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Priyadarshini College Of Engineering

Department Of Aeronautical Engineering

Development of Emergency Landing System

Project Guide: Prof. Vishal Kaushik

Rajesh V. Ankam (113)
Saket J. Fule (115)
Amol T. Jagtap (134)
Yashodip S. Sonawane (144)

• Abstract
• Introduction
• Literature review
• Methodology
• Theoretical Calculations
• Material selection and its mechanical properties
• Geometry and its dimensions
• Advantages & Disadvantages

• Development of emergency landing system uses an approach to save

passengers lives as well as minimize the damage to the aircraft belly.

• Such type of work is also done by few researchers which includes

development of crash tubes and ski structures.

• Recent research is done on analysis of fuselage drop test which shows the
impact energy distribution over the circular fuselage section.
• Landing itself is very crucial and approaching landing procedure without landing gear
is very dangerous. When a pilot has to land the aircraft on it belly causes a huge
damage to aircraft.

• Our project is based on development of emergency landing system which may suggest
an approach to reduce such vital damages to passengers lives and to the aircraft.

• A float like structure is used which will be placed under the front fuselage and rear
fuselage and this floats will be in contact with the ground.

• We searched for similar approach. We’ve gotten few materials which can be helpful
for developing float section.

• A composite construction is being made which consist of carbon fiber and epoxy
• Literature Review
Crash tubes, metal
Design and development of energy absorption fixtures for safe belly Charles G. Martin and Dr. A.
1. landing on land for a typical aircraft configuration Arokkiaswamiy (2016)
aluminum foam , composite
ski, crash landing.
2 Crash analysis of an aircraft fuselage under belly landing J. S. Mohamed and M.Y. Vertical drop test , belly
Hasfareeza (2017) landing , crashworthiness,
water impact
3 Crash simulation and drop test of civil airplane fuselage section Xioachaun ,L.Xiasheng ,S.Jun Vertical drop test, crash on
and Rangke M (2016) water surface

4 Mechanical properties of hybrid carbon fiber Y. Dobah, Y. Ghazzawi and M. Tensile, impact, hybrid,
Reinforced polyethylene and epoxy composites Bourchak (2015) epoxy, polyethylene

5 From Polyethylene-based Precursors to Carbon Fibres A. De Palmenaer, G. Wortberg, Carbon fibres , sustainability
M. Merke, T. Roeding, T. G.
Gries, G. H. Seide (2019)
6 Impact behavior and fractographic study of carbon nanotubes grafted S.P. Sharma and S.C. Lakkad Carbon nano tubes, multi
carbon (2014) wall section, single wall
fiber-reinforced epoxy matrix multi-scale hybrid composites section
7 Carbon fiber reinforced plastic technology Yulia Sokolova1, Natalia Polymer compound
Romanova2, Lenar materials, epoxy binder
Shafigullin2 and Alla
Sokolova (2018)
Thermal conductance of and heat generation in tire-pavement David Miller heat generated by friction between
interface and effect on aircraft braking (NASA Report) Lewis Research Center (2019) the free-rolling

Composite tube
The energy-absorbing properties of composite tube-reinforced
9 A. Al Antali a, R. Umer Reinforced aluminum honeycomb
aluminum honeycomb
Energy absorption
Friction Characteristics of Aircraft Tires With Various
Thomas J. Yager and John L.
10 Tread Groove Patterns and Skidding coefficent of friction
McCarty (1977)
Rubber Compounds

Frictional forces on tires on

11 Coefficient of friction of tires on concrete runway Rober R. Luthman (1955)

Jianfeng Wanga, Chengyang Shia,

Composite Sandwich Structures with Aluminum Honeycomb
Na Yang , Haonan Sun, Yiqun Carbon fiber, Sandwich structure,
12 Cores for vehicle
Liub, Aluminum honeycomb, Stiffness
Baoyu Song (2017)
Inflation pressure,
Heat Generation ,
13 Aircraft Tire Care & Maintenance manual Good years
Tensile, Compression and Shear
Inflation pressure, Inflation
14 Michelin aircraft tire manual Michelin pressure, Inflation pressure,
Development of Emergency Landing System

• Project is about a landing system which will help aircraft to land on ground or
in water if its landing gear assembly fails.
• It is Planned to design a structure which will inflate and absorb the impact
forces during landing .
• It will help to reduce the damage the aircraft and also casualties during
AIRBUS SERIES Max Take off Max Landing Max Zero Fuel Max
Weight Weight Weight Ramp(Taxi)
(tonnes) (tonnes) (tonnes) Weight
A300 170.500 140.000 78.201 172.592
A310 150.154 140.104 113.102 60.262
A318 68.054 57.567 54.570 68.463
A319 76.498 62.500 58.500 76.898
A320 79.000 67.400 64.30 79.400
A330 242.000 187.000 175.000 242.900
Theoretical Calculations

Total Energy = 184*10^6 N-m

Energy Distribution

SinφW = F*D
F*D= Sin5˚*184*10^6

v= 161*10^5 N-m
Eh = 1833*10^5 N-m
 Thermal Energy= W*D (Neglecting 20% of air Resistance)
=146.64*10^6 N

Forces acting on horizontal and vertical respectively.

=305.5 kN

v=2*10^7 to 1.6*10^9 N

Temperature raise in Ceramic Fibre

T-T˳= σμv*πkρC)
= 102.54 ˚k
Shearing Force= Wh/600=305.5kN

Axial Load= Weight Force+Impact loading

= 2*10^7 to 1.6*10^9 N

Tensile Generated= 370MPa

Max Shear Stress Generated= 255KPa

Mechanical Properties of Materials
• Kevlar
Density= 1126kg/m3
Young's Modulus= 6.2*10^10Pa
Poisson’s Ratio= 0.42
Bulk Modulus= 1.2917*10^11Pa
Shear Modulus= 2.1831*10^10Pa
Tensile Yield Strength= 2.7*10^7Pa
Glass Fibre Honeycomb
Density= 1850 kg/m3
Young's Modulus= 9.38*10^10Pa
Poisson’s Ratio= 0.23
Bulk Modulus= 5.7901*10^10Pa
Shear Modulus= 3.813*10^10Pa
Tensile Yield Strength= 4.89*10^9Pa
Density= 920kg/m3
Young's Modulus= 1*10^6Pa
Poisson’s Ratio= 0.47
Bulk Modulus= 5.5556*10^6Pa
Shear Modulus= 3.4014*10^5Pa
Tensile Ultimate Strength= 4.57*10^6Pa
Compressive Ultimate Strength= 4.57*10^6Pa
Ceramic Fibre
Density= 96kg/m3
Young's Modulus= 1*10^11Pa
Poisson’s Ratio= 0.12
Bulk Modulus= 4.386*10^10Pa
Shear Modulus= 4.4643*10^10Pa
Tensile Ultimate Strength= 2.6*10^9Pa

Thermal Conductivity (k)= 0.12 w/m ˚k

Heat Capacity= 1246 J/kg ˚k
• Dimensions of the material

Lengthwise= 5190 mm with surge of Fuselage having four compartment

system near to Forward Cargo and Aft Cargo.
Height = 1000 mm
Width= 1450 mm
1. It will Protect the Structure from Failure while emergency Landing
2. It will Save the life of the passengers and the crew members
3. It will help to land on the land as well as on the ground

4. Overall cost and weight of an aircraft will increase.
5. Aerodynamic shape may get disturbed
6. Complicated construction

Future Scope
It can be used in every Passenger aircraft as safety application to save
the lives and the damage in case of emergency.