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Impression Materials

Dr. Neamat Hassan Abu-bakr,


BDS, DSS(Austria), MDSc(Scotland), PhD(Japan)
Wax
Thermal
Thermoplastic compounds
Non-elastic
Plaster
Chemical
Zinc oxide eugenol paste

Reversible hydrocolloids
Aqueous
Irreversible hydrocolloids
Elastic
Non-aqueous

Polysulfide
Condensation polymerized
Condensation polymerized silicone
Addition polymerized silicone
Addition polymerized
Polyether
Indications
• Diagnostic casts
– preliminary
– opposing
• Indirect
reconstruction
– fixed
– removable
• Bite registration
Elastomeric Impression
Materials
• Aqueous Elastomeric Impression Materials
– Hydrocolloids
• Reversible (e.g. agar)
• Irreversible (e.g. alginate)
• Nonaqueous Elastomeric Impression Materials
– Condensation Polymerized NEIM
• Polysulfide
• Condensation Polymerized Silicones
– Addition Polymerized NEIM
• Addition Polymerized Silicones
• Polyethers
Composition
• Agar • Potassium sulfate
– complex – improves gypsum
polysaccharide surface
• seaweed
• Water (85%)
– gelling agent

• Borax
– strength

cool to 43 C

agar hydrocolloid (hot) agar hydrocolloid (cold)


(sol) (gel)
heat to 100 C

O’Brien Dental Materials & their Selection 1997


Manipulation
• Gel in tubes
– syringe and tray material


Manipulation Tempering

Boiling Storage
• 3 chamber conditioning unit
– (1) liquefy at 100°C for
10 minutes
• converts gel to sol
– (2) store at 65°C
– place in tray
– (3) temper at 46°C for 3 minutes
– seat tray
– cool with water at 13°C for 3 minutes
• converts sol to gel

O’Brien Dental Materials & their Selection 1997


Advantages
• Dimensionally accurate
• Hydrophilic
– displace moisture, blood, fluids
• Inexpensive
– after initial equipment
• No custom tray or adhesives
• Pleasant
• No mixing required

Phillip’s Science of Dental Materials 1996


Disadvantages
special equipment

• Material prepared in advanced


• Tears easily
• Dimensionally unstable
– immediate pour
– single cast
• Difficult to disinfect

Phillip’s Science of Dental Materials 1996


Elastomeric Impression
Materials
• Aqueous Elastomeric Impression Materials
– Hydrocolloids
• Reversible (e.g. agar)
• Irreversible (e.g. alginate)
• Nonaqueous Elastomeric Impression Materials
– Condensation Polymerized NEIM
• Polysulfide
• Condensation Polymerized Silicones
– Addition Polymerized NEIM
• Addition Polymerized Silicones
• Polyethers
Irreversible Hydrocolloid
(Alginate)
• Most widely used
impression material
• Indications
– study models
– removable fixed partial dentures
• framework


Composition
• Sodium alginate • Sodium phosphate
– salt of alginic acid – retarder
• mucous • Filler
extraction
of seaweed • Potassium fluoride
(algae) – improves gypsum
• Calcium sulfate surface
– reactor 

2 Na3PO4 + 3 CaSO4 Ca3(PO4)2 + 3 Na2SO4

H2 O
Na alginate + CaSO4 Ca alginate + Na2SO4

(powder) (gel)
O’Brien Dental Materials & their Selection 1997
Manipulation

• Weigh powder
• Powder added to water
– rubber bowl
– vacuum mixer
• Mixed for 45 sec to 1 min
• Place tray
• Remove 2 to 3 minutes
– after gelation (loss of tackiness)

Advantages
• Inexpensive
• Easy to use
• Hydrophilic
– displace moisture, blood, fluids
• Stock trays

Disadvantages
• Tears easily
• Dimensionally unstable
– immediate pour
– single cast
• Lower detail reproduction
– unacceptable for fixed pros
• High permanent deformation
• Difficult to disinfect

Elastomeric Impression
Materials
• Aqueous Elastomeric Impression Materials
– Hydrocolloids
• Reversible (e.g. agar)
• Irreversible (e.g. alginate)
• Nonaqueous Elastomeric Impression Materials
– Condensation Polymerized NEIM
• Polysulfide
• Condensation Polymerized Silicones
– Addition Polymerized NEIM
• Addition Polymerized Silicones
• Polyethers
Silicone Rubbers
• These are accurate, flexible, stable, clean
and easy to use
• Available in a variety of forms
– Liquid (catalyst) and paste (base)
– Paste / paste system
– Putty / putty system
• Various viscosities
• Light for syringing
• Regular for special trays
• Heavy for stock or special trays
• Putty for stock trays

