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Nozzles BY

A.Venkat (07311A0353)

Under the guidance of

Mr. V. Vasudeva Rao

Principal

Sree Nidhi Institute Of Science and Technology

CONTENTS

Abstract

Introduction to Fluid Flow

Parameters governing the Fluid Flow

Brief Introduction to Rocket Nozzles

Criterion for 1-D gas flow in Rocket Nozzles

Design Of rocket Nozzles based on Nozzle

performance

Conclusion

References

Abstract

The main aim of the project is to analyze the flow

of the fluid(propellants) inside a rocket nozzle. A

procedure is outlined for calculating the maximum

changes in the exhaust velocity of gases which

can be introduced during flow through a rocket

nozzle as the result of vibrational time lags.

Introduction to Fluid Flow

Fluid flow Fluids (liquids and gases) are a form of

matter that cannot achieve equilibrium under an

applied shear stress but deform continuously, or

flow, as long as shear stress is applied. The fluid

flow means the movement of materials through

certain bounded regions (pipe). The study of fluid

flow can be divided in to :

Fluid Statics : it deals with fluid at rest in

equilibrium.

Fluid dynamic s: it deals with fluid in motion.

Types of Fluid Flows

Steady Flow : In steady flow the velocity of the

fluid particles at any point is constant as time

passes.

Unsteady Flow : Unsteady flow exists whenever

the velocity at a point in the fluid changes as time

passes.

Turbulent Flow : Turbulent flow is characterized

by the irregular movement of particles of the fluid.

There is no definite frequency as there is in wave

motion. The particles travel in irregular paths with

no observable pattern and no definite layers. The

flow becomes irregular exceeds a certain velocity

any condition that causes abrupt changes in

velocity Eddy currents are a characteristic of

Streamline Flow : When the flow is steady,

streamlines are often used to represent the

trajectories of the fluid particles. A streamline is a

line drawn in the fluid such that a tangent to the

streamline at any point is parallel to the fluid

velocity at that point. Steady flow is often called

streamline flow.

Reynolds Number

The flow regime (either laminar or turbulent) is

determined by evaluating the Reynolds number of the

flow .The Reynolds number, based on studies of

Osborn Reynolds, is a dimensionless number

comprised of the physical characteristics of the flow.

where: Re = Reynolds number (unit less) V = average

velocity (ft/sec) D = diameter of pipe (ft) μ = absolute

viscosity of fluid (lbf-sec/ft2) For practical purposes, if

the Reynolds number is less than 2100, the flow is

laminar. If it is greater than 4000, the flow is turbulent.

Flows with Reynolds numbers between 2100 and

4000 are sometimes referred to as transitional flows.

Most fluid systems in nuclear facilities operate with

turbulent flow.

Significance of Reynolds Number

If the Reynolds number is less than 2100, the

flow is laminar. If it is greater than 4000, the flow

is turbulent.

Flows with Reynolds numbers between 2100 and

4000 are sometimes referred to as transitional

flows.

The fluid in the middle of the pipe will be moving

faster than the fluid next to the walls.

At constant velocity fluid can change from laminar

to turbulent if pipe diameters increased. Decrease

in viscosity due to temperature change may also

show similar effects.

Velocity Distribution

The velocity increases from zero at wall to max at

the axis of the tube. For Streamline flow .

The graph of velocity Vs Distance from the wall is

parabola, sharply pointed at middle. Ave. V = ½

Vmax.

For turbulent flow The graph is some what

flattened in the middle and Ave. V =0.8 Vmax.

Velocity profile for turbulent flow Velocity profile if

flow were laminar everywhere

Velocity profile inside a pipe

Bernoulli’s Theorem

Bernoulli's principle states that for an inviscid

flow, an increase in the speed of the fluid occurs

simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a

decrease in the fluid's potential energy.

Bernoulli's principle can be applied to various

types of fluid flow, resulting in what is loosely

denoted as Bernoulli's equation.

Simplified form of Bernoulli’s

Equation

In many applications of Bernoulli's equation, the

change in the ρ g z term along the streamline is so

small compared with the other terms it can be

ignored. For example, in the case of aircraft in flight,

the change in height z along a streamline is so small

the ρ g z term can be omitted. This allows the above

equation to be presented in the following simplified

form:

where p0 is called total pressure, and q is dynamic

pressure. Many authors refer to

the pressure p as static pressure to distinguish it from

total pressure p0 and dynamic pressure q.

The simplified form of Bernoulli's equation can be

summarized in the following memorable word equation:

static pressure + dynamic pressure = total pressure Every

point in a steadily flowing fluid, regardless of the fluid

speed at that point, has its own unique static

pressure p and dynamic pressure q. Their sum p + q is

defined to be the total pressure p0. The significance of

Bernoulli's principle can now be summarized as total

pressure is constant along a streamline.

