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FERTILISATION
 Is union of nuclei of sperm and ovum to
produce zygote.
 Fertilisation occurs inside the fallopian tube
 Of the millions sperm only few hundreds will
survive the journey to reach fallopian tube.
 From these, only one sperm is succeeds to
fertilise the ovum. The woman is said to be
pregnant.
 The secondary Oocyte will complete its
meosis II from Metaphase II.
THE EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF A
ZYGOTE

STAGES EXPLANATION

 Fertilisation  After 36 hours zygote is form .


Begins to divide repeatedly by mitosis as it travel
along the fallopian tube.

 Development of embryo.  Mitotic division repeatedly to form embryo with


two cell, four, eight and the solid mass of cell call
morula.

 Blastocyst/ Blastula.
 The morula with about 100 cells. Its fluid-filled
sphere.

 Implantation.  7 days after fertilisation the blastula attaches itself


to endometrium.
 The inner cell mass develops into embryo.

The trophoblast will develop into the foetal portion


of placenta.
FORMATION OF
EMBRYO
FETAL DEVELOPMENTS PHOTOS

 Eight Week Fetus


All the major organs of your baby have
formed now though they are not fully
developed yet. Eyes and ears are
growing now. The heart is beating
strongly. When you have an
ultrasound during this time, you can
see the heart pulsating.
.
Twelve Week Fetus
Your baby is now about 6.5 cm long and weighs about 18
grams. His head is becoming more rounded and the face
is completely formed. Toes and fingers are formed and
nails are beginning to grow. The baby is moving it's limps
but you can not feel this movements yet.
Sixteen Week Fetus
Your baby is now about 16 cm long and weighs 35

.
grams During a scan, you can see the baby's head and
body and you may see the baby moving. It is exercising
all his limbs, kicking and moving about. This is the
earliest stage at which you may feel the baby moving. It
feels like there is a butterfly in your belly.
THE UMBILICAL CORD PHOTO
THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN IDENTICAL
AND FRATERNAL TWINS
One ovum is FERTILISATION Two ova are
fertilized by one realeased &
spem to form fertilized by 2
zygote sperm
Zygote is splited FORMATION OF Two zygote are
into two separate ZYGOTE form which divide
embryos and develop into
two separate
embryos
Both have same Genetic constitution Twins do not share
genetic the same genetic

Both share one Number of Both has its own


placenta but they Placentae placenta and
have their own umbilical cord
umbilical cord
Same sex, either Sex Both can be same
males or females sex or different
sexes
Both share the Physical Both do not share
same physical Characteristic same physical
Siamese Twins Characteristic.

 Siamese twins are identical twins which did


not separate completely during embryonic
development.
 They are attached at certain parts of the
body such as head,chest, abdomen or hips.
 They may also share some common internal
organs.
 They can be separate surgically and have a
greater chance of survivalif do not share
major organs like heart, brain or lungs.
PLACENTA

 The placenta fully develops when 3 month


after fertilisation.
 The trophoblast develops into chorion ( finger
like projection)
 Blood vessel of chorion and mother , expand
to form placenta.
 Placenta is connected to the foetus by the
umbilical cord.
 Umbilical cord contain vein (oxygenated
blood) & arteries(deoxygenated blood)
The Function of
Placenta
 Site of exchange of nutrients, respiratory
gases, and waste between foetus and
mother.
 Acts as endocrine gland secretes oestrogen
and progesterone, it will stop secretion of
FSH and LH.
 Umbilical veins carries Oxygen, water,
glucose, amino acids, lipid, mineral & salts,
vitamins, hormone & antibodies.
 Umbilical arteries carries Carbon dioide &
nitrogenous waste (urea).
 Its provide partial protection to drugs,
alcohol, caffein, nicotine but HIV and rubella
virus able to penetrate.
THE ADVANTAGE OF FEOTUS HAVING
SEPARATE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM FROM
MOTHER.

 Prevents certain harmful bacteria from


entering foetus.
 Prevent mixing of blood group of mother
which can cause agglutination.
 Prevents the action of chemical in mother’s
blood from harming the foetus.
 Ensure the fine blood vessel not to burst as a
result of high pressure caused by the flow of
mothers blood.
THE SEXUAL TRANSMITTED
DISEASES (STDs)
Definition  Disesases spread from one person
to another through sexual contact.
STDs
by bacteria:
Caused
Chlamydia, Syphillis & Gonorrhea
STDs by virus:

Hepatitis B, Genital herpes ,AIDs


Treatmen Bacteria STDs treated by antibiotics
t but Viral STDs cannot.
Avoided Notengaging in promiscuous
sexual behaviour.
MALE & FEMALE STRUCTURE IN
FLOWER
CROSS SECTION IN
OVARY & ANTHER
FORMATION OF POLLEN GRAINS
 Pollens (male gamete) are produced
in anther. Each anther consists of
four pollen sacs. Each pollen sac are
hundreds of pollen mother cells.
 Each pollen mother cell undergoes
meiosis to produced four haploid
cells or microspores (n)
 The nucleus of each microspore (n)
divides by motosis to form two
nuclei, the tube nucleus and
generatives nucleus ( later form 2
male gamete)
Formation Of Pollen
Grains

TETRAD MICROSPORE
(N)
Formation of Embryo Sac in
Ovule.
 Inside ovule is diploid cell call embryo sac
mother cell (2n).
 Embryo sac mother (2n) divides by meiosis
to form 4 haploid cell known as megaspore
(n).
 3 of the 4 megaspores degenerate & only
one survives and undergoes mitosis 3 times
to produced 8 haploid nuclei.
 Among the 8:
 3 nuclei migrate to one end of the cell to
form antipodal.
 2 nuclei move to centre called pollar nuclei
 3 migrate to opening of ovule microphyle. 1
become egg cell another 2 becomes synergid
POLLINATION
FORMATION OF MEGASPORE
FORMATION OF MEGASPORE