Silicone Rubbers

Syringe special tray stock


Silicone Rubbers
• Condensation Cured

• The first generation (Optosil+Xantropren)
• Very accurate but dimensionally unstable
due to release of ethanol as a by-
product causing shrinkage
• Little used as now superceded by…

Silicone Rubbers -Addition Cured

• The latest most accurate silicone with excellent


recovery. Widely used
• Stable, can last up to a week before pouring,
hence can be posted.
• So accurate that a die spacer must be used to
allow casting to fit tooth and leave space for
luting cement
• But are hydrophobic, so may shy away from
moisture causing round edges on preps and
lack of detail sub-gingivally
Silicone Rubbers -Addition Cured
• Chemistry: Poly vinyl siloxane

• Catalyst paste:
– Chloroplatinic acid
– Silicone with vinyl groups (filler)
• Base paste
– Silicone with terminal hydrogen
• Reaction
– Siloxane + Chloroplatinic acid = silicone

Silicone -Addition Cured - putty
Silicone -Addition Cured - wash
Silicone -Addition Cured - automix
Non-Aqueous Elastomeric
Impression Materials
• Condensation Polymerized Elastomers
– Polysulfide
– Poly(dimethyl siloxane)
• Addition Polymerized Elastomers
– Poly(vinyl siloxane)
– Polyether
Polysulfide

• First dental elastomers


• Indications
– complete denture
– removable fixed partial denture
• tissue
– crown and bridge
Composition
• Base
– polysulfide polymers
– fillers
– plasticizers
• Catalyst
– lead dioxide (or copper)
– fillers
• By-product
– water
Polysulfide Reaction
--SH HS---------------------SH HS-- -S-S---------------S-S-
O O
=

=
Pb S Pb S + 3PbO + H O
H 2
=

=
O O = Pb = O O S
H
S

mercaptan + lead dioxide polysulfide rubber + lead oxide + water


Manipulation

• Adhesive to tray
• Uniform layer
– custom tray
• Equal lengths of pastes
• Mix thoroughly
– within one minute
• Setting time 8 – 12 minutes
• Pour within 1 hour

Advantages

• Lower cost
– compared to silicones and polyethers
• Long working time
• High tear strength
• High flexibility
• Good detail reproduction

Disadvantages
• Poor dimensional stability
– water by-product
– pour within one hour
– single pour
• Custom trays
• Messy
– paste-paste mix
– bad odor
– may stain clothing
• Long setting time
Non-Aqueous Elastomeric
Impression Materials
• Condensation Polymerized Elastomers
– Polysulfide
– Poly(dimethyl siloxane)
• Addition Polymerized Elastomers
– Poly(vinyl siloxane)
– Polyether
Condensation Silicone

• Indications
– complete dentures
– crown and bridge

Composition
• Base
– poly(dimethylsiloxane)
– tetraethylorthosilicate
– filler
• Catalyst
– metal organic ester
• By-product
– ethyl alcohol
CH3 CH3

Condensation HO – Si – O – Si - O - H C2H5O OC2H5

CH3 CH3
Silicone n
Si

Reaction CH3 CH3

HO – Si – O – Si - O - H C2H5O OC2H5

CH3 CH3 n

metal organic ester


CH3 CH3

HO – Si – O – Si - O - OC2H5

CH3 CH3 n
Si + 2C2H5OH
ethanol
CH3 CH3

HO – Si – O – Si - O - OC2H5

CH3 CH3 n
Manipulation
• Mix thoroughly
– paste - paste
– paste - liquid
• Putty-wash technique
– reduces effect of polymerization shrinkage
– stock tray
• putty placed
• thin plastic sheet spacer
• preliminary impression
– intraoral custom tray
• inject wash material

Advantages
• Better elastic properties
• Clean, pleasant
• Stock tray
– putty-wash
• Good working and setting time


Disadvantages

• Poor dimensional stability


– high shrinkage
• polymerization
• evaporation of ethanol
– pour immediately
• within 30 minutes
• Hydrophobic
– poor wettability

Condensation Polymerized Non-
Aqueous Elastomeric Impression
Materials

Polysulfide releases water

Hydroxyl terminated poly(dimethylsiloxane


releases ethanol

Which material can we expect to shrink more?


