(PAM)
Dr. I. J. Wassell
Introduction
• The purpose of the modulator is to convert
discrete amplitude serial symbols (bits in a
binary system) ak to analogue output pulses
which are sent over the channel.
• The demodulator reverses this process
ak
Modulator Channel Demodulator
ak Pulse Transmit
generator filter
HT(ω ) hT(t)
Symbol
clock HC(ω )
Demodulator Channel
∞
xs (t ) x(t )
Transmit
Filter
hT (t )
• Filtering of impulse train in transmit filter
PAM
• Clearly not a practical technique so
– Use a practical input pulse shape, then filter to
realise the desired output pulse shape
– Store a sampled pulse shape in a ROM and read out
through a D/A converter
• The transmitted signal x(t) passes through the
channel HC(ω ) and the receive filter HR(ω ).
• The overall frequency response is
H(ω ) = HT(ω ) HC(ω ) HR(ω )
PAM
• Hence the signal at the receiver filter output is
∞
y (t ) = ∑ a h(t − kT ) + v(t )
k = −∞
k
amplitude
1.0 1.0
0.5 0.5
0 2 4 6 0 2 4 6
Time (bit periods) Time (bit periods)
• For this example we will assume that a
binary ‘0’ is sent as 0V.
Intersymbol Interference
• The received pulse at the slicer now extends
over 4 bit periods giving rise to ISI.
‘1’ ‘1’ ‘0’ ‘0’ ‘1’ ‘0’ ‘0’ ‘1’
amplitude
1.0
0.5
0 2 4 6
time (bit periods)
• The actual received signal is the
superposition of the individual pulses
Intersymbol Interference
• For the assumed data the signal at the slicer
input is,
‘1’ ‘1’ ‘0’ ‘0’ ‘1’ ‘0’ ‘0’ ‘1’
amplitude
1.0
0.5 Decision threshold
0.8
0.7
Decision
amplitude
0.6
threshold
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
0
.
9
0
.
8
0
.
7
0
.
6
0
.
5
Decision
0
.
4
0
.
3
threshold
0
.
2
0
.
1
0
0 1
0 2
0 3
0 4
0 5
0 6
0 7
0
1 (Also showing
individual pulses)
0
.
9
0
.
8
0
.
7
0
.
6 Decision
threshold
0
.
5
0
.
4
0
.
3
0
.
2
0
.
1
0
0 1
0 2
0 3
0 4
0 5
0 6
0 7
0
Eye Diagrams
• Worst case error performance in noise can be
obtained by calculating the worst case ISI over all
possible combinations of input symbols.
• A convenient way of measuring ISI is the eye
diagram
• Practically, this is done by displaying y(t) on a
scope, which is triggered using the symbol clock
• The overlaid pulses from all the different symbol
periods will lead to a crisscrossed display, with
an eye in the middle
Example RC response
Eye Diagram
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
h = eye height
0.6
0.5
h Decision
0.4
threshold
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
0 f
Noncausal response
T=1s
Causal response
T = 1s
Delay, td = 10s
Raised Cosine (RC) FallOff
Pulse Shaping
• Practically important pulse shapes which
satisfy the criterion are those with Raised
Cosine (RC) rolloff
• The pulse spectrum is given by
T f ≤ 1 2T − β
π
H ( f ) = T cos 2 ( f − 1 2T + β ) 1 2T − β < f ≤ 1 2T + β
4β
0 f > 1 2T + β
0
1
−β
1 1
+β
1 f (Hz)
2T 2T 2T T
T f ≤ 1 2T − β
π
H ( f ) = T cos 2 ( f − 1 2T + β ) 1 2T − β < f ≤ 1 2T + β
4β
0 f > 1 2T + β
RC Pulse Shaping
• The corresponding time domain pulse shape
is given by,
π
sin t
T cos 2πβt
h(t ) =
π 1 − ( 4 βt ) 2
t
T
• Now β allows a tradeoff between bandwidth and the pulse decay
rate
• Sometimes β is normalised as follows,
β
x=
1 (
2T
)
RC Pulse Shaping
• With β =0 (i.e., x = 0) the spectrum of the filter is
rectangular and the time domain response is a sinc
pulse, that is,
H ( f ) =T f ≤1 2T
π
sin t
h(t ) = T
π
t
T
• The time domain pulse has zero crossings at
intervals of nT as desired (See plots for x = 0).
RC Pulse Shaping
• With β =(1/2T), (i.e., x = 1) the spectrum of the
filter is full RC and the time domain response is a
pulse with low sidelobe levels, that is,
πTf
H ( f ) = T cos
2
f ≤1 T
2
1 2π
h(t ) = sinc t
4 2 T
1 − 2 t
T
• The time domain pulse has zero crossings at
intervals of nT/2, with the exception at T/2
where there is no zero crossing. See plots for x
= 1.
RC Pulse Shaping
Normalised Spectrum H(f)/T Pulse Shape h(t)
x =
0
x = 0.
5
x= 1
f *T t/T
RC Pulse Shaping Example 1
• Pulse shape and received signal, x = 0 (β = 0)
1
.4
1
.2
0
.8
0
.6
0
.4
0
.2

0.2

0.4

0.6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
• Eye diagram
2
1
.5
0
.5

0.5

1
0 0
.1 0
.2 0
.3 0
.4 0
.5 0
.6 0
.7 0
.8 0
.9
RC Pulse Shaping Example 2
• Pulse shape and received signal, x = 1 (β = 1/2T)
1
.
2
0
.
8
0
.
6
0
.
4
0
.
2

