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CELLULAR

COMMUNICATIONS
GSM VS CDMA
HISTORY
 WALKIE TALKIES
 RADIO TELEPHONES

which were both half-duplex whereas cell phones are full-duplex


they with cell phones had different channel number and different range of
coverage
CELLS & CLUSTERS
 Cells are base stations (BS) communicates with mobiles via a
channel & broadcast at very low power levels (typically 200 mW
to 1W). The channel is made of two frequencies, one for
transmitting to the base station and one to receive information
from the base station.
 A cluster is a group of cells, No channels are reused within a
cluster
CELL & CLUSTER

 Cells are assigned a group of channels


that is completely different from
neighboring cells, the coverage area of
cells is called the footprint and is
limited by a Boundary so that the same
group of channels can be used in cells
that are far enough apart.
 Cells with the same number have the
same set of frequencies.
Cell Phone Network
Technologies
There are three common technologies used
 Frequency division multiple access (FDMA)

 Time division multiple access (TDMA)

 Global system for mobile communications (GSM)

 Code division multiple access (CDMA)


FDMA
 Transmission over Radio Frequency (800MHz – 1900MHz)
 Frequency Division Multiple Access
 An analog system. Each user is given one channel (i.e., one

frequency). Bad utilisation.


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FDMA
FDMA separates the spectrum
into distinct voice channels by
splitting it into uniform chunks
of bandwidth. To better
understand FDMA, think of radio
stations: Each station sends its
signal at a different frequency
within the available band. FDMA
is used mainly for analog
transmission. While it is
certainly capable of carrying
digital information, FDMA is not
considered to be an efficient
method for digital transmission.
TDMA
Using TDMA, a narrow band that is 30
kHz wide and 6.7 milliseconds long is
split time-wise into three time slots.
Narrow band means "channels" in the
traditional sense. Each conversation
gets the radio for one-third of the time.
This is possible because voice data
that has been converted to digital
information is compressed so that it
takes up significantly less transmission
space. Therefore, TDMA has three
times the capacity of an analog
system using the same number of
channels. TDMA systems operate in
either the 800-MHz(IS-54) or 1900-
MHz (IS-136) frequency bands.
 GSM uses TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access)
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GSM
 GSM consists of consists of mainly 3 parts (systems) to
supports its network, they are:
1. GPRS
2. EDGE
3. GPS
GSM
GENERAL PACKET DATA SERVICE
(GPRS):
GPRS video conferencing, streaming audio & video &
continuous connectivity to internet for the GSM subscribers.

Enhanced data rate for GSM evolution


(EDGE):
It provides multimedia application for mobile devices and third
generation GSM services. Here now instead of cells satellites are
used.
GSM
GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM: (GPS)
GPS mainly provides its user with information consisting of
time, position and velocity of the user at any point on the surface
of the earth, in any climatic condition at any instant of time.
The GPS consists of 24 satellites placed in the orbits at
20,200KM altitude above the earth’s surface. These 24 satellites
are in 6 orbital planes and each plane has 4 satellites in it. These
orbital planes are placed at an inclination of 55 degree. In order
to get the exact position of any object we require a minimum of 3
satellites to whom the receiver must be tuned to.
CDMA
CDMA is a direct sequence spread spectrum system.
CDMA is a spread spectrum multiple access technique.

The data signal with pulse duration of Tb is XOR added with the code signal with
pulse duration of Tc. (Note: bandwidth is proportional to 1 / T where T = bit time)
Therefore, the bandwidth of the data signal is 1 / Tb and the bandwidth of the
spread spectrum signal is 1 / Tc. Since Tc is much smaller than Tb, the bandwidth
of the spread spectrum signal is much larger than the bandwidth of the original
signal. The ratio Tb / Tc is called spreading factor or processing gain
Each user in a CDMA system uses a different code to modulate their
signal.

Choosing the codes used to modulate the signal is very


important in the performance of CDMA systems.
The best performance will occur when there is good separation
between the signal of a desired user and the signals of other
users. The separation of the signals is made by correlating the
received signal with the locally generated code of the desired
user.
If the signal matches the desired user's code then
the correlation function will be high and the system can extract
that signal.
If the desired user's code has nothing in common
with the signal the correlation should be as close to zero as
possible (thus eliminating the signal); this is referred to as
cross correlation. If the code is correlated with the signal at any
time offset other than zero, the correlation should be as close
to zero as possible. This is referred to as auto-correlation and is
used to reject multi-path interference.
CDMA
 CDMA takes an entirely different approach from TDMA. CDMA,
after digitizing data, spreads it out over the entire available
bandwidth. Multiple calls are overlaid on each other on the
channel, with each assigned a unique sequence code. CDMA is
a form of spread spectrum, which simply means that data is sent
in small pieces over a number of the discrete frequencies
available for use at any time in the specified range.
CDMA
 All of the users transmit in the same wide-band chunk of
spectrum. Each user's signal is spread over the entire bandwidth
by a unique spreading code. At the receiver, that same unique
code is used to recover the signal. Because CDMA systems
need to put an accurate time-stamp on each piece of a signal, it
references the GPS system for this information. Between eight
and 10 separate calls can be carried in the same channel space
as one analog AMPS call. CDMA technology is the basis
for Interim Standard 95(IS-95) and operates in both the 800-
MHz and 1900-MHz frequency bands.
CDMA
 occupies a bandwidth much greater than that which is necessary
to send the information
 The bandwidth is spread by means of a code which is
independent of the data.
 The receiver synchronizes to the code to recover the data
CDMA Technical Advantages
over GSM:

 CDMA provides increased security over the air interface than


GSM
 Subscriber capacity is 5-6 times the GSM capacity for same
frequency spectrum
 Call dropping is very less as CDMA uses soft handoff as GSM
uses hard handoff
 CDMA provides better sound quality & reach than GSM
GSM Technical Advantages
over CDMA

 CDMA provides clear voice but there is some delay associated


with it
 CDMA mobility is limited & GSM mobility is unlimited (roaming
is possible)
 Unlike GSM, CDMA subscriber can’t change handset without
change in existing number
 GSM provides a lot of games where as CDMA doesn’t provide.
CONCLUSION
 Today, the battle between CDMA and GSM is muddled. The
distinct advantage of one over the other has blurred as major
carriers like AT&T Wireless begin to support GSM, and recent
trials even showed compatibility between the two technologies.
GSM still holds the upper hand however. .
 GSM wins for talk time, voice quality, international roaming,
upgradeability and probably price. Data speeds being the biggest
unknown issue here. The added features of a phone such as
GPS, WiFi may have more impact.
CONCLUSION
 CDMA wins for best coverage. The efficient use of spectrum
gives CDMA a good technical edge over GSM.
Gsm vs cdma

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