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m Strain gauges

m Different types
m Principle of working
m Mode of working
m Advantages and disadvantages
m Applications
STRAIN GAUGES ARE DEVICES WHICH ARE
USED TO RECORD THE CHANGE IN STRAIN
OF A BODY DUE TO SOME EXTERNAL
LOADING
CHANGE IN LENGTH OR STRAIN IN
SPECIMEN PRODUCES A CHANGE IN SOME
ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES.
m CAPACITANCE STRAIN GAUGE

m INDUCTANCE STRAIN GAUGE

m ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE STRAIN GAUGES


m Capacitance of a condenser can be
varied by either varying the distance
between the condenser plates or by
varying the area.

m C=0.225 kA/h.
where k=dielectric constant.
A= c/s area of the plates.
h=distance b/w the two
parallel plates.
m Changing the gap h between the
plates.

m Moving one plate in a transverse


direction with respect to other.

m Moving a body with a dielectric const


higher than air between two plates
m Specimen is loaded initially
m There will be change in gauge length
m Correspondingly change in gap
between plates
m Hence strain produces a change in
capacitance.
m Which will be recorded using suitable
circuits.
m Employed in elevated temperatures.

m Very low operating forces are required.

m Can be used under magnetic fields as


compared to inductance type.
m A linear variable differential transformer is
an excellent device for converting
mechanical displacement into electrical
signal.
m Mechanical knife edges are displaced over
the gauge length by the strain induced in
the specimen.
m Displacements are transmitted to the core
which move relative to the coils.
m Thus an electrical output is produced across
the coil which is connected to circuits.
m A LVDT has 3 coils,one primary coil and
two secondary on either side of the coil.

m Base carrying primary and secondary


coil is connected to one knife and
movable magnetic core is connected to
other.

m Movement of core due to strain varies


the mutual inductance there by
producing a alternating voltage.
m Require a very low driving force to move
the coil.

m Sensitivity of LVDT usually lies in the range


0.02 to 0.15mm/v

m Performance of the LVDT can be severly


affected by the presence of metal
masses and magnetic fields in is vicinity.
m Change in resistance is a function of
strain.
m Different materials have different
sensitivity.
m Wheatstone bridge can be employed to
accurately measure this resistance
changes.
m Unbonded wire gauge
m Bonded wire gauge
m Bonded foil gauge
R=ǒL/A.
where R=resistance.
L=length of wire.
A=c/s area of wire.
ǒ=resistivity.
Metals like copper and iron when loaded
in tension noted that resistance increase
with strain applied to the wire.
Strain sensitivity is different for different
material and depends on,

m Degree of cold working

m Impurities in the alloy

m Range of stain over which the


measurement of sensitivity is made
m Wire is glued to the test piece.
m Surface strain in the test piece is
transferred to the wire through the glue.
m Strain compressive or tensile in specimen
is transmitted to the strain gauge.
m Change in the length of wire changes
the resistance through the circuit.
m Which is measured through the
Wheatstone's bridges.
m Small size

m Respond faithfully to rapidly fluctuating


strain

m As the output is electrical remote


observation is possible.
m High specific resistance.
m Low temperature coefficient of
resistance.
m High elastic limit.
m High fatigue strength.
m Good solderability and weldability.
m Good corrosion resistant.
m Constantan

m Annealed constantum.

m Nichrome

m Karma(Ni-Cr-Al alloy with iron)

m Platinum tungsten alloy.


m Experimental study of stresses in transport
vehicles.
m Experimental analysis of stresses in
structures and machines-pressure vessel,
steam and gas turbine«.
m Experimental verification of theoretical
analysis.
m Assist failure analysis.
m Measurement of force, load, pressure«.
m All the strain gauges discussed in above
give the strain at a point only.
m Therefore many gauges are needed to
investigate a strain field over a finite
area.
m More efficient method would be the one
which yields simultaneous data at many
points over the whole field.
m Like moire method, photoelasticity,
holography, brittle-lacquer technique«.