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Project Resources Management

Engr. Ahmed Hamza

Resource Management
Physical resource management: Focused on the material,
.equipment, and services needed for the project

Team resource management: Focused on organizing,

.managing, and leading the people on the project team

Theory X
• Human motivation theory by Douglas McGregor, 1960 -
used in HR.
• Management assumed employees are lazy and hate
• Employees will avoid work
• Employees are only after $$ (money)
• Managers blame & punish
• Manage’ s job is to structure and energize employees.
Theory Z
• A Japanese management style motivational
• Based on the work of W. Edwards Deming
• Focus on stable employment (job for life)
• Focus on increasing loyalty by caring about their
well being in/out of job.
• Tries to keep employees' morale and satisfaction
Acquired needs theory
Vroom’s expectancy theory
• People will be highly productive &motivated if :

• People believe it is likely their efforts will lead to

successful results.

• Those people also believe they will be rewarded

for their success
Theory Y
• Assumes opposite of theory X.
• Employees enjoy their physical and mental
• Employees MIGHT BE ambitious
• & self motivated
• Managers assume that if given the right
conditions, people will DO WELL, which is THE
Hertzberg theory
• Motivation- Hygiene theory -
AKA, the two- factor theory by
Frederick Herzberg
•There are factors that
•cause satisfaction And there are
OTHER factors that cause
dissatisfaction (hygiene).
•Poorhygiene factors may destroy
•Hygiene is originally medical and
has to do with cleanness: necessary
but does not improve things
Processes chart
9.1. Plan Resource Management
Plan Resource Management is the process of
defining how to estimate, acquire, manage, and
use team and physical resources.
 The key benefit of this process is that it
establishes the approach and level of management
effort needed for managing project resources
based on the type and complexity of the project.
 This process is performed once or at predefined
points in the project.
 The resource management plan is the component of the project
management plan that provides guidance on how project resources
should be categorized, allocated, managed, and released.
 It may be divided between the Team Management Plan and
Physical Resource Management Plan according to the specifics
of the project. The resource management plan may include but is
not limited to:
A. Identification of resources.
B. Methods for identifying and quantifying team and physical
resources needed.
C. Acquiring resources. Guidance on how to acquire team and
physical resources for the project.
D. Roles and responsibilities:
1. Role. The function assumed by, or assigned to, a person in the project.
Examples of project roles are civil engineer, business analyst, and testing
2. Authority. The rights to apply project resources, make decisions, sign
approvals, accept deliverables, and influence others to carry out the work of
the project. Examples of decisions that need clear authority include the
selection of a method for completing an activity, quality acceptance criteria,
and how to respond to project variances. Team members operate best when
their individual levels of authority match their individual responsibilities.
3. Responsibility. The assigned duties and work that a project team member
is expected to perform in order to complete the project’s activities.
4. Competence. The skill and capacity required to complete assigned
activities within the project constraints. If project team members do not
possess required competencies, performance can be jeopardized. When
such mismatches are identified, proactive responses such as training, hiring,
schedule changes, or scope changes are initiated.
• The team charter is a document that establishes the
team values, agreements, and operating guidelines
for the team. The team charter may include but is
not limited to:
• Team values,
• Communication guidelines,
• Decision-making criteria and process,
• Conflict resolution process,
• Meeting guidelines, and
• Team agreements.
Responsibility Assignment Matrix
Resource histogram
Estimate Activity Resources .9.2
• Estimate Activity Resources is the process of
estimating team resources and the type and
quantities of materials, equipment, and supplies
necessary to perform project work.
• The key benefit of this process is that it identifies
the type, quantity, and characteristics of
resources required to complete the project.
• This process is performed periodically
throughout the project as needed.
• The amount and type of additional details supporting the resource
estimate vary by application area. Regardless of the level of detail,
the supporting documentation should provide a clear and complete
understanding of how the resource estimate was derived.
• Supporting detail for resource estimates may include:
• Method used to develop the estimate,
• Resources used to develop the estimate (such as information from
previous similar projects),
• Assumptions associated with the estimate,
• Known constraints,
• Range of estimates,
• Confidence level of the estimate, and
• Documentation of identified risks influencing the estimate.
• Hierarchical structure that
breaks down project by
• Identifies resources by
resources category and
resource type.
• It's helpful in tracking
project resources and cost.
Can be closely aligned with
organization's accounting
• Resources Categories:
financial, labor, material,
equipment, supplies, etc.
• Resource Type: skill level,
grade level, etc.
9.3.Acquire Resources