0.
2
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
• Eye diagram
1
.
2
0
.
8
0
.
6
0
.
4
0
.
2

0.
2
0 0
.
1 0
.
2 0
.
3 0
.
4 0
.
5 0
.
6 0
.
7 0
.
8 0
.
9
RC Pulse Shaping Example
• The much wider eye opening for x = 1 gives
a much greater tolerance to inaccurate
sample clock timing
• The penalty is the much wider transmitted
bandwidth
Probability of Error
• In the presence of noise, there will be a finite chance of
decision errors at the slicer output
• The smaller the eye, the higher the chance that the noise will
cause an error. For a binary system a transmitted ‘1’ could
be detected as a ‘0’ and viceversa
• In a PAM system, the probability of error is,
Pe=Pr{A received symbol is incorrectly detected}
• For a binary system, Pe is known as the bit error probability,
or the bit error rate (BER)
BER
• The received signal at the slicer is
yn = Vi + vn
Where Vi is the received signal voltage and
Vi=Vo for a transmitted ‘0’ or
Vi=V1 for a transmitted ‘1’
• With zero ISI and an overall unity gain, Vi=an,
the current transmitted binary symbol
• Suppose the noise is Gaussian, with zero mean
and variance σ v2
BER
− vn2
1 2σ v2
f ( vn ) = e
2π σv2
0
a b vn
dx
BER
• The slicer detects the received signal using a
threshold voltage VT
• For a binary system the decision is
Decide ‘1’ if yn≥ VT
Decide ‘0’ if yn<VT
For equiprobable symbols, the optimum threshold
is in the centre of V0 and V1, ie VT=(V0+V1)/2
BER
f(yn‘0’ sent) f(yn‘1’ sent)
0
V0 VT V1 yn
P(error‘1’) P(error‘0’)
BER
• The probability of error for a binary system can be written as:
Pe=Pr(‘0’sent and error occurs)+Pr(‘1’sent and error occurs)
Pe = P (error  0) Po + P (error  1) P1
0
V0 VT yn
P(error‘0’)
f(vn)
0
VT  V0 vn
P(error‘0’)
BER
∞
VT − Vo
P(error  0) = ∫
VT −Vo
f (vn )dvn = Q
σv
Where,
∞
1 −x 2
Q( z ) = ∫ e 2 dx
z 2π
• The Q function is one of a number of
tabulated functions for the Gaussian
cumulative distribution function (cdf) ie the
integral of the Gaussian pdf.
BER
• Similarly for ‘1’ sent: an error occurs when yn<VT
– let vn=ynV1, so when yn=V1, vn=0 and when yn=VT, vn=VTV1.
– So equivalently, we get an error when vn < VTV1
0
VT V1 yn
P(error‘1’)
f(vn)
0 vn
P(error‘1’) VT V1 (VT V1)
V1VT
BER
• Hence the total error probability is
Pe=Pr(‘0’sent and error occurs)+Pr(‘1’sent and error occurs)
Pe = P (error  0) Po + P (error  1) P1
VT − Vo V1 − VT
Pe = Q
Po + Q P1
σv σv
Where Po is the probability that a ‘0’ was sent and P1 is the
probability that a ‘1’ was sent
Vo +V1
VT =
2
BER
• Consequently,
V1 − Vo h
P
e
min
= Q = Q w here, h = V1 − Vo
2σ v 2σ v
• Notes:
– Q(.) is a monotonically decreasing function of its
argument, hence the BER falls as h increases
– For received pulses satisfying Nyquist criterion, ie
zero ISI, Vo=Ao and V1=A1. Assuming unity overall
gain.
– More complex with ISI. Worst case performance if h
is taken to be the eye opening
BER Example
• The received pulse h(t) in response to a
single transmitted binary ‘1’ is as shown,
1.0 Bit period = T
0.8
h(t) 0.6
(V) 0.4
0.2
0
−0.2
0 Τ 2Τ 3Τ 4Τ 5Τ
Where, t
h(0) = 0, h(T) = 0.3, h(2T) = 1, h(3T) = 0, h(4T) = 0.2, h(5T) =0
BER Example
• What is the worst case BER if a ‘1’ is received as
h(t) and a ‘0’ as h(t) (this is known as a polar
binary scheme)? Assume the data are equally likely
to be ‘0’ and ‘1’ and that the optimum threshold
(OV) is used at the slicer.
• By inspection, the pulse has only 2 nonzero
amplitude values (at T and 4T) away from the ideal
sample point (at 2T).
BER Example
• Consequently the worst case ‘1’ occurs
when the data bits conspire to give negative
nonzero pulse amplitudes at the sampling
instant.
• The worst case ‘1’ eye opening is thus,
1  0.3  0.2 = 0.5
as indicated in the following diagram.
BER Example
‘X’ ‘1’ ‘X’ ‘1’ ‘0’ ‘X’
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
−0.2
−0.4 −0.3 −0.2
−0.6
−0.8
−1.0 Optimum sample point for circled bit, amplitude = 10.30.2 = 0.5
0 Τ 2Τ 3Τ 4Τ 5Τ 6Τ 7Τ 8Τ t
• The indicated data gives rise to the worst case ‘1’ eye
opening. Don’t care about data marked ‘X’ as their pulses
are zero at the indicated sample instant
BER Example
• Similarly the worst case ‘0’ eye opening is
1 + 0.3 + 0.2 = 0.5
• So, worst case eye opening h = 0.5(0.5) = 1V
• Giving the BER as,
Molto più che documenti.
Scopri tutto ciò che Scribd ha da offrire, inclusi libri e audiolibri dei maggiori editori.
Annulla in qualsiasi momento.