If the fluid flow is irrotational, the total pressure on every

streamline is the same and Bernoulli's principle can be

summarized as total pressure is constant everywhere in

the fluid flow. It is reasonable to assume that irrotational

flow exists in any situation where a large body of fluid is

flowing past a solid body. Examples are aircraft in flight,

and ships moving in open bodies of water. However, it is

important to remember that Bernoulli's principle does not

apply in the boundary layer or in fluid flow through

long pipes.

Compressible flow in fluid

dynamics

For a compressible fluid, with a barotropic equation of state, and

under the action of conservative forces, (constant along a

streamline)where:

potential associated with the conservative force field, often

the gravitational potential. In engineering situations, elevations

are generally small compared to the size of the Earth, and the

time scales of fluid flow are small enough to consider the

equation of state as adiabatic. In this case, the above equation

becomes

(constant along a streamline)where, in addition to the terms listed

above:

γ is the ratio of the specific heats of the fluid, g is the

acceleration due to gravity ,z is the elevation of the point above a

reference plane. In many applications of compressible flow,

changes in elevation are negligible compared to the other terms,

so the term g and z can be omitted. A very useful form of the

equation is then:

where:

p0 is the total pressure

ρ0 is the total density

Introduction to Rocket Nozzles

A rocket engine nozzle is a propelling

nozzle usually of the de Laval type used in

a rocket engine to expand and accelerate the

combustion gases, from burning propellants, so

that the exhaust gases exit the nozzle

at hypersonic velocities.

Criterion for 1-D gas flow in rocket

nozzles

Combustion gas is assumed to be IDEAL GAS.

Gas flow is

ISENTROPIC,FRICTIONLESS,ADIABATIC.

Gas flow is constant.

Gas flow is along a straight line from gas inlet to

exhaust gas outlet.(i.e. along the nozzle’s axis of

geometry)

Gas flow behavior is compressible since the flow is at

very high velocities

Design of Nozzles based on Nozzle

performance

As the combustion gas enters the rocket nozzle, it is

traveling at subsonic velocities. As the throat

contracts down the gas is forced to accelerate until at

the nozzle throat, where the cross-sectional area is

the smallest, the linear velocity becomes sonic. From

the throat the cross-sectional area then increases, the

gas expands and the linear velocity becomes

progressively more supersonic.

The linear velocity of the exiting exhaust gases can

be calculated using the following equation

where: Ve= Exhaust velocity at nozzle exit,

m/sT= absolute temperature of inlet gas, K

R= Universal gas law constant = 8314.5 J/(kmol·K)

M= the gas molecular mass, kg/kmol (also known

as the molecular weight)

k= cp / cv = isentropic expansion factor

cp= specific heat of the gas at constant pressure

cv= specific heat of the gas at constant volume

Pe= absolute pressure of exhaust gas at nozzle

exit, Pa

P= absolute pressure of inlet gas, Pa

Some typical values of the exhaust gas velocity Ve for

rocket engines burning various propellants are:

1.7 to 2.9 km/s (3800 to 6500 mi/h) for

liquid monopropellants

2.9 to 4.5 km/s (6500 to 10100 mi/h) for

liquid bipropellants

2.1 to 3.2 km/s (4700 to 7200 mi/h) for solid

propellants

As a note of interest, Ve is sometimes referred to as

the ideal exhaust gas velocity because it based on the

assumption that the exhaust gas behaves as an ideal

gas.

Specific Impulse

Thrust is the force which moves a rocket through

the air, and through space. Thrust is generated by

the propulsion system of the rocket through the

application of Newton's third law of motion: "For

every action there is an equal and opposite

reaction". A gas or working fluid is accelerated out

the rear of the rocket engine nozzle and the

rocket is accelerated in the opposite direction.

The thrust of a rocket engine nozzle can be

defined as

F

and for perfectly expanded nozzles, this reduces to:

F

The specific impulse, Isp, is the ratio of the amount of

thrust produced to the weight flow of the propellants.

It is a measure of the fuel efficiency of a rocket

engine.

It is observed exhaust velocity which is the most

prominent factor which governs the design of a

nozzle depends on four major factors.

1.Pressure

2.Temperature

3.Friction/Air drag

4.Nozzle geometry

Conclusions

I would like to conclude saying that altering

physical parameters like pressure and

temperature would enhance the working of a

nozzle and thereby also provides a better nozzle

efficiency.

Better optimization of the physical parameters is

a must for the proper working and safety of the

nozzle as well as the engine also.

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