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WHAT IS A TURBINE?

Gas turbine is the internal combustion engines involving


heat energy and mechanical energy has the sole parameters.
The main function is to convert the chemical energy of a
liquid fuel into mechanical energy by internal combustion.
Gaseous products of a fuel are expanded through the
turbine.
The gas turbine is the power developing unit among various
means of producing mechanical power due to its exceptional
reliability, freedom from vibration and ability to large power.
Its used in various fields viz (majorly in) aircrafts, trains,
ships tank and power plants.
A gas turbine can accelerate air to create thrust (aero
engines) or drive generators to make electricity, or turn
pumps and ship propellers (industrial / marine gas turbines).
Brayton Cycle
• Unlike diesels, operate on STEADY-FLOW cycle
• Open cycle, unheated engine
1-2: Compression

2-3: Combustion

3-4: Expansion through


Turbine and Exhaust Nozzle

(4-1: Atmospheric Pressure)


Brayton Cycle
Basic Components
Basic Components
• Compressor
– It Draws air in & compresses it
– Supplies high pressure air for combustion process
Basic Components
• Combustion Chamber
– Fuel pumped in and ignited to burn with compressed air
Where air & fuel are mixed, ignited, and burned
Spark plugs used to ignite fuel
Basic Components
• Turbine
– Hot gases converted to work
– Can drive compressor & external load
Compressor

• Supplies high pressure air for combustion


process
• Compressor types
– Radial/centrifugal flow compressor
– Axial flow compressor
Compressor
• Radial/centrifugal flow
– Adv: simple design, good for
low compression ratios (5:1)
– Disadv: Difficult to stage, less
efficient

• Axial flow
– Good for high compression
ratios (20:1)
– Most commonly used
Compressor

• Controlling Load on Compressor


– To ensure maximum efficiency and allow
for flexibility, compressor can be split into
HP & LP sections
– Vane control: inlet vanes/nozzle angles can
be varied to control air flow
• Compressor Stall
– Interruption of air flow due to turbulence
Use of Compressed Air

• Primary Air (30%)


– Passes directly to combustor for combustion
process
• Secondary Air (65%)
– Passes through holes in perforated inner shell &
mixes with combustion gases
– More efficient secondary systems (cooling, sealing)

• Film Cooling Air (5%)


– Insulates/cools turbine blades
Combustion Chambers

• Types
– Can: for small, centrifugal compressors
– Annular: for larger, axial compressors (LM 2500)
– Can-annular: rarely used
The Combustor
The Turbine
Turbines
• Consists of one or more stages designed to
develop rotational energy

• Single shaft
– Power coupling on same shaft as turbine
– Same shaft drives rotor of compressor and power
components
Blade Cooling
Gas Turbine Accessory Systems

• Starting System
– To get compressor initially rotated, HP air used
(can use electrical also)
– Once at certain RPM, fuel injected and spark
ignited
• Power Transmission System
– Reduction gears used to transfer torque
– With split shaft, turbines can run @ different
speeds
Advantages
• Gas turbines when compared to other engines
type have very good power to weight ratio.
• Gas turbine engines are compact in size.
• Excess heat generated by engines can be used
for other applications. For example: Preheating
of air before it enters the combustion chamber.
• Gas turbines have good thermal efficiency and
therefore good fuel efficiency when in
prolonged use under a constant load.
Disadvantages
• Gas turbines are very expensive.
• The high engine speed which turbines run at
causes problems when designing and
manufacturing turbine parts .The harsh
conditions within a gas turbine mean that the
materials used and the design must be thought
through.
• At low engine speed (idling) are when the load
fluctuates the efficiency of gas turbines is very
low.
• The very hot exhaust gases make gas turbines
very unsuitable for many uses.
Gas Turbine Applications

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