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I.

Literature of China
Chapter III
II. Literature of India

Asian III. Literature of Japan

Literature
IV. Literature of Arabia

V. Literature of Lebanon

VI. Literature of the Hebrews


-Literature Of China-
ANALECTS The People of
by Confucius
Ta o - C h o n
by Po Chu-I
The Wisdom of
Confucius The Flower Market
b y L i n Yu Ta n g
by Po Chu-i

Memories of
Home
Peking
by Han Suyin
Confucius

• China’s most famous leader,


philosopher, and political theorist
• His ideas was influenced by the
civilization of East Asia
• He was born in 551 B.C
• He was the first teacher in China
who wanted to make education
available for them
Analects
• In governing, cleave to good; as the • The duty of a son is to be
north star holds his place, and the obedient
multitude of stars revolve upon him • It is to serve our parents with
• To sum up three hundred songs in a courtesy whilst they live; to bury them
word, they are free from evil thought with courtesy when they die and to
• Guide the people by law, subdue worship them with all courtesy
them by punishment; they may shun • Look at man’s acts; watch his motives;
crime, but will be void of shame. Guide find out what pleases him; can the man
them by example, subdue them by evade you? How can a man conceal his
courtesy; they will learn shame and character?
come to be good. • Who keeps the old akindle and adds
new knowledge is fitted to be a teacher
Analects
• A gentleman is not a vessel • Behave with dignity, they will be
• He puts a words into deeds first, Lowly; be pious and merciful, they
and sorts what he says to the deed will be faithful: exalt the good, teach
• A gentleman is broad and fair; the the unskillful, they will grow willing
vulgar are biased and petty • To worship the ghost of strangers is
• Study without thought is vain; and fawning. To see the right and not do it
thought without study is dangerous is want of courage
• To know what we know, and know • Love makes a spot beautiful: who
what we do not know, that is called chooses not to dwell in love, has he got
understanding wisdom?
• Exalt the straight, set aside the crooked
and the people will be loyal
Analects
• Loveless men cannot bear need long, • A gentleman has no likes and no
they cannot bear fortune long. Loving dislikes below heaven. He follows right.
Hearts find peace in love; clever heads • Gentleman cherish worth; the vulgar
find profit in it cherish dirt. Gentleman trust in
• A man and his faults are of a piece. Justice; the vulgar trust in favor
By watching his faults we learn whether • The chase of gain is rich in hate
Love be his • Be not concerned at want of place,
• To learn the truth at daybreak and die be concerned that thou stand thyself.
at eve were enough Sorrow not at being unknown, but
• A scholar in search of truth who is seek to be worthy of note
Ashamed of poor clothes and poor food • Who contains himself goes seldom
it is idle to talk wrong
Analects
• A gentleman wishes to be slow to
speak and quick to act
• Good is no hermit. It has ever
neighbors
Lin Yu Tang (1985-1976)

• He is a Chinese writer and philologist


• He was born in Changzhou
• He devised a Chinese Indexing
System and help formulate the
official plan for Romanizing Chinese
language
• English professor and editor of
English journals.
• He contributed essays in Chinese
History Magazines
The Wisdom of Confucius
• Confucius was teaching the Chinese • He regretted not putting his ideas
people how to get along with one another; about good government into practice
how to be true to themselves as well as • He was forced to leave his native
honest in their social relationships state of Lu as an exile
• His was a very practical religion and • After his death, a temple was built in
still a national force in China, shaping honor for him and after centuries, his
the conduct of everyday affairs disciples worshipped him and spread
• Confucius wandered from place to his teachings
place, a gentle kindly teacher of • His followers were persecuted by the
history, poetry, music, winning new emperor whose afraid of his
disciples and spreading his wisdom wisdom
far and wide
The Wisdom of Confucius
• His books were burned and his • Confucius was best known for his
followers were also thrown into flames aphorisms:
• It was called the “great destruction” “Men are born pretty much alike, but
and some his disciples who survived through their habits, they gradually
Were able to reproduce his teaching to grow further and further apart from
Pass it down the generations each other”
• As it was provisioned by Confucius, “To know what you know and know
there were writings found hidden in his what you don’t know is the
House, inscribed in bamboo strips characteristic of one who knows”
• Confucius taught that no government “It is easy to be rich and not haughty;
can be better than the character of its It is difficult to be poor and not
rulers, and except politics grows out of grumble"
moral truths, it has no foundation
The Wisdom of Confucius
“When a country is in order, it is a “A man who does not think and plan
shame to be a poor and common man. long ahead, will find trouble right by
When a country is in chaos, it is a his door.”
shame to be rich and an official.” “To repay evil with kindness is the
“Do not worry about people not knowing sign of generous character. To repay
you, but strive so that you may be kindness with evil is the sign of a
worth knowing.” criminal.”
“If a man would be severe toward “When you see a good man, try to
himself, and generous towards the emulate his example, and when you see
Others, he would never arouse a bad man, search yourself for his
resentment.” faults.”
The Wisdom of Confucius
“Don’t criticize other people’s fault; “That type of scholarship which is bent
Criticize your own.” on remembering things in order to
“The superior man is always candid answer people’s questions does not
and at ease (with himself or others); Qualify one to be a teacher.”
the inferior man is always worried
about something.” • These are just some of the popular
“A gentleman is ashamed that his proverbs and epigrams of Confucius
words are better than his deeds.” that were written for almost 2,500
“Reading without thinking gives one a years ago and still vital for this
disorderly mind, and thinking without present generations
reading makes one flighty.”
Han Suyin (1917-2012)

