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SYLLABUS

SYLLABUS
Integrated Circuit or IC
 Def: The “Integrated Circuit “ or IC is a miniature, low cost
electronic circuit consisting all components are
fabricated on a joined together on a single crystal chip of
silicon. They are used in
computer,Industry,automobiles,Home appliances etc.
 In 1958 Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments invented first IC
 Basic types of IC’s
 1.Digital IC
 2.Linear or Analog IC’s

Digital IC: digital IC’s are complete functioning logic N.W’s


that are equivalents of basic transistors logic crks. they are
used to form such ckts as gates, counters, Multiplexer,
Demultiplexer, Shift registers
 2.Linear or Analog IC’s:
Linear IC’s are also called as Analog Ic’s are equvalent of
descrete transistors N.W’s such as amplifiers ,filters fre
Mutipliers and modulators EX:Op-Amp
Applications of an Integrated Circuit
 Communication
 Control
 Instrumentation
 Computer
 Electronics

Advantages:

 Small size

 Low cost

 Less weight

 Low supply voltages

 Low power consumption

 Highly reliable

 Matched devices

 Fast speed
SSI MSI LSI VLSI ULSI
< 100 100-1000 1000- >100000 Over 1
active
devices active 100000 active million
  devices active devices active
    devices   devices
Integrated BJT’s MOSFETS 8bit, 16bit Pentium
and
resistors, Enhanced   Microproces Microproces
diodes & MOSFETS   sors sors
BJT’s        
Selection of IC Package

Type Criteria

Metal can 1. Heat dissipation is important


package 2. For high power applications like power amplifiers, voltage regulators
etc.
DIP 1. For experimental or bread boarding purposes as easy to mount
2. If bending or soldering of the leads is not required
3. Suitable for printed circuit boards as
lead spacing is more

Flat pack 1. More reliability is required


2. Light in weight
3. Suited for airborne applications
Factors affecting selection of IC package
•Relative cost
•Reliability
•Weight of the package
•Ease of fabrication
•Power to be dissipated
•Need of external heat sink
Temperature Ranges

1. Military temperature range : -55o C to +125o C (-55o C to +85o C)


 
2. Industrial temperature range : -20o C to +85o C (-40o C to +85o C ) 
3. Commercial temperature range: 0o C to +70o C (0o C to +75o C )

Power supply connection:


 
The power supply voltage may range from about + 5V to

+ 15V.

The common terminal of the V+ and V- sources is


connected to a reference point or ground.
Manufacturer’s
 Fairchild
Designation for Linear
- µA, µAF
ICs
 National Semiconductor - LM,LH,LF,TBA

 Motorola - MC,MFC

 RCA - CA,CD
 Texas Instruments - SN
 Signetics - N/S,NE/SE
 Burr- Brown - BB
Fairchild’s original µA741 is also manufactured by other manufactures as follows
 
 National Semiconductor - LM741

 Motorola - MC1741

 RCA - CA3741

 Texas Instruments - SN52741

 Signetics - N5741
Operational amplifier
An “Operational amplifier” is a direct coupled high-gain amplifier usually
consisting of one or more differential amplifiers and usually followed by a level
translator and output stage. An operational amplifier is available as a single
integrated circuit package.
The operational amplifier is a versatile device that can be used to amplify dc as
well as ac input signals and was originally designed for computing such
mathematical functions as addition, subtraction, multiplication and integration.
Thus the name operational amplifier stems from its original use for these
mathematical operations and is abbreviated to op-amp. With the addition of
suitable external feedback components, the modern day op-amp can be used for
a variety of applications, such as ac and dc signal amplification, active filters,
oscillators, comparators, regulators, and others.
The ideal op-amp:
 
An ideal op-amp would exhibit the following electrical characteristics:
1.Infinite voltage gain
2.Infinite input resistance so that almost any signal source can drive it and there is no loading on the preceding
stage.

4.Zero output voltage when input voltage is zero.


5.Infinite bandwidth so that any frequency signal from 0 to ∞Hz can be amplified without attenuation.
6.Infinite common mode rejection ratio so that the output common-mode noise voltage is zero.
7.Infinite slew rate so that output voltage changes occur simultaneously with input voltage changes.
 1.3.2 Equivalent circuit of an opamp:
 
Fig. 1.1 shows an equivalent circuit of an op-amp. V1 and V2are the two input voltage voltages. Ri is the
input impedance of OPAMP. Ad Vdis an equivalent Thevenin’s voltage source and RO is the Thevenin’s
equivalent impedance looking back into the terminal of an op-amp.
Operational amplifier
An “Operational amplifier” is a direct coupled high-gain amplifier usually
consisting of one or more differential amplifiers and usually followed by a level
translator and output stage. An operational amplifier is available as a single
integrated circuit package.
The operational amplifier is a versatile device that can be used to amplify dc as
well as ac input signals and was originally designed for computing such
mathematical functions as addition, subtraction, multiplication and integration.
Thus the name operational amplifier stems from its original use for these
mathematical operations and is abbreviated to op-amp. With the addition of
suitable external feedback components, the modern day op-amp can be used for
a variety of applications, such as ac and dc signal amplification, active filters,
oscillators, comparators, regulators, and others.
1.The input stage is the dual input balanced output differential amplifier. This stage
generally provides most of the voltage gain of the amplifier and also establishes the input
resistance of the op-amp and increase the CMRR.
2.The intermediate stage is usually another differential amplifier, which is driven by the
output of the first stage. On most amplifiers, the intermediate stage is dual input, unbalanced
output. Because of direct coupling, the dc voltage at the output of the intermediate stage is
well above ground potential.
3.Level Translator: the level translator (shifting) circuit is used after the intermediate
stage. Supress the DC level downwards to zero volts with respect to ground. Also minimizes the
error by suppressing dc level to ground.

4.Output stage The final stage is usually a push pull complementary symmetry amplifier
output stage. The output stage increases the voltage swing and raises the ground supplying
capabilities of the op-amp. A well designed output stage also provides low output resistance.
 
 
 
OP –Amp Symbol Practical Op-Amp or Equivalent Circut

Operational Amplifiers, or Op-amps  are linear devices and one of the


basic building blocks of Analogue Electronic Circuits.
The most common and most famous op-amp is the uA741C or just
741, which is packaged in an 8-pin mini-DIP.  The 741 op-amp is a
voltage amplifier, it inverts the input voltage at the output. They
provide superior performance in integrator, summing amplifier and
general feedback applications. These are high gain op-amp; the
voltage on the inverting input can be maintained almost equal to Vin.
Offset null.Pin1 and 5: This is the pin where we add voltage to if we want
to eliminate the offset voltage. This is if we want to completely balance the
input voltages. More on this at offset terminals
Pin2 Inverting input terminal:a positive voltage is applied to pin2 of the
op-amp; we get output as negative voltage through pin 6. The polarity has
been inverted.
PIN3 Non-inverting input terminal: In a non-inverting amplifier, a positive
voltage is applied to pin3 of the op-amp; we get output as positive voltage
through pin 6. Polarity remains the same in non-inverting amplifier.
 PIN 4 and 7  ± VCC (Negative or positive voltage supply): Vcc is usually in
the range from 5 to 15 volts. Op amp is a dual power supply op
amp(+Vcc/-Vcc) are used, Pin 4 is where the op amp gets supplied with
negative DC voltage. pin 7 receives the positive DC voltage.
PIN 6 Output :   output is taken at the 6th pin of Op-Amp (output
±Vsat) . For a 741 operational amplifier, the gain is at least 100,000 . 
PIN 8 No Connection(NC): T his pin stands for Not Connected. It is not used
for anything and should be left open.