 Acquire Resources is the process of obtaining

team members, facilities, equipment, materials,
supplies, and other resources necessary to
complete project work.
 The key benefit of this process is that it outlines
and guides the selection of resources and
assigns them to their respective activities.
 This process is performed periodically
throughout the project as needed.
Develop Team.9.4
 Develop Team is the process of improving
competencies, team member interaction, and the overall
team environment to enhance project performance.

 The key benefit of this process is that it results in

improved teamwork, enhanced interpersonal skills and
competencies, motivated employees, reduced attrition,
and improved overall project performance.

 This process is performed throughout the project.

 Conflicts provide an opportunity for the project to

 A conflict in unavoidable to happen due to interaction

 Can be beneficial

 Solved by identifying causes and problem solving by

involved people + their immediate manager.

 PM must be proactive, look for problems &

solve them before they impact project.
• Conflicts are BEST resolved by those involved in the conflict!
•PM should try to solve the problem if s/he has the authority
•If not, PM may call in senior management.
•Exception is with ethics and breaking the law, PM must fly over the
head of the person in conflict.
•TIP! In situational questions, always ask yourself:
1) Who has direct authority over the situation?
2) What is going to be in customer's direct interest?
 Withdrawal
• Retreating from actual or potential disagreements and conflict situations.
• A temporary tactic: does not resolve the conflict, only delays it.
• Used when angry behavior threatens both the agreement& when the
• issue is not vital to you and you don't wish to risk damaging the
 Smoothing
• Keeps the atmosphere friendly.
• A temporary tactic: does not resolve the conflict, only delays it.
• Should be used in conjunction with another method.
 Compromising
•Considers various issues and searches for solutions which bring some degree
of satisfaction to the conflicting parties.
•This method is considered to be a lose-lose. Both parties must give up
something that is important to them; however, this method usually provides
some acceptable form of resolution.
 Forcing
• Pushing one viewpoint at the expense of another party.
• This method provides resolution but is considered to be a win-lose.
 Problem Solving / Collaboration(Confrontation)
• Directly addresses disagreements.
• Conflict is treated as a problem. The problem is defined; information is
collected; alternatives are identified and analyzed, and the most
appropriate alternative is selected.
• Theoretically considered the BEST because both parties can be
satisfied if they work together to solve the problem.
• Both parties must want to solve the problem and be willing to work
• This method is considered to be a win-win.
• Incorporating multiple viewpoints &searching for consensus
 Factors that influence conflict resolution
methods include:
A. Importance and intensity of the conflict,
B. Time pressure for resolving the conflict,
C. Relative power of the people involved in the
D. Importance of maintaining a good relationship,
E. Motivation to resolve conflict on a long-term or
short-term basis.
•Causes of Conflicts • Minimizing Conflicts

1. Schedules • Informing the team of:

2. Project Priorities A. Where we're heading
3. Resources B. Goals and objectives
4. Technical Opinions C. Key decisions
5. Admin Procedures D. Changes
6. Cost E. Clearly assigned tasks with
7. Personality no overlaps or ambiguities
F. Making work assignments
interesting and
Team Development Stages
Manage Team.9.5
 Manage Team is the process of tracking team
member performance, providing feedback,
resolving issues, and managing team changes to
optimize project performance.
 The key benefit of this process is that it
influences team behavior, manages conflict, and
resolves issues.
 This process is performed throughout the

Managing Acquiring

Control Resources.9.6
 Control Resources is the process of ensuring that
the physical resources assigned and allocated to the
project are available as planned, as well as
monitoring the planned versus actual utilization of
resources and taking corrective action as necessary.
 The key benefit of this process is ensuring that the
assigned resources are available to the project at
the right time and in the right place and are
released when no longer needed.
 This process is performed throughout the project.
Processes chart