• Rosalie Matilda Kuanghu Chou


• She was a Chinese-born Eurasian
Physician and author
• She is extremely sympathetic with
the government of Mao Tse-tung and
said to be that she turned a blind eye
of that government’s negative sides.
• She married a Chinese Militarist in
1938 and published her first book
Destination Chungking in USA, year
1942
Memories of Peking
• It was the time when the writer’s • The strange things is—throughout the
family went to China as refugees and era of the war lords—China is still
Ended up being in Peking. considered as one nation, undivided in
• China, at this point, was in the state spirit
of doing wars, territorial intrusion of • They considered each other as a one
the war lords and the government was Race, one nation, but different in
Somehow disjoined. governance and territory intrusion
• “One people under one heaven” • Power is for the one who can seized it
• It is not strange for people to set up • Foreigner’s house can be respected
his own dominion and fought with his
neighbor to extend his sovereignty.
Po Chu-I (772-846)
• He was a government official
considered as one of the greatest
poets of the Tang Dynasty
• He incorporated satire and social
purpose in many of his works, which
are usually poems in ballad style
• His works also served as a protest
against contemporary evils and
various government policies
• The elegance of his poetry contributed
to its popularity.
The People Tao-Chou
In the land of Tao-Chou Old men—weeping for their grandsons;
Many of theofpeople are dwarfs; mothers for their children!
The tallest of them never grow to more One day—Yang Ch’eng came to
than three feet. govern the land;
They were sold in the market as dwarf He refused to send up dwarf slaves in
slaves and yearly sent to Court; spite of incessant mandates.
Described as “an offering of natural He replied to the Emperor “Your servant
products from the land of Tao-Chu” finds in the Six Canonical Books
A strange “offering of natural ‘In offering products, one must offer
products”, I never heard of one yet what is there, and not what isn’t
That parted men from those they loved, there’
never to meet again! On the waters and land of Tao-Chou,
among all the things that live
The People Tao-Chou
I only find dwarfish people, no From that day forevermore they lived
dwarfish of
slaves.’ as free men
The emperor’s heart was deeply moved The people of Tao-chou,
and he sealed and sent a scroll Still enjoy this gift.
“The yearly tribute of dwarfish slaves And even now when they speak of the
is henceforth annulled.” Governor
The people of Tao-Chou, Tears start to their eyes
Old one and young ones, how great And least their children and their
their joy! children’s children should get
Father with son and brother with Governor’s name.
brother When boys are born the syllable “Yang”
Henceforward kept together; is often used in the forename.
The Flower Market
In the Royal City spring is almost For the cheap flower—five bits of silk.
over; Above is spread an awning to protect
Tinkle, tinkle—the coaches and horse them:
men pass. Around is woven in wattle fence to
We tell each other, “This is the peony screen them.
season”: If you sprinkle water and cover the
And follow with the crowd that goes to roots with mud,
the flower market. When they are transplanted, they will
“Cheap and dear—no uniform price: not lose their beauty.”
The cost of the plant depends on the Each household thoughtlessly follows
number of blossoms. the custom,
For the fine flower—a hundred pieces of Man by man, no one realizing
damask:
The Flower Market
There happened to be an old farm
laborer
Who came by the chance that way.
He bowed his head and sighed a deep
sigh:
But his sigh nobody understood.
He was thinking, “A cluster of deep-red
flowers
Would pay the taxes of the ten poor
houses.”
Home
Great trees in the south O Han too deep for diving,
Give me no shelter O Kiang too long for poling?
And women loitering by the Han
Leave me cold. Faggots, Artemisia,
I cut them with a will—
O Han too deep for diving, But those girls facing home,
O Kiang too long for poling! I should like to feed their colts.

Faggots, brambles, O Han too deep for diving,


I cut them with a will— O Kiang too long for poling!
But those girls facing home,
I should like to feed their horses