2006.
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STI’s and HIV/AIDS

 World Wide: 111 million of 333 million new


cases of STI’s occur to people under age 25
years
 Kenya: Among those tested for HIV/AIDS 3%
(711) and 0.4% (745) of women and men
aged 15-19 years respectively have been
infected with HIV/AIDS

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Adolescent Reproductive Health

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CURRENT SITUATION OF ADOLESCENTS

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Outline of the presentation
 Adolescent sexual experience
 STIs and HIV/AIDS
 Contraceptive use
 Female genital cutting
 Pregnancy and child bearing
 Unsafe Abortions
 What can we do?

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Introduction
 Adolescents are those aged 10-19 years
 Globally, those aged 10-19 years are
estimated at 1.2 billion
 Most men and women become sexually
active during adolescence
 Adolescents reproductive health decisions
outcomes are highly devastating
 Adolescents face several barriers such as
social norms and cultural taboos about young
people’s sexuality

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Sexual Behavior among Youth
 Women: almost half of young women have sex
by the time they turn 18. And more than one in
ten (13%) have sex by the time they are 15.
 Men: Young men start having sex at an earlier
age. Sixty percent had sex by age 18, and a
quarter had sex by age 15.
 Sub-Saharan Africa: 30% of unmarried women
(15-19 years) have had sex

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Outcomes of sexual behaviour
 70% of adolescents in Kenya engage in
high risk unprotected sex
 STI’s, HIV/AIDS
 Increased risks of unwanted pregnancies
 Unsafe abortions resulting into severe
illness
 Complications during abortions causing
infertility and deaths

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Premarital Sex and Condom Use
Women 15-19 (never married)
Men 15-19 (never married)

41
29
25
18
Percent

Had sex in past 12 Used condom at last sex


months (among those who had
sex)

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Teen Pregnancy and
Motherhood

Percent of women age


Eastern North 15-19 who are mothers
15% Eastern or pregnant with their
Rift 29% first child.
Western Valley
27% 31%

Central
15% Kenya: 23%
Nyanza
21%
World wide it is estimated
Coast
29% that 15 million women aged
Nairobi 15-19 give birth every year
20%

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Risks of Early Child bearing

 Less education hence lower


future income for young mothers
 Social rejection by community

 Obstructed labour resulting into


permanent injury or death for
mother and infant
 Premature and low birth weight
deliveries

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Unsafe Abortions

 Unsafe abortions have serious health risks


 Globally, 2.5 million unsafe abortions occur
among adolescent girls aged 15-19 years
 Pregnancy related abortions and child birth are
leading cause of deaths to adolescents aged
15-19 years
 Kenya, 4 in every 10 women who die from
unsafe abortions are adolescents

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Contraceptive Use
 Contraceptive use among the
adolescents is very low
 Sub-Saharan Africa 35% of
unmarried sexually active women
use modern contraception
 Kenya: only 5% of sexually active
adolescents use modern
contraceptive methods

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Current Use of Family Planning
25
22

20
17

15
Percent women Any method

(age 15-24) using Modern method

10a family planning


7

method 5

0
15-19 20-24

Age
Sub-Saharan Africa: 35% of unmarried sexually active women
(15-19 years) use modern contraception 14
Female Genital Cutting
 Between 100 million and 180 million
women world wide have undergone
FGC practice
 Every day some 600 girls world wide
are at risk of undergoing FGC
 Kenya, 20% of women aged 15-19
years have undergone FGC
 The practice of FGC is currently
outlawed in Kenya under the children’s
Act of 2001

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Female Genital Cutting
 Female Genital Cutting have serious
consequences on women:
Infections, pain and bleeding which can
lead to shock and possibly death
Prolonged and obstructed labour

Fistula

Inability to enjoy sexual rights

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What can be done?

 Provide sexual and reproductive


health information and services to
adolescents
 Put in place proper Legislation
 Support multi-sectoral programmes
 Provide health education to
adolescents such as responsible
sexual behaviour, HIV/AIDS,
sexuality, family planning
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What can be done?
 Encourage parents to actively involve
themselves in adolescent reproductive
health issues
 Train more peer educators to reach out
the adolescents
 Provide integrated health services to
adolescents such as family planning
information and services

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What Can Be Done?
 Establish adolescent-friendly services
 Ensure adolescent-friendly services
have high quality information
necessary for informed consent
 Increase opportunities for women’s
education and employment
 Encourage alternative rites of
passage

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Global Appeal
 Adolescents today are increasingly
facing more reproductive health
challenges than ever before
 More efforts is needed by all actors
to address adolescents reproductive
health issues
 Invest in the young people today to
assure tomorrow

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Who we Are
 NCAPD is a SAGA established through
legal notice no. 120 of 29th October 2004
 Provide leadership in Population and
development matters
 Assess multi-sectoral population issues
and support stakeholders
 Advocate for Political and other support to
address population issues

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Who we are
Vision: Mission:
To be an To provide
institution of leadership in
excellence in Formulating,
Population Coordinating and
Policy implementing
formulation and Population Policies
Management and Programmes
for Sustainable
Development

Contact:
Chancery Building, 4th Floor, Valley Fax: +254-20-2716508
Road
P.O BOX 48994-00100 E-mail: info@ncapd-
ke.org
Nairobi, Kenya. Website: www.ncapd-
Tel:+254-20-2711600/1 ke.org
+254-20-2711711
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