Non-Aqueous Elastomeric
Impression Materials
• Condensation Polymerized Elastomers
– Polysulfide
– Poly(dimethyl siloxane)
• Addition Polymerized Elastomers
– Poly(vinyl siloxane)
– Polyether
Addition Silicones

• Vinyl polysiloxane
• Indications
– crown and bridge
– denture
– bite registration
• Examples
– Express (3M/ESPE)
– Aquasil (Dentsply Caulk)
– Virtual (Ivoclar Vivadent)
Composition

• Improvement over condensation


silicones
– no by-product
• First paste
– vinyl poly(dimethylsiloxane)
prepolymer
• Second paste
– siloxane prepolymer
• Catalyst
– chloroplatinic acid
CH3 O
---O – Si – CH = CH2 H - Si – CH3 CH3

Addition CH3 O CH = CH2 – Si – O ---

Silicone CH3 - Si - H CH3

Reaction O

Chloroplatinic Acid Catalyst


CH3 O
---O – Si – CH2 - CH2 - Si – CH3
CH3 O CH3
CH3 - Si - CH2 - CH2 – Si – O ---

O CH3
Manipulation
• Adhesive to tray
• Double mix
– custom tray
• heavy-body
– light-body to prep
• Putty-wash
– stock tray

Advantages

• Highly accurate
• High dimensional stability
– pour up to one week
• Stock or custom trays
• Multiple casts
• Easy to mix
• Pleasant odor
Disadvantages
• Expensive
• Sulfur inhibits set
– latex gloves
– ferric and Al sulfate
retraction solution
• Pumice teeth before
impressing
• Short working time
• Lower tear strength
• Possible hydrogen gas release
– bubbles on die
– palladium added to absorb

Non-Aqueous Elastomeric
Impression Materials
• Condensation Polymerized Elastomers
– Polysulfide
– Poly(dimethyl siloxane)
• Addition Polymerized Elastomers
– Poly(vinyl siloxane)
– Polyether
Polyether

• Indications
– crown and bridge
– bite registration
• Examples
– Impregum F (3M/ESPE)
– Polygel (Dentsply Caulk)

Composition
• Base
– difunctional epimine-terminated prepolymer
– fillers
– plasticizers
• Catalyst
– aromatic sulfonic acid ester
– fillers
• Cationic polymerization
– ring opening and chain extension

Polyether Reaction
R R base
CH3 – CH – CH2 – CO2 – CH – (CH2)n – O – CH – (CH2)n – CO2
m
–CH2 – CH –CH3
N
N
H2C CH
H2C CH + R+
2
2 catalyst
SO3-

R –N + N R – N – CH2 – CH
N 2–
+ +
H2C CH H2C CH ring opening H2C CH
2 2 2
Manipulation
• Adhesive to tray
– stock or custom tray
• very stiff
• Paste-paste mix
• Auto-mixing
– hand-held
• low viscosity
– mechanical dispenser
• high viscosity


Advantages
• Highly accurate
• Good dimensional stability
• Stock or dual-arch trays
• Good surface detail
• Pour within one week
– kept dry
• Multiple casts
• Good wettability
Disadvantages
• Expensive
• Short working time
• Rigid
– difficult to remove from undercuts
• Bitter taste
• Low tear strength
• Absorbs water
– changes dimension

Biological Considerations

The catalyst system of some polyether


impression materials are known to
cause hypersensitivity reactions
Stock trays
Trays

Individual, special tray

57
Choice and use of trays

• The tray should have enough spacer
• Avoid flexible trays
• Use perforated trays
• Make sure the tray is clean
• Apply only a thin layer of adhesive
• Wait appropriate time before taking
impression
• Don’t mix adhesives and impression
materials

58
Mixing techniques
• Manual:
• Low viscosity
• Less viscous is easier
• Silicones are easiest to mix
• followed by polyethers and polysulphides
Mixing techniques
• Automatic mixing
• Reduces mixing time
• Reduces bubbles
• Homogenous mix
• Use correct mixing proportions
2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2 = 256 folds

60
Impression Techniques
• Multiple mix technique
• Reline technique
• Single impression technique

Light body
Heavy body
Light body
Light body

Heavy body
Impression Techniques
• Multiple mix technique
• Reline technique (Putty wash)
• Single impression technique

Putty
Putty
Putty
Impression is first made with the putty and a
spacer. After the putty has set and the spacer
has been removed, light body material is
injected around the tooth and into the
previously made putty impression. Also
Known as Putty wash
Escape routes for “wash”
Impression Techniques
• Multiple mix technique
• Reline technique
• Single impression technique

Disinfecting Impressions
• Because imps have been in contact with
body fluids, they must be disinfected
before they are sent to the lab
• No single disinfectant is compatible with all
impression materials
DISINFECTING IMPRESSIONS
• Spray, dip, or immerse impression in
appropriate intermediate- or high-level
disinfectant and place in sealed bag.
• For addition silicone (hydrophobic) soak
sodium hypochlorite (1:10
concentration) for 3 minutes
• Polyether materials cannot be immersed
in disinfectants due to potential for
absorption and distortion only spray


THANKYOUforlistening